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Lecture08 tang&song china


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Lecture08 tang&song china

  1. 1. China during the Sui,China during the Sui, Tang, & Song DynastiesTang, & Song Dynasties Sui 589-618Sui 589-618 Tang 618-907Tang 618-907 Song 960 -1279Song 960 -1279
  2. 2. Background  After the fall of the Han Empire inAfter the fall of the Han Empire in 220 c.e., northern China was220 c.e., northern China was controlled by Central Asian & Tibetancontrolled by Central Asian & Tibetan nomads; no group in southern Chinanomads; no group in southern China was strong enough to control thewas strong enough to control the entire regionentire region (30 dynasties in about(30 dynasties in about 300 years claimed the Mandate of300 years claimed the Mandate of Heaven).Heaven).  For 350 years, regional rule was theFor 350 years, regional rule was the political reality.political reality.
  3. 3. Background By 589, the firstBy 589, the first emperor of the Suiemperor of the Sui dynasty haddynasty had forcefully reunitedforcefully reunited northern andnorthern and southern Chinasouthern China once again.once again. The foundations forThe foundations for the Tang & Songthe Tang & Song Dynasties wereDynasties were laid.laid.
  4. 4. China during the Sui,China during the Sui, Tang, & Song DynastiesTang, & Song Dynasties Sui 589-618Sui 589-618 Tang 618-907Tang 618-907 Song 960 -1279Song 960 -1279
  5. 5. “A Golden Age” China during the Tang andChina during the Tang and Song dynasties enjoyedSong dynasties enjoyed political stability, economicpolitical stability, economic growth, and intellectual andgrowth, and intellectual and artistic achievement.artistic achievement.
  6. 6. SUI, TANG, & SONGSUI, TANG, & SONG CHINACHINA The more things change, theThe more things change, the more they stay the same.more they stay the same.
  7. 7.  Comparatively, Chinese culture retainedComparatively, Chinese culture retained many of its characteristics from Ancientmany of its characteristics from Ancient through the Tang & Song era.through the Tang & Song era.  Confucianism remained a foundation ofConfucianism remained a foundation of society and culturesociety and culture  China continued to be superior in manyChina continued to be superior in many advancements, in technology, and ideasadvancements, in technology, and ideas  Emperor and the bureaucracyEmperor and the bureaucracy
  8. 8.  Written languageWritten language separate fromseparate from spoken languagesspoken languages  The social classThe social class structure andstructure and gender rolesgender roles remained relativelyremained relatively constant.constant.
  10. 10. Politics & Government  The frontiers were stabilized & attemptsThe frontiers were stabilized & attempts at expansion were partially expansion were partially successful.  Centralized government returned alongCentralized government returned along with a bureaucracy of trained civilwith a bureaucracy of trained civil servants.servants.
  11. 11. Agriculture  Agricultural production improved & cropAgricultural production improved & crop specialization intensified with improvedspecialization intensified with improved infrastructure and printing and ironinfrastructure and printing and iron implementsimplements. Champa rice – Could be harvested twice
  12. 12. INDUSTRY & TRADEINDUSTRY & TRADE  China lost its monopoly on silk (but stillChina lost its monopoly on silk (but still had a superior product)had a superior product)  China was the sole supplier of porcelainChina was the sole supplier of porcelain to the worldto the world  China began cotton, tea, and sugarChina began cotton, tea, and sugar production and export.production and export.  Advanced metallurgy and miningAdvanced metallurgy and mining
  13. 13. TRADE  Regional tradeRegional trade improved withimproved with improvedimproved infrastructureinfrastructure Indian Ocean tradeIndian Ocean trade increased withincreased with Tang control overTang control over coastal Southerncoastal Southern ChinaChina  Silk Road tradeSilk Road trade increasedincreased
  14. 14. Finance The use of a credit system (flyingThe use of a credit system (flying money)money) Government issued paper money.Government issued paper money. Some areas of the economy wereSome areas of the economy were privatized during the Song era.privatized during the Song era. Growth of cities led to growth ofGrowth of cities led to growth of industry, trade, and the empires’industry, trade, and the empires’ economyeconomy
  15. 15. Some Results Land was no longer the ONLYLand was no longer the ONLY source of wealth.source of wealth. Trade led to cultural andTrade led to cultural and technological influences—strongertechnological influences—stronger connections with Korea, Japan,connections with Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and other parts of Asia.Vietnam, and other parts of Asia. Chinese trade became an evenChinese trade became an even stronger force in Eurasia.stronger force in Eurasia.
  16. 16. Social Classes  Landowners (landed gentry) were at theLandowners (landed gentry) were at the top of the social class of the social class system.  Scholar-gentry and military leaders wereScholar-gentry and military leaders were another group in the upper class.another group in the upper class.  Merchants and artisans could acquire aMerchants and artisans could acquire a great deal of wealth from industry andgreat deal of wealth from industry and trade (but were in the lower class).trade (but were in the lower class).  Soldiers, peasants, and slaves were atSoldiers, peasants, and slaves were at the bottom of the social classes.the bottom of the social classes.
  17. 17. Gender Roles  Women’s status slowlyWomen’s status slowly declined (despite attempts atdeclined (despite attempts at reform by several empresses).reform by several empresses).  The Song Period saw womenThe Song Period saw women at a very low social a very low social status. Seclusion, lack of propertySeclusion, lack of property rights, footbinding, and exclusionrights, footbinding, and exclusion from education arefrom education are all examples of their loweringall examples of their lowering status.status.
  18. 18. From Ning Lao T'ai-t'aiFrom Ning Lao T'ai-t'ai  ““A girl's beauty and desirability wereA girl's beauty and desirability were counted more by the size of her feet than bycounted more by the size of her feet than by the beauty of her face. Matchmakers werethe beauty of her face. Matchmakers were not asked, 'Is she beautiful?' but 'How smallnot asked, 'Is she beautiful?' but 'How small are her feet?' A plain face is given byare her feet?' A plain face is given by heaven but poorly bound feet are a sign ofheaven but poorly bound feet are a sign of laziness.”laziness.”
  19. 19. Technology  First chain driven mechanism - the clockFirst chain driven mechanism - the clock (1088)(1088)  GunpowderGunpowder  Paper production and block printingPaper production and block printing techniques were invented and thentechniques were invented and then advanced—moveable type.advanced—moveable type.  Boat building and navigationalBoat building and navigational technology was more advanced than thetechnology was more advanced than the rest of the of the world.
  20. 20. Advancements included:  Tang and Song China had the largestTang and Song China had the largest cities in the world at that time.cities in the world at that time.  Song Chinese were the first to useSong Chinese were the first to use fractions in computations andfractions in computations and equations.equations.  Solar year was accurately measuredSolar year was accurately measured  Doctors in Song China compiled andDoctors in Song China compiled and printed medical textsprinted medical texts
  21. 21.  In terms of advancements, innovations,In terms of advancements, innovations, and knowledge, China benefited fromand knowledge, China benefited from centuries of Chinese scholarship andcenturies of Chinese scholarship and  Influences from other parts of the worldInfluences from other parts of the world (especially during the Tang period) also(especially during the Tang period) also had a considerable effect.had a considerable effect.