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  1. 1. African Salt/GoldTradeSahara Desert merchantcaravans exchanged saltfor gold
  2. 2. Al-QaedaFormed by Osama bin Laden
  3. 3. Alliance SystemSought topreservebalance ofpower butdraggedtheirmembersintoWorld War I
  4. 4. ArchimedesGreek who studiedlevers and pulleys
  5. 5. ArmeniansChristians inthe OttomanEmpire whofacedgenocide inWorld War I
  6. 6. Thomas AquinasNatural laws based on reason
  7. 7. Arms RaceRace to developbetter weapons –U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.
  8. 8. Atlantic Slave Trade
  9. 9. Atomic BombHiroshima and Nagasaki
  10. 10. Aztec CivilizationHighly complexsociety inCentral MexicoUsed uniqueagriculturaltechniques –includingfloating gardens
  11. 11. BalkansSpark thatignited WorldWar I; and,ethniccleansing bySerbs in1990’s
  12. 12. Black DeathDiseasecarried byfleas onrats thatkilledmillions ofpeople inEurope
  13. 13. William BlackstoneRights of Individual
  14. 14. Símon BolivarIndependence in South America
  15. 15. Bolsheviks“Peace, Bread and Land” – Russian Revolution
  16. 16. Napoleon BonaparteFrench general whoseized power, declaredhimself emperor andconquered much ofEurope.
  17. 17. Robert Boyle“Father of Chemistry”
  18. 18. BuddhismFour Noble Truths and Eightfold Path
  19. 19. Byzantine EmpireEastern Roman Empire - Constantinople
  20. 20. John Calvin• New Protestant Church• Predestination• Faith as key to salvation• Strict moral code
  21. 21. ChristianityBased on teachings of Jesus as the Son of GodForgiveness, Mercy, Sympathy for Poor
  22. 22. Winston ChurchillBritish PrimeMinister duringWorld War II –“We shall neversurrender.”
  23. 23. Cold War20th Century conflictbetween U.S. andU.S.S.R. – never directlyengaged each other inopen warfare
  24. 24. Columbian ExchangeExchange of products and ideas between NativeAmericans and Europe
  25. 25. Commercial RevolutionFrom local economies to Mercantilism
  26. 26. ConfucianismFilial Piety = Respect for elders and order
  27. 27. Nicolas CopernicusBelieved Earth orbited the Sun – Banned by The Church
  28. 28. CrusadesWar to recapture the HolyLand from Muslims –Led to increased trade betweenEurope and the Middle East.
  29. 29. Marie CurieFirst woman towin Nobel Prize -radioactivity
  30. 30. DarfurSudan – acts of genocide
  31. 31. Declaration of theRights of ManFrench Revolution –consent of the governed andprotection of rights.
  32. 32. Thomas EdisonAmerican Inventor – light bulb, phonograph and motion pictures.
  33. 33. Albert EinsteinTime andSpace areRelative
  34. 34. Elizabeth I• Shared powerbetweenmonarchy andParliament• Defeated theSpanish Armada
  35. 35. English Bill of RightsSigned by William andMary agreeing to manyrights for Englishsubjects
  36. 36. English Civil WarWarbetweenParliamentandCharles Ioversupremacy
  37. 37. EnlightenmentThinkersquestionedhereditaryprivilege andabsolutism
  38. 38. EratosthenesGreek who showed thatthe Earth was round andcalculated itscircumference
  39. 39. European ImperialismEuropean economic control of Africa, Asia and the Pacific
  40. 40. FascismIntense nationalism andbelief in an all-powerfulmilitaristic leader
  41. 41. Wilson’s 14 Points• Goals announced by U.S.President Woodrow Wilson• Created the League ofNations
  42. 42. Free EnterpriseSystemFree actions ofproducers andconsumers – supply anddemand – determineeconomic questions
  43. 43. French RevolutionOverthrew monarchy and ended hereditary privilege
  44. 44. Galileo Galilei• Confirmed the Earthtraveled around the Sun• Was tried and convictedby The Church
  45. 45. Indira GandhiFirst Woman IndianPrime Minister -- wasassassinated in 1984.
