Denim washing using enzymes


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Denim washing using enzymes

  1. 1. Innovative Denim Fabrics and Its Ecofriendly Washing Using Enzymes Aravin Prince Periyasamy M.Tech, Thavasiappan Kandasamy* B.Tech Lecturer, SSM Institute of Textile Technology, Komarapalayam, T.N, India *Lab Executive, Wonder Blues Denim washing, Bangalore-59, India E-mail: , thavasi85@gmail.comAbstract: Denim has taken its name from Nimes, a Renaissance textile town in the Rhone valleyof France. Denim has become so popular throughout the world today that the appearance ofthis fabric is continuously being modified to appeal to the varied fashion trends and demandsof different generations. In many respects, fashion trends have shown how the fabrics andgarments should look and accordingly the processing techniques of denim have beenchanged. Traditional blue denim is a „warp-faced‟ cotton fabric in a 3/1 twill construction.Coarse yarn is used in both warp and weft. The warp is dyed in a solid color, usually indigoand the weft left un dyed. Because of being warp faced, the denim fabric is bluer on thesurface and almost white on the back. Denim washing is considered as a value addition to thegarments. Today denim does not just mean jeans; it refers to exciting ranges of items inapparel accessories and embellishments. With the development of varied possibilities ofyarn, fabric types, finishes, weaves, dyeing, a variety of denim fabrics can be manufacturedto suit varied tastes of consumers. Creativity at the finishing stage is assuming more importance than the productsthemselves. So, this work is to do innovation in the field of denim by producing differentkinds of denim fabrics washing it by eco-friendly manner using enzymes.Introduction: Denim is a type of cotton textile, Finish fabric, especially in the case ofknown for its use in blue jeans and other jeans and other garments with a worn-inclothing. Denim uses a sturdy twill weave look. Various enzymatic cleaners arewith a characteristic diagonal ribbing. available from stores which specialize inOriginally used for workmens clothes, Laundry supplies, and can also be specialdenim is now ubiquitous and has even ordered. For regular cleaning, enzymesentered the world of high fashion. Nearly carry numerous economic andeveryone has at least one denim garment in environmental benefits. On an industrialthe closet these days. scale, enzyme washing has replaced Denim washing is achieved by laborious laundering techniques such asmany ways either by using pumice stones stonewashing, saving money andor hypochlorite or even by using enzymes. environmental impact for companies. SoThe reason why we have chosen enzyme for denim is only restricted to cotton fiberfor washing is very simple, only because but as far as today’s concern technologyof it eco-friendly nature compared to has improved in a better way, due to thishypochlorite and pumice stones. Enzyme many new fibers were produced withwashing is a laundering process which many special features, this urges us touses enzymes to clean clothing or to produce innovative denim with different fibers. 1
  2. 2. Denim Manufacture & Dyeing: Indigo is a dark blue crystalline powder In original the denim is the fabric that melts at 390°– 392°C. It is insolubletype manufactured for the special end use in water, alcohol, or ether, but is soluble inlike dress for mine workers, petroleum chloroform, nitrobenzene, or concentratedproduct extractor engineers etc, but at sulfuric acid. The chemical structure ofpresent it has become the fashion and daily Indigo corresponds to the formulause for all the people of all ages. C16H10N2O2. The naturally occurring The denim is the fabric made of substance is Indican, which is colorless &coarser count of yarns probably made of is soluble in water. Indican can easily beO.E. yarns. The process flow chart for the hydrolyzed to glucose & Indoxyl. Milddenim fabric manufacturing is as follows. oxidation, such as, by exposure to air, converts Indoxyl to Indigo. For good qualities dyers only used the leaves, whereas for normal qualities they used the leaves and the stems. In a tub filled with water and partially fermented human urine as alkali donor the stems and leaves were exposed to a rotting process. Microorganisms produced hydrogen which as reduction