•Mesopotamia (3500 BC-1600 BC) •Egypt (3000 BC-2000 BC)•Indus River Valley Civilization (2500 BC- 1700 BC) •Chinese River Valley Civilizations (3950 BC-1000 BC)
From Neolithic to Civilizations Settlements need rules/law to maintain order Rules and laws needed to regulate irrigation Threat of outside invasion made it necessary to have rulers who could provide protection Money from taxes and tributes
Mesopotamia (3500 BC-1600 BC) Tigris and Euphrates River around 4500 BC Sumerians arrive in 3500 BC-Begin irrigation City-States established around 3000 BC-ruled by monarchy- often military leaders who displace priests as rulers-pass power to their sons who pass it to their sons (dynasty) Polytheistic religion-Ziggurat (temple) center of each city state Scientific Achievements: Wheel, plow, sail, bronze, pottery, arch, number system based on 60 and 360 degree circle, cuneiform (writing) Hammurabi’s Law Code-First written law code Other Civs (Assyrians, Phoenicians, Hebrews) adopt ideas first developed by the Sumerians
Hammurabi’s Law Code…Political Impact-Made thelaw more stable andpredictable-less personal,more objectiveLegal Impact – The idea of aseparate judiciary (courtsystem) like the U.S.
Egypt (3000 BC-2000 BC) Earliest settlement along Nile-5000 BC “The Gift of the Nile” Regular yearly cycle of flooding Pharaohs=god-kings: theocracy-form of government where the rulers were divine leaders of both the religion and the government/army Polytheistic-belief in many gods Pyramids built as tombs for Pharaohs; belief in afterlife; mummification
Egypt (3000 BC-2000 BC) Stratified society Writing system; hieroglyphics; papyrus Scientific achievements: written numbers, geometry, stone columns, calendar for flooding cycle, advanced medicine (repairing broken bones)
Indus River Valley (2500 BC-1700BC) First Major cities include Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa Developed cities on grid system and had sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems Early cities declined due to a possible change in the course of the Indus River. Indo-European peoples known as the Aryans settle in the Indus Valley around 1500 BC. Aryan religious features: sacred literature known as the Vedas Caste system
Computer generated picture of whatMohenjo Daro may have looked like.
Chinese River Valley (3950 BC-1000BC) Huang He (Yellow) River Valley Shang Dynasty (2000 BC): Importance of family, division of classes Writing system where each symbol represents an idea Technology and science: Great Wall of China,bronze working, coined money, ironworks, and silk
Important Elements of ALL… Advanced cities Irrigation Systems of government and religion Written legal codes Trade networks Architecture-arch Divisions of time/calendar system Writing