Textile fibers


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Textiles, Fibers, Synthetic fibers

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Textile fibers

  1. 1. Prof. Aravin Prince Periyasamy aravinprince@gmail.com http://www.aravinprince.blogspot.in Textile Fibers
  2. 2. Key Terms  Fabrics  Fibers  Natural Fibers  Regenerated Fibers  Synthetic Fibers All rights are reserved2
  3. 3. Definition of Fibers…….  A morphological term for substances characterized by their flexibility, fineness and high ratio of length to cross sectional area.  A unit of matter, either natural or manufactured, that forms the basic element of fabrics and other textile structures.  It is defined as one of the delicate, hair portions of the tissues of a plant or animal or other substances that are very small in diameter in relation to there length. All rights are reserved3
  4. 4.  A fiber is characterized by having a length at least 100 times its diameter or width.  The term refers to units that can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by various methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, and twisting.  The essential requirements for fibers to be spun into yarn include a length of at least 5 millimeters, flexibility, cohesiveness, and sufficient strength. Other important properties include elasticity, fineness, uniformity, durability, and luster. All rights are reserved4
  5. 5. Types of Fibers and Yarns  Fibers are spun into yarn  Yarns are uninterrupted threads of textile fibers that are ready to be turned into fabrics  Natural  Originate from natural sources  Plant (cellulosic) or animal (protein)  Manufactured, synthetic, or man-made (terms interchangeable)  Originate from chemical sources  May also be from regenerated or recycled sources All rights are reserved5
  6. 6. All rights are reserved6
  7. 7. All rights are reserved7
  8. 8. Natural Fibers  Natural fibers are textile fibers made from plants or animals  Cellulosic (from plants)  Cotton  From cotton plants  Flax (linen)  From flax stems  Jute (Jute stems)  Protein (from animals)  Silk  From cocoons of silkworms  Wool  From fleece (hair) of sheep or lambs All rights are reserved 8
  9. 9. Characteristics of Natural Fibers  Natural fibers are usually: Absorbent Comfortable Cooler to wear Wrinkle more Shrink when washed  Important natural fibers are: Cotton Linen Jute Wool Silk All rights are reserved9
  10. 10. Cotton  Cellulosic fiber  From “bolls” (seed pods) growing on bushes  “Environmentally friendly” cotton can be grown in a range of colors  Main textile products of China, India, Iran, Pakistan and Egypt  Made into a wide range of wearing apparel All rights are reserved10
  11. 11. Cotton Advantages:  Comfortable  Absorbent  Good color retention  Dyes & prints well  Washable  Strong  Drapes well  Easy to handle and sew  Inexpensive Disadvantages:  Shrinks in hot water  Wrinkles easily  Weakened by perspiration and sun  Burns easily  Affected by mildew All rights are reserved11
  12. 12. Linen (Flax)  Flax is the fiber name; linen is the fabric name.  World’s oldest textile fiber, dates back to Stone Age 5,000 years.  Cellulosic fiber from stem of flax plant.  Towels, sheets, and tablecloths are called “linens”. All rights are reserved12
  13. 13. Advantages:  Strong  Comfortable  Hand-washable or dry-cleanable  Absorbent  Dyes and prints well  Resists dirt and stains  Durable  Withstands high heat  Lint-free Disadvantages:  Wrinkles easily  Can be expensive  Shrinks  Burns easily  Affected by mildew and perspiration  Ravels  Difficult to remove creases  Shines if ironed Linen (Flax) All rights are reserved13
  14. 14. Jute  Jute is a long, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.  The fibers are off-white to brown, and 1–4 meters (3–12 feet) long. Bangladesh is the world’s largest exporter of jute. Jute is grown in the same land-water area as rice and is a very difficult crop to grow and harvest.  Other important jute export countries include India, China, Burma (Myanmar), Pakistan, Nepal and Thailand. All rights are reserved14
  15. 15. Advantages  Great antistatic properties  Low thermal conductivity.  Moisture Regain properties is good enough (about 13.75%).  100% Biodegradable; so it is environment friendly fiber like Cotton.  Cheap in market.  Can be widely used in Agriculture Sector, Textile Sector, Woven Sector, Nonwoven Sector.  Jute Fiber can be blended with Natural and Synthetic fibers. All rights are reserved Disadvantages •The crease resistance of Jute is very low. •Drape Property is not good enough. •Create Shade effect and becomes yellowish if sunlight is used. •If Jute is wetted it lose it’s strength. 15
  16. 16. • Is a natural fiber extracted from the husk of coconut • Products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes, mattresses, etc. • Technically, coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. • Other uses of brown coir (made from ripe coconut) are in upholstery padding, sacking and horticulture. • White coir, harvested from unripe coconuts, is used for making finer brushes, string, rope and fishing nets. Coir All rights are reserved16