agent transformed the dyestuff contained in the indigo plant into a water-soluble form. When this process was finished, the complete mass was poured into a beating vat where the fermented mass was stirred up with poles in order to transform the indigo back to its water-insoluble form by means of air oxidation. In a last treatment, theFig.1-Denim Manufacture flow chart. stationary vat, the water-insoluble dyestuffIndigo: particles were allowed to deposit on the Indigo, the “king of dyestuffs” is ground. Afterwards, the liquid above theseto be given special attention because this particles was drained, so that a thin pastedyestuff is mainly responsible for the jeans remained which was air-dried and theneffect. Indigo belongs to the water- distributed on the market in pressed orinsoluble dyestuffs and was first powdered form. Looking at these methodsmentioned in a textbook in 13 BC. one can imagine that the manufacturing ofHowever, the dyestuff was then named indigo was considered to be a foul-Indian blue for the place of origin. It is smelling tradesaid to be used as dyestuff as early as 2000BC in India and China. Then, it came toEurope via India in the 16th century andincreasingly replaced wood, one of the .most important plants which had been Fig.2 – Structure of Indigo Dyeused for dyeing up to that point of time. 2
  3. 3. Dyeing Process: Moreover, the individual yarn is of course wetted much more quickly, so that reduced The following three continuous dipping and wetting times during dyeingdyeing processes are being applied by result. However, on the whole, thedyers: individual threads have a much bigger  Rope dyeing surface than ropes. Thus, slightly higher  Slasher or sheet dyeing hydrosulphite quantities are mostly required  Loop dyeing. for sheet dyeing in order to prevent a premature oxidizing of the indigo.Rope Dyeing Method: Loop Dyeing Method: In a rope dyeing process 350 to 400warp threads are bundled up on the ball While the yarns are guided throughwarper to ropes of a length of 10,000 to successive dyeing baths in the rope dyeing15,000 meters being as thick as a finger. On and sheet dyeing process, the yarn is guidedthe continuous dyeing range 12 to 36 ropes through the same dyeing bath several timesside by side are guided, wetted, dyed and in the loop dye method. This results in afinished after dyeing, cylinder-dried and clearly shorter machine and a clearly lowercoiled in cans. In order to make it easier to Beam Wetting Indigo the ropes, lubricant is added for Denim Garment Processing/Washingfinishing the ropes. This addition makesseparation of the ropes to single warps The denim garment processing consisits ofeasier on the long chain beamer afterwards. the following processes,The single warps are fed into the sizingmachine, sized and then bundled up to a  Desizingwarp whose size depends on the total thread  Stone/ Enzyme washnumber. This process has proven well  Denim bleachingbecause an optimum indigo dyeing is Desizing:achieved. However, it is important that theropes always have an even tension in order The purpose of de-sizing is to removeto prevent warp streaks. A disadvantage of the stiffness in Denim garments. De-sizingthis process is the higher frequency of should be uniform. Insufficient de-sizingthread breakages. The dyeing range has a causes crease marks, streaks, spots &size of 60 – 80 m and generally uses six uneven stonewash effect. Enzyme Amylasecolor troughs but there are also different degrades, starch into water solublevariants working with 3 to 8 color troughs. products. It needs a dispersing agent & scouring agent, to prevent / minimize theSheet Dyeing Method: back staining of the released Indigo onto the Instead of the rope form, the warp white Weft yarn.threads are fed into the machine in parallelform in the sheet dyeing method. Compared Traditional de-sizing is done bywith the rope dyeing machines the sheet using acid or oxidative de-sizing agentsdyeing machines are much smaller and the which has many drawbacks & limitations.ropes need not to be opened up after dyeing. Due to the uncontrolled & non-specific process reaction, the cellulose material 3
