Wearable bio sensors


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Bio-sensors using sensors and transducers and sensors and signals.

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Wearable bio sensors

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2.  Introduction  Need of wearable biosensors  What is a biosensor ?  Components of biosensor  Wearable biosensors: -  1. Ring sensor  2. Smart shirt  Conclusion  References 2
  3. 3.  Biosensor is an analytical device, which converts a biological response into electrical signal.  Wearable monitoring devices that allow continuous monitoring of physiological signals.  They rely on wireless sensors enclosed in items that can be worn, such as ring or shirt.  The data sets are recorded using these systems and then processed to detect patient’s clinical situations. 3
  4. 4.  Remote monitoring of patients.  Training support for athlete.  Monitoring of individuals who work with hazardous elements.  Tracking of professional truck driver’s vital signs to alert them of fatigue. 4
  5. 5. Three main components of wearable biosensors are:  Biological element: For sensing the presence and concentration of a substance.  Transducer: The product of interaction of biological component and sample may be a suitable chemical, charge etc., which can be converted by transducer into an electrical signal.  Associated Electronic Devices: The electrical signal may be further amplified and can be read on digital panels 5
  6. 6. Ring Sensor: It allows one to continuously monitor heart rate and oxygen saturation. The device is shaped like a ring.  Smart Shirt: This technology has been used to integrate sensors for monitoring the vital signs like temperature, heart rate and respiration rate. [Google image] 6
  7. 7.  It is a pulse oximetry, i.e. it monitors the oxygen saturation.  It is based on the concept of photoconductor. Principles :-  Blood pressure pulse causes vessel wall displacement.  Detection pulsatile blood volume changes by photoelectric method by photo resistor  Connected as a part of voltage divider circuit and produces a voltage that varies with the amount of blood in the finger. Fig-ring sensor wore on a finger. 7
  8. 8.  Components: • LED’s and Photodiodes • Optical sensor unit • PIC microcontroller • RF transmitter • Tiny cell battery • Use of double ring structure. • First stage amplifier • Signal Conditioner • Sample and hold circuit  Waveforms sampled at 100 Hz transmitted to a PDA or a cellular phone carried by the patient.  Less distance between LED & PD. Fig-Components of ring sensor[1] 8
  9. 9. [2] 9
  10. 10.  In order to detect blood volume changes due to heart contraction and expansion by photoelectric method, normally photo resistors are used.  Light is emitted by LED and transmitted through the artery and the resistance of photo resistor is determined by the amount of light reaching it.  Oxygenated blood absorb more light than deoxygenated blood  A noise cancellation filter is used to cancel the noise due to motion of the finger. 10
  11. 11.  Wireless supervision of people during hazardous operations.  In an overcrowded emergency department.  Chronic surveillance of abnormal heart failure.  In cardio-vascular disease for monitoring the hyper tension. Advantages  Continuous monitoring.  Easy to use.  Reducing hospitalization fee Disadvantages  Initial cost is high.  Limited number of physiological parameters can be monitored. 11
  12. 12.  Also known as GTWM i.e. Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard.  This GTWM (smart shirt) provides an extremely versatile framework for the incorporation of sensing, monitoring and information processing devices.  It uses optical fibers to detect bullet wounds and special sensors and interconnects to monitor the body vital signs during combat conditions.  It is used to integrate sensors for monitoring the vital signs like temperature, heart rate and respiration rate. Fig- Architechture of Smart Shirt[2] 12
  13. 13.  A combat soldier sensor to his body, pulls the smart shirt on, and attaches the sensors to the smart shirt.  A “signal” is sent from one end of the plastic optical fiber to a receiver at the other end. The emitter and the receiver are connected to a Personal Status Monitor (psm) worn at the hip level by the soldier.  If the light from the emitter does not reach the receiver inside the PSM, it signifies that the smart shirt has been penetrated (i.e.; the soldier has been shot).  The signal bounces back to the PSM forum the point of penetration, helping the medical personnel pinpoint the exact location the solider wounds.  Information on the soldiers wound and the condition is immediately transmitted electronically from the PSM to a medical unit. 13
  14. 14. Fig- Working of Smart Shirt[2] 14
  15. 15.  Combat casualty care.  Medical monitoring.  Sports/ Performance monitoring.  Space experiments.  Mission critical/ hazardous application.  Fire- fighting.  Wearable mobile information infrastructure. Advantages  Continuous monitoring.  Right Treatment at the right time  Easy to wear and takeoff. Disadvantages  Initial cost is high  Battery life is less 15
  16. 16.  Smart shirt technology opens up existing opportunities to develop adaptive & responsive systems that can think & act based on the user conditions stimuli & environment.  Certain individuals are susceptible to anaphylaxis reaction an allergic reaction) when stung by a bee or spider and need a shot of adrenaline immediately to prevent further fatalities. by applying advancements in MEMS(Micro-Electrochemical systems) technology we can achieve that.  The Smarts shirt’s delta acquisition capabilities can be used to detect the condition when an individual is lapsing into a diabetic shock and this integrated feedback mechanism can provide the appropriate response to prevent a fatality. 16
  17. 17.  It is anticipated that the smart shirt will bring personalized & affordable healthcare monitoring to the population at large.  Limitations: Sensitivity And battery life .  Advanced technologies such as the smart shirt have at partial to dramatically alter its landscape of healthcare delivery and at practice of medicine as we know them today. It is leading to the realization of “Affordable Healthcare, Any place, Anytime, Anyone”. 17
  18. 18. [1] H .Harry Asada, “Mobile monitoring with wearable sensors” , IEEE engineering in medicine and biology magazine, vol 22, pp- 28-39 May/ June 2003. [2] Park and Jayaraman , ”Enhancing the quality of life through wearable technology”, IEEE engineering in medicine and biology magazine, vol 22, pp- 41-48 May/ June 2003. [3] Handbook of biomedical instrumentation , Khandpur ,pp- 138,233,238 [4] R . Neuman , ” Biomedical sensors”, handbook of biomedical instrumentation,pp-725-755 18