  17. 17. Hemp  Hemp fiber was widely used throughout history. Items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber.  Hemp was often used to make sail canvas, and the word canvas derives from cannabis.  Today, a modest hemp fabric industry exists, and hemp fibers can be used in clothing.  Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen. All rights are reserved17
  18. 18. All rights are reserved • A native plant of Southeast Asia, banana is now grown extensively in all tropical countries for fruit, fiber or foliage. • These fibers are obtained mainly from stem. • The fibers obtained from the central core are of lower quality compared to the fibbers obtained mainly from pseudo stem. At present, banana fiber is available in three qualities Banana Fibers . • It is used to make fancy items like bags, table mats, purses, etc and their latest venture is weaving of banana fiber fabric 18
  19. 19. Wool  Protein fiber from sheep or lambs  Worsted wool is higher quality with long staple fibers (over 2 inches)  Natural insulator  The term wool can only apply to all animal hair fibers, including the hair of cashmere or angora goat  As well as the specialty hair fibers of camel, alpaca, llama, or vicuna All rights are reserved19
  20. 20. Advantages:  Warm  Lightweight  Wrinkle-resistant  Absorbent  Dyes well  Comfortable  Durable  Creases well  Easy to tailor  Recyclable Disadvantages:  Affected by moths  Shrinks with heat and moisture  Needs special care, dry cleaning  Absorbs orders  Scratchy on skin  Weakens when wet  Harmed by bleach, perspiration Wool All rights are reserved20
  21. 21. Silk •Silkworms spin cocoons in filaments •Filament is a very long, fine, continuous thread •It can take as many as 500 cocoons to create 1 blouse All rights are reserved21
  22. 22. Silk Advantages:  Soft  Drapes well  Dyes and prints well  Very strong  Lightweight  Resists soil, mildew, and moths  Comfortable  Absorbent Disadvantages:  Expensive  Needs special care, dry cleaning  Stains with water  Yellows with age  Weakened by perspiration, sun, soap  Attacked by insects, silverfish All rights are reserved22
  23. 23. Sisal fibers  Sisal is a perennial hardy plant, which unlike the other fibers is not a seasonal crop.  It can establish and easily grow in all states of India covering sub humid to arid and semiarid regions, which cover major parts of India. All rights are reserved23
  24. 24. Pineapple(PINA) Fiber…  Piña is a fiber made from the leaves of a pineapple and is commonly used in the Philippines  It is sometimes combined with silk or polyester to create a textile fabric.  The people there used to extract fibers from pineapple leaves and through hand spinning, made a soft, sheer and a little stiff fabric- the piña fabric. It's regal and exotic! All rights are reserved24
  25. 25. Man Made Fibers
  26. 26. Manufactured Fibers  Manufactured fibers are fibers created by a manufacturing process of any substance that is not a fiber.  Cellulosic- from generated fibrous substance in plants.  Non-cellulosic or synthetic- made from petrochemical products.  Process Raw materials melted or dissolved to form thick syrup Liquid extruded through spinneret Extruded filaments stretched and hardened into fibers All rights are reserved26
  27. 27. Rayon •1st manufactured in 1894 by the American Viscose Company •Used during WW 1 for industrial products •Derived from wood pulp, cotton linters, or vegetable matter •Rayon led to crepe, velvet, and satin fabrics All rights are reserved27
  28. 28. Advantages:  Soft and comfortable  Drapes well  Durable  Highly absorbent  Dyes and prints well  No static or pilling problems  Inexpensive  Colorfast  May be washable Disadvantages:  Wrinkles easily unless treated  Low resiliency  Heat sensitive  Susceptible to mildew  Stretches  Weakens when wet  Fabric shrinks if washed  May need dry cleaning Rayon All rights are reserved28
  29. 29. Acetate Rayon Advantages:  Luxurious appearance  Crisp (texture) soft hand  Wide range of colors; dyes and prints well  Drapes well  Resists shrinkage, moths, and mildew  Low moisture absorbency, relatively fast drying  No pilling, little static Disadvantages:  Requires dry cleaning  Weak  Heat sensitive  Poor abrasion resistance  Dissolved by nail polish remover (acetone) •Developed in early 20th century •Produced in 1924 by the Celanese Corporation •Used to line coats and fabrics All rights are reserved29
  30. 30. Lyocell  Lyocell is the newest of the cellulosic manufactured fibers  Trade name is Tencel® Advantages: Absorbent Biodegradable Strong Resists sunlight, aging, and abrasion Disadvantages Susceptible to mildew Used to Make: Reusable woven materials Fashion fabrics Soft denims shirts All rights are reserved30
  31. 31. Bamboo All rights are reserved  It is a regenerated cellulose fiber.  Bamboo fiber is 100% made from bamboo through a high-tech process.  Fastest growing plant and takes only 3-4 years to reach maturity 31