  4. 4. gets damaged & looses strength. With the There are many limitations & drawbacksenzyme based de-sizing, the limitation & associated with stone washing process,drawbacks of traditional de-sizing can be which can be overcome by using newovercome. Enzymatic de-sizing process is enzyme based washing technology. Thisperformed by using alpha amylase technology also helps to conserve water,enzyme. A typical recipe for the desizing time, energy & environment.can be given as below,Amylase - 1.0-2.0 gpl, To give distressed Denim look manyWetting / Scouring agent -0.5- 1.0 gpl, types of washing is done to Denim fabric.Dispersing agent -1.0- 2.0 gpl, One of such washing is known asTemperature -50º- 60º C, Stonewash. In stonewashing the worn outTime -15-20 mins, look is given purposely. The fabric ispH - 6.5- 7.0 washed along with Pumice stones. The stones & Denim are spinned together in theStone Wash: large industrial washing machines. The In traditional washing process, longer, the process, the lighter would thevolcanic rocks or Pumice stones are added color of the fabric get, with better the garments during washing as The duration of this process is setabradant. Due to ring dyeing & heavy beforehand, to avoid the fabric wear & tear.abrasion, fading is more apparent but less Thereafter, the fabric undergoes variousuniform.The degree of color fading other processes of rinsing, softening &depends on the garment to stone ratio, finally tumbles drying. The Pumice stoneswashing time, size of stones, material to are generally taken from southern Italy (theliquor ratio & load size of garments. After whitest & most expensive), Turkey &de-sizing, stone wash process starts with Indonesia (darkest & cheapest).Pumice stone addition in rotary drum typegarment washer. Process time varies from The chemical composition of the pumice60-120 min. stone is as follows, 55-75% - Silicone Oxide 10-15% - Aluminium Oxide 3-6% - Sodium Oxide and small portions of potassium oxide, calcium and iron oxides. Disadvantages of Pumice Stone: Fig.3 –Pumice stones  The garments get torn off very quickly.  All the rubbed off particles of the stoneStone wash effect is one of the oldest, but will remain in the machine and it takeshighly demanded washing effect. Stone time to clean the machine and load thewash process gives “used” or “vintage” next lot.look on the garments, because of varying  They damage the seams and hems of thedegree of abrasion in the area such as jeans.’waistband, pocket, seam & body. 4
  5. 5.  The residue of the stones are difficult to  Use of softener can be avoided or remove, they obstruct the drainage minimized. system, and often cause damage to the  Due to absence of stone, labour machine. intensive operation of stone removal is not required.Enzyme Wash  Homogenous abrasion of the garments. Cellulase enzymes are natural Denim Bleachingproteins which are used in denim garment In this process, a strong oxidativeprocessing to get stone wash look on to the bleaching agent such as sodiumdenim garments without using stones or by hypochlorite or potassium permanganate isreducing the use of pumice stone. Cellulase added during the washing with or withoutattacks primarily on the surface of the stone addition. Discoloration is usuallycellulose fiber, leaving the interior of the more apparent depending on the strengthfiber as it is, by removing the indigo present of the bleach liquor quantity, temperaturein the surface layer of fiber. and treatment time.Cellulase Enzyme Is Used For Denim Limitations:Washing:  Process is difficult to control i.e.Acid Cellulase: It works best in the pH difficult to reach the same level ofrange of 4.5-5.5 and exhibit optimum bleaching in repeated runs.activity at 50.  Due to harshness of chemical, it mayNeutral cellulase: It works best at pH 6 cause damage to cellulose resulting inhowever its activity is not adversely severe strength losses and/or breaks oraffected in the range of pH 6-8 and show pinholes at the seam, pocket, etc.maximum activity at 55 ºC.  Harmful to human health and causes corrosion to stainless steel.Advantage of enzyme washing  Required antichlor treatment. Soft handle and attractive clean  Problem of yellowing is very frequent appearance is obtained without severe due to residual chlorine. damage to the surface of yarn.  They cause severe environmental Inexpensive, low-grade fabric quality pollution. can be finished to a top quality product Washing Machines: by the removal of hairiness fluff and pills, etc. The washing of the denim garments Simple process handling and minimum are done using the tumble washer and the effluent problem. dryer. The tumble washers are used because Can be applied on cellulose and its of the following advantage, blend.  The strength of the garments will not Due to mild condition of treatment be disturbed. process is less corrosive.  The distortion of the garment will not Less damage to seam edges and be happening. badges. 5