  46. 46. Mohandas Gandhi• Leader of Indianindependence movement• Non-violent• Passive resistence
  47. 47. GenocideMurder of anentire group ofpeople ornationality –Holocaust,Rwanda,Darfur,Kosovo
  48. 48. GlobalizationGlobal economy through communications, transportationand trade
  49. 49. Glorious RevolutionOverthrow ofJames II of Britainand the placementof William andMary on thethrone. Theyagreed to a Bill ofRights.
  50. 50. Mikhail GorbachevSoviet reformer ledto the election ofnon-Communistgovernments inEastern Europeand dissolution ofthe U.S.S.R.
  51. 51. Great DepressionDevastating economic downturn in the 1930’s
  52. 52. Great SchismSplit in CatholicChurch with twoPopesCaused many toquestion theauthority ofThe Church
  53. 53. Greek CivilizationMajorcontributions toart, architecture, philosophy, literature,drama, and history
  54. 54. Gupta EmpirePeace, Prosperityand Trade – TheGolden Age ofHindu Culture
  55. 55. Hammurabi’s CodeEarliest written lawcode of theBabylonians –promoted justice, buttreated social classesdifferently
  56. 56. Han DynastySilk RoadCivil service examinationsPaper and CeramicsBeginning of Pax Sinica
  57. 57. Hinduism• Reincarnation• Many gods andgoddesses• Karma and Dharma
  58. 58. Adolph HitlerNazi Party leader ofthe Germantotalitarian stateprior to and duringWorld War II
  59. 59. Thomas HobbesMan is “nasty andbrutish” and need anauthority to keeporder – WroteLeviathan
  60. 60. HolocaustGenocide of Jews and others by Nazis in World War II
  61. 61. Human RightsRights that all people possess
  62. 62. Hundred Years’ War• War betweenEngland andFrance oversuccession tothe Frenchthrone• Brought an endto feudalism
  63. 63. Inca CivilizationPre-Columbian civilization in Andes Mountains
  64. 64. Industrial RevolutionBegan in EnglandMoved production fromhome to factoryand from hand tomachine
  65. 65. IslamFounded by MuhammadFive Pillars of FaithOne God – AllahShare wealth between richand poor
  66. 66. IsraelIn 1948, theU.N.partitionedPalestine into 2states – Israeland Palestine.FiveneighboringArab nationsdeclared war onIsrael.
  67. 67. John Paul II• Popular 20th CenturyPope• Helped end Communismin Eastern Europe
  68. 68. Justinian’s Code ofLawsIn Byzantium,Justinian collected allRoman laws andorganized them into asingle code
  69. 69. Korean War1950’s –CommunistNorth KoreainvadedSouth Korea– UnitedStates andUnitedNationsintervened
  70. 70. Las Madres de la Playasde MayoArgentine mothers whodemanded the government revealthe whereabouts of children whomysteriously disappeared in the1980’s.
  71. 71. League of Nations• Proposed byWoodrow Wilson• Created by theTreaty ofVersailles• Failed to stop war
  72. 72. Limited MonarchyMonarch shares power with Parliament
  73. 73. John Locke• Power comes fromconsent of thegoverned• People have the rightto overthrow abusivegovernment• Two Treatises ofCivil Government
  74. 74. Magna CartaIn 1215, King John ofEngland guaranteed rightto a trial by jury andconsent of a council ofnobles needed for anynew taxes.
  75. 75. Nelson Mandela• Imprisoned for speaking outagainst apartheid• South Africa’s first blackPresident
  76. 76. ManorialismEconomic system of feudal Europe –self-sufficient manors
  77. 77. Karl MarxBelieved workerswould eventuallyoverthrow theircapitalist bosses.
  78. 78. Mauryan EmpireEmperor Asokaconverted toBuddhismImprovedroads, buildhospitals, andencouragededucation.