  32. 32. All rights are reserved Advantage: •High strength, health care •Anti- bacteria •Moisture management and •Soft hand feel •Anti-static •Perfect for Sensitive Skin Disadvantage: •Poor spinability •High cost (30 to 40 % higher than cotton) 32
  33. 33. Corn Fiber  Trade name of this fiber is Ingeo.  Ingeo fiber combines the qualities of natural and synthetic fibers in a new way.  Strength and resilience are balanced with comfort, softness and drape in textiles. In addition, Ingeo fiber has good moisture management characteristics.  This means that Ingeo fiber is ideally suited to fabrics from fashion to furnishings. All rights are reserved33
  34. 34. Advantages of Corn fiber  Good color fast (i.e. does not fade).  Wrinkle free (doesn’t need ironing).  Good Resilient - it doesn’t shrink.  Doesn’t absorb odors.  Has excellent soil release and stain resistance.  Has excellent performance when compared to other fibers.  Is hypoallergenic. Ingeo has never caused an allergic reaction in independent testing.  Has excellent U.V. resistance (better than polyester). All rights are reserved34
  35. 35. Milk Fiber  Milk Yarn is made from milk protein fibers.  To make it, milk is first dewatered, i.e. all the water content is taken out from it and then it is skimmed.  New bio-engineering technique is then applied to make a protein spinning fluid.  This fluid is suitable for wet spinning process through which the final high-grade textile fiber is made. All rights are reserved35
  36. 36. Advantages All rights are reserved • Eco-friendly in nature. • It can be considered as Green Product . • More compatible to human skin. • Milk fiber has sanitarian function. • Comfortable, excellent water transportation & air permeability. • Milk Fiber has the advantages natural Fiber combined with synthetic Fiber. Disadvantages of casein fiber • It gets wrinkles easily after washing and needs to be ironed every time. • It should not be washed in machine and that is because it's not a very hard fiber • It has a low durability • Due to abundance of other fabrics like polyester, milk fabric never really became that popular • It is expensive 36
  37. 37. Synthetic Fiber
  38. 38. Polyester Advantages:  Strong  Crisp, but soft hand  Resists stretching and shrinkage  Washable or dry-cleanable  Quick drying  Resilient, resists wrinkles  Abrasion resistant  Resistant to most chemicals  Colorfast  Strong, durable  Dyes well Disadvantages:  Low absorbency  Static and pilling problems Synthetic fiber developed in the 1950’s by DuPont All rights are reserved38
  39. 39. Nylon Advantages:  Lightweight  Exceptional strength  Abrasion resistant  Easy to wash  Resists shrinkage and wrinkles  Resilient, pleat retentive  Fast drying, low moisture absorbency  Can be pre-colored or dyed in a wide range of colors  Resists damage from oil and many chemicals  Insulating properties Disadvantages:  Static and pilling  Poor resistance to sunlight  Low absorbency  Picks up oils and dyes in wash  Heat sensitive •Invented in 1938 by DuPont •1st synthetic fiber •Made completely from petrochemicals in an experimental laboratory All rights are reserved39
  40. 40. Acrylic Advantages:  Lightweight, soft, warm, wool-like hand  Dyes to bright colors  Machine washable, quick drying  Resilient, retains shape, resists shrinkage and wrinkles  Wool-like, cotton-like, or blended appearance  Excellent pleat retention  Resists moths, oil, chemicals  Disadvantages:  Low absorbency  Develops static  Pilling  Heat sensitive  Weak  Dissolved by nail polish remover (acetone) •Manufactured in the 1950’s by DuPont. •Originally used for blankets and sweaters because it resembled wool. •Fiber composed of linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85% by mass of acrylonitrile repeating units. All rights are reserved40
  41. 41. Spandex  Developed in 1959 by DuPont  Stretches over 500% without breaking Advantages:  Lightweight  Retains original shape  Abrasion Resistant  Stronger than rubber  Soft, smooth, supple  Resists body oils, perspiration, lotions, detergents  No static or pilling Disadvantages:  Whites yellow with age  Heat sensitive  Harmed by chlorine bleach  nonabsorbent All rights are reserved41
  42. 42. Microfibers  Newest trend in fashion  1st developed in 1989 by DuPont  Ultra-fine fiber  Denier is a unit of measurement used to identify the thickness of diameter of a fiber Advantages  Extremely drapeable  Very soft, luxurious hand  Washable or dry cleanable  Shrink-resistant  Strong  Insulates against wind, rain, and cold Disadvantages  Heat sensitive All rights are reserved42
  43. 43. Kevlar & Nomex Advantages  Exceptional strength  Exceptional heat and flame resistance  Resistant to stretch and abrasion Disadvantages  Not absorbent All rights are reserved43
  44. 44. Kevlar Bullet Proof Vests Cut/Heat and Chemical resistant Gloves Nomex Fireman Uniforms Racing Apparel All rights are reserved44
  45. 45. The End All rights are reserved45
  46. 46. All rights are reserved Aravin Prince Periyasamy Asst Prof/ Textile Technology D.K.T.E Society’s Textile Engineering College, Ichalkaranji Dist-Kolhapur, M.S, 415116 aravinprince@gmail.com http://www.aravinprince.blogspot.in 46