  6. 6.  Even drying of the garment will be 2. Sodium hydrosulphite ensured. No unnecessary stress would act on the Enzymes used for washing garment and the garment will run of its own kind. a) Acid cellulase. There will be even abrasion on the garment which thee exporter b)Alkaline protease. required.etc, c) Laccase. Auxiliaries used for enzyme washing:Special Review of InnovativeDenims: a) Acetic acidSilk Denim Manufacture. b) Na Cl Silk denim fabrics in 14 combinations Dyeing of cotton yarn with indigo dyein the weight range of 100 to 300 gsm were (warp yarn):developed with 100% mulberry silk, 100%eri silk and their combination with cotton First dyeing of cotton yarn with indigoand linen as union fabrics. These denim dye by using any of the followingfabrics were woven on rapier loom having techniques indigo dyeing.width of 44 inches and 3/1 twill weave. The conventional hank dyeing20s Nm eri noil yarn was also used in theweft which gave the slub and fancy effect to Rope dyeing (or)the denim fabric. The types of yarns used,their counts, combinations and construction Slasher or sheet dyeing (or)are given bellow. Loop dyeing.Materials Used: For this research conventional hank In this study Following material can dyeing process is used, which involvesbe used,  Vatting (converting insoluble indigo a. Cotton 2/12’s OE (CSP=1800) dyes into soluble form) b. Flax yarn 2/20’s  Dyeing (ring dyeing or surface dyeing) c. Bamboo yarn 2/20’s  Oxidation (air oxidation) d. Eri Silk 20/22 denier 12 ply Vatting: e. Lycra 12’s As mentioned earlier, indigo is a water-insoluble dyestuff which needs to beDyes: transformed into a water-soluble form in German indigo order to be applied on cotton. This is achieved by means of a reduction of theAuxiliaries used for dyeing: dyestuff similar to the former indigo manufacturing process. However, sodium 1. Caustic soda 6
  7. 7. hydrosulphite or hydroxy-acetone in an used in clothing can keep one cool inalkaline medium is being used today. summer and surprisingly warm in winter. Silk is sometimes used as a liner in winter Normally 1:3:3 ratio of dyes, caustic garments. Silk is very flexible and willand hydros respectively is used for vatting return to its original shape without a lot ofprocess. wrinkling. It can be stretched by as much as 20-25% and return to its original condition. In particular silk takes well to both natural and synthetic dyes, and that is why it is used in colorful parts of the wardrobe such as silk scarves for women and neck ties for men. Taking silk scarves along when traveling is a good way for women to stretch their wardrobes and carry less clothing. That is, a differentFig 6: Oxidation/Reduction of Indigo colored silk scarf can make the same outfitDyeing: lookSince in normal denim manufacturing, the weft cotton yarns are left undyed , weConventional vat dyeing method is used. going to use undyed silk in the weft at theOxidation: ratio of 70:30, where only 30% is silk remaining will be cotton yarns.Air oxidation.1) Construction of Silk Denim:Silk as weft yarn: Silk is a filament fiber formed fromproteins secreted by Bombyx mori, orsilkworms. Silkworms are not actuallyworms, but caterpillars, despite theircommon name. Humans have practicedsilk production, which originated in China,for thousands of years. Highly prized forits softness, insulating properties, andstrength, silk is a natural animal productand therefore quite expensive. Making silkrequires monitoring and feeding thesilkworms constantly, and a great deal ofeffort results in a surprisingly smallamount of thread. Fig 7 Silk Denim ManufacturingSilk Properties Silk has many remarkableproperties. It is light in weight and when 7