  79. 79. Mayan CivilizationPre-Columbian civilization in Guatemala and YucatanBuilders and creators of a numbering system
  80. 80. Golda MeirFirst woman Prime Minister of Israel
  81. 81. MilitarismCivilians adopt military values and goals and become over-relianton military advisors – led to the outbreak of World War I
  82. 82. Ming Dynasty• Followed theMongols• Moved China’scapital toBeijing• Ruled for 300years of peaceand prosperity
  83. 83. MonarchySystem of government in which political power is inherited.
  84. 84. MonotheismBelief in one GodShared by Judaism,Christianity and Islam
  85. 85. Baron deMontesquieu• Separation of Powers –Executive, Legislative, andJudicial• Wrote The Spirit of Laws
  86. 86. Benito Mussolini•Italian leader duringWorld War II•Fascist state –controlled the press,abolishing unions,and outlawing strikes
  87. 87. Napoleonic Wars•Wars betweenNapoleon ofFrance and therest of Europe•Spread theideals of theFrenchRevolution
  88. 88. Printing Press•Johann Gutenberg•Movable type•Helped spread the ideasof the ProtestantReformation
  89. 89. Nationalism•Eachnationality isentitled to itsowngovernment andhomeland•A cause ofWorld War I
  90. 90. Neolithic RevolutionWhen people learned how to plant and grow crops, and herdanimals
  91. 91. Isaac NewtonDiscovered laws ofgravityUniverse acts according tocertain “fixed andfundamental” laws
  92. 92. Protestant ReformationLed by Martin Luther – Many Christians left the CatholicChurch for Protestant Churches
  93. 93. PythagorasGreek mathematician - Advances in geometry
  94. 94. Qin Dynasty•Qin Shi Huangdi – China’s firstemperor•Unified China, built roads and canals•Constructed the Great Wall to protectthe empire
  95. 95. Radical IslamicFundamentalismReaction by radical Muslims againstWestern valuesSeek to return to strict Islamic valuesand rules
  96. 96. RenaissanceA rebirth of European culture that started in Italy – spirit of inquiry – rediscoveryof classical learning – improvements in painting and architecture
  97. 97. RepublicA system of government by representatives.
  98. 98. Normandy LandingLargest amphibious assault in history - Allied troops landed at Normandy toretake France from the Nazis
  99. 99. Roman CivilizationAbsorbed Greek learning – known for engineering skills, rule of law, andThe Rise of Christianity
  100. 100. October Revolutionof 1917•Revolution in 1917•Bolsheviks seizedpower in Russia•Russia became aCommunist nation
  101. 101. OligarchyRule by a few, powerful people.
  102. 102. Ottomans•Turkish nomads fromCentral Asia•Ruled the Islamic world ofthe 13th century•Conquered Constantinoplein 1453
  103. 103. Panama CanalBuilt by the United States in Mesoamerica to providea short water route between the Atlantic and PacificOceans
  104. 104. Popular SovereigntyUltimate powerrests on theconsent of thepeople beinggoverned.
  105. 105. Louis PasteurScientist found that mostdiseases are caused by germsDeveloped new vaccinesPasteurization = killing germsby heating.
  106. 106. Pearl HarborDecember 7, 1941 – surprise attack by Japanese on the U.S.fleet in Hawaii that brought the U.S. into World War II
  107. 107. Fall of the RomanEmpireIn 476 – Rome wasoverrun by invadingbarbarian tribesFollowed by theDark Ages – a periodof great turmoil inEurope
  108. 108. Jean JacquesRousseau•Enlightenment Philosopher•Government should follow thewill of the people•Inspired the French Revolution
  109. 109. RwandaAfrican nation that experienced genocide against its Tutsipopulation by the Hutus.
  110. 110. Scientific RevolutionRejected traditionalteaching of theChurchIntroduced theScientific Method –observing natureand testinghypotheses
  111. 111. September 11, 2001Al-Qaeda terroristshijacked commercialairliners and crashedthem into the Pentagonand the World TradeCenter, killing thousandsof Americans.
