Unit 7 notes


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Unit 7 notes

  1. 1. 1750-1914
  2. 2. Vocabulary to Know Monarchy-undivided rule or absolute sovereignty by a single person Political Revolution-the overthrow of one government and its replacement with another Political Philosophy-a theory or set of theories regarding how a government should be run Sovereignty-freedom from external control
  3. 3. More Vocabulary Absolute Monarchy-king or Queen who has absolute power and seeks to control all aspects of society (Louis XIV France) Limited Monarchy-laws limit the power of a ruler (constitutional monarchy) (England after the Glorious Revolution) Absolute monarchies may be stable and powerful but rarely do they recognize the importance of individual rights!
  4. 4. Enlightenment-Age of Reason Scientific Revolution-promotes application of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society, including government Social Contract Theory (2 Views)  Hobbes-people create government, but give up their rights to a strong ruler in exchange for law and order-men should put faith in their government to provide stability since life is “cruel, nasty, and short.”  Locke-people have the natural ability to govern their own affairs-natural rights of life, liberty, and property; people can overthrow a government that does not protect these rights! (Heavily influenced Thomas Jefferson)
  5. 5. Enlightenment-Age of Reason Philosophes-apply reason to all aspects of life including truth, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty.  Montesquieu-separation of powers-three branches of government and checks and balances on these powers  Rousseau-individual freedom-general will (majority) should decide the laws of the nation  Mary Wollstonecraft-women deserve the same rights as men  William Wilberforce-British politician who successfully led the movement to abolish slavery in Britain in 1807
  6. 6. Impact of the Enlightenment European monarchies make reforms American and French Revolutions Belief in progress through social equality and improvements in education More secular outlook-questioned religious beliefs and the teaching of the Church Importance of the individual
  7. 7. Enlightenment leads to Revolution! Separation of Powers: power should not rest in the hands of one or the few Checks and Balances: measures designed to prevent one branch of government from becoming too powerful Liberty: Freedom, the ability to make choices, no oppression (social or economic) Equality: all MEN are equal Democracy: people make the political decisions (direct or republic)
  8. 8. Enlightenment leads to Revolution! Popular Sovereignty: political power rests with the people-voting and participation in government Human Rights: inalienable rights/individual rights Constitutionalism: basic principles and laws of a government should be organized into a written document Nationalism: devotion to the interests or culture of one’s nation-independence from foreign domination- emphasizing national rather than international goals
  9. 9. American Revolution (1775-1783)-Causes Glorious Revolution(limited monarchy) and Enlightenment(natural rights) “Rights as Englishmen” were violated “No taxation w/o representation” British policies towards the colonies (taxes) Declaration of Independence (grievances against King George III)
  10. 10. American Revolution-Characteristics Started by merchant class Protest against taxation Many remained loyal to Britain Success due to alliances with France and Spain British overconfidence and fighting a long-distance war
  11. 11. American Revolution-Consequences Independence U.S. Constitution (1789) Bill of Rights (1st 10 Amendments) Inspired French Revolution (as well as Haitian and Latin American)
  12. 12. French Revolution(1789-1795)-Causes Enlightenment and American Revolution Inequality in the class system (1st, 2nd, and 3rd Estates) Abuses by nobility and kings Debt and high taxes Crop failures cause price of bread to rise above the price that peasants can pay (famine)
  13. 13. French Revolution-Characteristics Originates with lower classes (as opposed to merchants in America) Extreme violence-Reign of Terror, guillotine, execution of nobility including King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
  14. 14. French Revolution-Consequences Declaration of the Rights of Man Parliament established Peasants freed Chaos in government results in Napoleon and the Army coming to power and creating the French Empire
  15. 15. Impact of Napoleon-France Restored order after the Reign of Terror Efficient tax collection and a national bank improved the economy Lycees set up as government run public schools to train students as potential government officials Roman Catholic Church-majority church of France- rejected church control over national affairs Napoleonic Code-uniform set of laws-limited freedoms of speech and press, as well as women’s rights
  16. 16. Impact of Napoleon-Europe Annexed Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy Puppet government in Switzerland War against Third Coalition (Britain, Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Prussia) Britain retains naval supremacy-Battle of Trafalgar Continental System-economic blockade against Britain unsuccessful Invades Spain-brother Joseph named King Attempts to invade Russia, but fails (winter) Defeat at Leipzig-exiled to Elba Returns to power, but defeated at Waterloo-exiled to St. Helena Congress of Vienna-restore balance of power to Europe
  17. 17. Impact of Napoleon-Latin America Establishment of Haiti as an independent republic after the first successful slave revolt in history Napoleon’s troops decimated in Haiti due to yellow fever Independence movements in Spanish colonies begin when Napoleon conquers Spain in 1808 Spanish creoles had no loyalty and argue that power shifts to the people
  18. 18. American and French Revsinfluence Latin America American Rev showed that colonies could win independence Both had written declarations that address natural rights American allowed a free market to flourish French was the uprising of the common man Enlightenment influenced Simon Bolivar in Colombia and Venezuela Both inspire revs in Argentina (Jose de San Martin), Chile, Peru, and Mexico (Miguel Hidalgo)
  19. 19. Influential Documents English Bill of Rights  Limited the monarch  No suspension of Parliament’s laws  No taxes w/o consent of Parliament  No suspension of freedom of speech in Parliament  Citizens have the right to petition the king with grievances
  20. 20. Influential Documents Declaration of Independence  Unalienable rights-life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness  Governments established to protect these rights  People have the right to change or abolish a government that does not protect these rights
  21. 21. Influential Documents U.S. Constitution  Three branches-Separation of Powers  Checks and Balances  Federal System (power divided between states and national government)  Limits on power of government  Popular election of executive and legislators  Bill of Rights to protect personal freedoms
  22. 22. Influential Documents Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (France)  Men are born and remain free and equal  Rights include liberty, property, security, and freedom from oppression  Governments should preserve these rights  “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”