  8. 8. 2) Construction of Flax Denim. produce bamboo fiber. Repeated technological analysis has Linen is a plant fiber made from proved that this kind of fiber has a thinnessthe stalk of the flax plant. It is one of the degree and whiteness degree close toearliest fibers to be made into string and normal finely bleached viscose and has acloth and is the strongest of the vegetable strong durability, stability and tenacity.fibers, with 2 to 3 times the strength of Bamboo fiber fabric is made of 100%cotton. bamboo pulp fiber. It is characterized by Like cotton, linen takes to dyes its good hygroscopicity, excellenteasily and can be boiled without damaging permeability, soft feel, easiness tothe fiber. Fabrics made from linen are straighten and dye and splendid colorcomfortable, highly absorbent, and has a effect of pigmentation. Similar way ofnatural luster and crisp hand. Linen manufacturing by using it in weft...wrinkles easily but also presses easily. It 4) Construction of Lycra denimhas poor elasticity and does not springback readily like wool. In order to increase the stretchablity of denim garments, we planned to produce Lycra denim. Similar way of manufacturing by using Lycra in weft... I. Denim Processing: Denim Washing With Three Different Combinations of Enzymes. Denim washing with three different combinations of enzymes and three different concentrations can be used.  Cellulase  laccase  protease  Cellulase denim washing: In this study use both acid cellulose and neutral cellulose separately. Cellulose enzymes is a very goodFig 8 Flax Denim Manufacturing alternative to pumice stones, detailed procedure about it is discussed in reviews3) Construction of Bamboo Denim. mentioned above. Bamboo fiber is a regeneratedcellulosic fiber produced from bamboo.  Bleaching concept for denimStarchy pulp is produced from bamboo Denim bleaching is normally donestems and leaves through a process of with sodium hypochlorite, but due to itsalkaline hydrolysis and multi-phase various disadvantages an alternative is inbleaching. Further chemical processes 8
  9. 9. need. Intensive research is underway for It is claimed that significant reduction inthe development of sodium hypochlorite back staining can be achieved at muchbleaching alternative eg, glucose lower temperature than conventionalbleaching. Laccase enzyme belongs to the process by using small amount of proteaseOxidoreductases group. Laccase’s either at the end of the cellulase washingoxidative effect is complex, it does not step or during the rinsing step. By addingwork independently. A mediator is the protease at the end of the cellulasenecessary and a chemical mediator is wash step, one rinse step is eliminatedemployed between enzyme and indigo. offering savings in time and energy. This process at lower temperature also claims toAdvantages achieve a significant reduction of residual New Laccase based bleaching cellulase. technique only affects the indigo and It is clear that protease is very good natural raw white of weft yarn is suitable for protein fibers especially silk, retained, giving the woven fabric a so for washing of silk denim. It can be darker shade, which is not implicitly used to produce sand blast effects. achieved with hypochlorite bleaching. Normally sand blast effects are produced The product is so specialized on indigo by using some abrasive materials which that it does not attack any other dyes. are sprayed forcefully on the garments, but Laccase’s open up the door to bleach use of protease enzyme may be an Lycra containing denim without effective alternative to it. loosing the strength of the fabric. In case of hypochlorite bleaching Lycra Conclusion: containing product affects adversely by Denim revitalizes the couture feel, loosing the tear and tensile strength. but within the casual mentality. Finally the process is based on enzyme Ultimately, it is the best of both worlds in so no risk of environmental pollution its offerings. “This is the jean that is truly and harmful effluent discharge. couture, and is acceptable to wear -fromLimitations the boardroom to the ballroom. Unlike cotton denim, which can only be worn in Expensive, compared to traditional certain places, silk denim would be process. complimented and applauded at any Heavy faded look is difficult to occasion. achieve.Enzymatic anti-back staining agent- Thus, denims originally considered as rough and tough, and more suiting toprotease: work and casual wears are gradually The use of an engineered oxidative finding their way into fashion wear. The silk denim garments are soft to touch, lightstable alkaline protease that can tolerate a in weight, comfortable to wear in all therange of operating temperature and pH seasons, blended with the luxury andconditions offers flexible and alternative smooth feel.processes for back staining clean-up,improved contrast of denim finishes, and At last “Necessity Is the Mother of All Innovation”reduced residual cellulase of fabric. 9