  112. 112. Natan Sharansky•Russian dissident•Founder of RefusenikMovement•Imprisoned forspeaking out forhuman rights in USSR
  113. 113. SikhismReligion developed inNorthern IndiaSikhs believe in one Godwho can only be knownthrough meditation
  114. 114. Silk RoadTrade route connecting China to the Roman Empire. Chinaexported silk, porcelain and tea.
  115. 115. Adam SmithWrote Wealth of NationsAttacked mercantilismPromoted competition and thedivision of labor and free marketsystem
  116. 116. SocialismGovernment should pass laws to stop abuses ofworkers and should even take over some businesses
  117. 117. Song DynastyPeriod of great socialand economic progressin ChinaFirst use of papercurrency andstandardized coins
  118. 118. Joseph StalinCommunist leaderfollowing Lenin;Purged governmentof his opponents;Established atotalitarian state;Resisted Hitler andstarted the Cold War
  119. 119. Suez CanalProvided a shorter routefrom Europe to East Africa,India, and East Asia.Served as a lifeline betweenBritain and its colonies,especially India.
  120. 120. Tang DynastySuppressedpeasantuprisings,Reunited China,Revived feudalrelationships andbrought peaceand prosperity.
  121. 121. Ten CommandmentsCommandments in theJewish religionprohibiting stealing,murder and otherforms of immoralbehavior.
  122. 122. Mother TeresaCatholic nun who devotedher life to helping the poorand homeless in IndiaAwarded the Nobel PeacePrize.
  123. 123. TerrorismActs of violence against innocent civilians such ashijacking planes and attacking schools to make demandson a hostile government.
  124. 124. Margaret ThatcherFirst woman elected Prime Minister of Great Britain
  125. 125. TheocracyA society governedby religiousleaders – Presentday Iran is anexample.
  126. 126. Tiananmen SquareChinese students were fired on by tanks while leading peacefuldemonstrations for personal freedom and democracy.
  127. 127. Hedeki TojoLed the Japanese governmentduring World War IIConvinced the emperor tolaunch a surprise attack onthe United States
  128. 128. TotalitarianismA government thatcontrols all aspectsof life –government,military, schools,and otherorganizations.
  129. 129. Trench WarfareDuring World War I, ditches were dug to createfortified positions.
  130. 130. United NationsBegan in 1945,It’s purpose is to maintainworld peace andencourage cooperationamong nations.
  131. 131. Versailles TreatyTreaty between Allied Powers and Germany that endedWorld War I.
  132. 132. Queen VictoriaMonarch who doubled Britain’s size and favored social reforms.
  133. 133. Vietnam WarWar between CommunistNorth Vietnam and U.S.supported South Vietnam.Started with the Viet Conglaunching guerilla warfareagainst South Vietnam.
  134. 134. VoltaireEnlightenment thinker;Views on religioustoleration andintellectual freedominfluence leaders of theAmerican and FrenchRevolutions.
  135. 135. Lech WalesaPolish union leader whoorganized the SolidarityMovement.Led a workers’ strikethat led to free electionsand the end ofCommunist rule inPoland.
  136. 136. James WattScottish inventor whoimproved the steam engineand made steam poweravailable to run factoriesand machines.
  137. 137. William WilberforceReformer who led thefight to abolish theslave trade and slavery.
  138. 138. World War IAssassination ofArchduke Ferdinandset off a chainreaction thatinvolved mostnations of Europeand later, the UnitedState.
  139. 139. World War IIMost destructiveconflict in historyKilled anestimated 70millionLaunched whenHitler invadedPoland in 1939.
  140. 140. Mao Zedong•Chinese Communistleader who droveNationalists out of China.•Great Leap Forward•Cultural Revolution
  141. 141. Zhou DynastyZhou rulers justified their ruleby the Mandate of Heaven –If a ruler was selfish andruthless, Heaven wouldoverthrow him.