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The aztec and inca empire environment


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The aztec and inca empire environment

  1. 1. The Aztec and Inca Empires 1300-1500 Physical Geography and Environmental Adaptation
  2. 2. The Aztec Empire
  3. 3. The Aztec Empire <ul><li>The Valley of Mexico-several large shallow lakes and fertile soil </li></ul><ul><li>Settled on Lake Texcoco because of a legend… </li></ul><ul><li>An eagle perched on a cactus, holding a snake in its mouth (Tenochtitlan) </li></ul><ul><li>Causeways and canals for transportation and aqueducts for fresh water. Tons of dirt to build up city. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Aztec Empire <ul><li>Based on intensive agriculture-maize, beans, and squash in a warm, humid environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Land and food of conquered people was often demanded as tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture in Tenochtitlan- chinampas (20,000 acres) </li></ul><ul><li>FOUR corn crops per year were possible </li></ul><ul><li>Dikes built to close off fresh water from brackish water (5.5 miles by 23 feet) </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Aztec Empire <ul><li>No wheel or suitable animals for power (no draft or pack animals) </li></ul><ul><li>Women spent 30-40 hours per week just to prepare the basic food-corn (no mills) </li></ul><ul><li>A system of roads existed (part of the tribute of conquered peoples), mainly for foot travel (rest stops and latrines every 10-15 km) </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Inca Empire
  7. 8. The Inca Empire-Environment <ul><li>Terrace agriculture on the steep slopes of the Andes (mostly dry) </li></ul><ul><li>Complex technology of irrigation to water their crops </li></ul><ul><li>Based on intensive agriculture-maize, quinoa, potato (developed method of freeze drying potatoes for times of food shortages) </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled a wide range of ecological zones </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted in ways that surprise scientists </li></ul>
  8. 9. Terraced Farming
  9. 10. Irrigation Canals
  10. 11. Inca Road System <ul><li>Most spectacular of the public works projects </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolized the power of the Incan state </li></ul><ul><li>14,000 miles long </li></ul><ul><li>Spanned mountains and deserts – two main arteries (mountains and coast) </li></ul><ul><li>Rest stops for messengers </li></ul><ul><li>Typically built of stone and lined with trees </li></ul><ul><li>Channel of drinking water running alongside </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Easy movement of troops and communication throughout a large empire </li></ul>
  11. 12. Inca Road System
  12. 13. Domesticated Animals <ul><li>The Llama-Helped to transport goods and food through the Andes mountains (pack animal) </li></ul><ul><li>Provided wool and meat </li></ul><ul><li>Offered to the gods as a sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>No practical use for the wheel </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Llama