  10. 10. Bibliography1. Buschle-Diller, G., Walsh, W. K., 12. Textile Processing with Enzymes - Radhakrishnaiah, P. Effect of Page 84 - by Artur Cavaco-Paulo, A Enzymatic Treatment on Dyeing and Cavaco-Paulo Cavaco-Paulo, Georg Finishing of Cellulosic Fibers: A Study M. Gübitz, Textile Institute of the Basic Mechanisms and Optimization of the Process Project: 13. Enzymes in Industry: Production and C96-Al National Textile Center Annual Applications - Page 225 - edited by Report: November, 1997: pp. 31 – 36. Wolfgang Aehle2. Edward menezes., (2003), “Bio- 14. Denim fabrics- an overview – Dr. washing of Garments, ACTI-ATIRA Nemailal Tarafder- nov 2008 –man on Denim”, New Cloth Marketing, made textiles in India. February, p 29. 15. Ciechańska, D., Struszczyk, H.,3. Textile Chemist and Colorist & Miettinen-Oinonen, A., Strobin, G. American Dyestuff Reporter - Page Enzymatic Treatment of Viscose 134 - by American Association of Fibres Based Woven Fabric Fibres & Textile Chemists and Colorists Textiles in Eastern Europe 39 (4) October/December 2002: pp. 60 – 634. Handbook of Weaving - Page 311 - by 16. Özdil, N., Özdoğan, E., Öktem, T. Sabit Adanur Effects of Enzymatic Treatment on5. Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion - Various Spun Yarn Fabrics Fibres & Page 353 - by Valerie Steele Textiles in Eastern Europe 43 (4)6. AATCC Review: The Magazine of the 2003: pp. 58 – 61. Textile Dyeing, Printing, and Finishing 17. Protease-Treated and purified cellulase compositions and methods for Page 128 - by American Association of reducing backstaining during Textile Chemists and Colorists enzymatic stonewashing - US Patent7. Chemical Finishing of Textiles - Page Issued on June 29, 1999 20 - by Wolfgang D. Schindler, Peter 18. Handbook of Weaving - Page 311 - by J. Hauser, Textile Institute Sabit Adanur (Manchester, England) 19. Wet processing of denim processing –8. New wave in Garment Exports: Ashok Khanna & Maheshwari Americos industries Inc. colourage Garment Processing: Conference: September 2004. Papers. - by RM Mittal 20. Enzymes for Textiles.9. Advanced Technology Applications in Garment Processing - by W Denney es_Textile.asp Freeston 21. http://www.denimmanufacture.com10. Handbook of Green Chemicals - by 22. Michael Ash, Irene Ash 23. http://www.denimwashing.net11. The Milnor Guide to Garment Processing Machinery. - by Pellerin Milnor Corporation 10
  11. 11. AUTHORS PROFILE 1) I’m Aravin Prince Periyasamy. I have started my carrier with Diploma in TextileProcessing (Sandwich) in SSM Institute of Textile Technology, Komarapalayam, Namakkal, TN.After completing my diploma, I worked for MS Dyeing, Tirupur, as a production supervisor. Latter Ihad Bachelor of Technology in Textile Technology from RVS College of Engineering&Technology, Dindugul. Then I join Texport syndicate (I) Ltd., Bangalore, as a Production PlanningExecutive. Latter I had Master of Technology in Textile Technology from Kumaraguru College ofTechnology, Coimbatore Currently I’m working as a lecturer in S.S.M. Institute of Textile Technology,Komarapalayam, and Namakkal, TN. India I have published 21 articles to the various national level journals. I have presented ninetechnical papers in national level Conference and one Paper in international level conference.AREA OF INTEREST:  Garment Processing  Technical TextilesContact Me:Mobile # +91-9790080302 2) I’m Thavasiappan Kandasamy. I have started my carrier with Diploma in TextileProcessing (Sandwich) in SSM Institute of Textile Technology, Komarapalayam, Namakkal, TN.After completing my diploma, I worked for Rajalaxmi Textile Processers, Erode as a productionsupervisor. Latter I had Bachelor of Technology in Textile Chemistry from SSM College ofEngineering, Komarapalayam. Currently I’m working as a Lab Executive in Wonder Blues Denimwashing, Bangalore-59, IndiaAREA OF INTEREST:  Garment Processing  Fabric DyeingContact Me:Mobile # +91-9738778323 11