Overview of recent technology for energy efficient in lighting in textiles

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Overview of recent technology for energy efficient in lighting in textiles

  1. 1. Overview of Recent TechnologyTrends in Energy-Efficient Lighting N. Narendran, Ph.D. Lighting Research Centre Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12180 – USA April 27-28, 2009
  2. 2. AcknowledgmentsUSAID/SARI/PA ConsultingSLSEALRC faculty, staff, and studentsLRC program and project sponsors © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 2
  3. 3. Electric lighting historyIn 1879, Thomas AlvaEdison demonstratedthe first successful lightbulb.Over the past 125 years,incandescent and gas dischargetechnologies have provided manyshapes and sizes of light sourcesfor a variety of lightingapplications. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 3
  4. 4. Light source technologies Spectral power Incandescent distribution (SPD) 1.2 1.0 Relative Energy 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 350 450 550 650 750 Wavelength(nm) Fluorescent 1.2 1.0 Relative Energy 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 350 450 550 650 750 Wavelength(nm) High Pressure Sodium 6 5 Relative energy 4 3 2 1 0 350 450 550 650 750 Wavelength(nm)my.dteenergy.com/products/images/roadway1.jpg © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 4
  5. 5. Luminous flux and efficacy 1.0 0.8 Relative EnergyLumen and lumens per watt are two key 0.6metrics commonly used in the lighting 0.4industry to quantify performance of light 0.2sources. 0.0 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 Wavelength(nm)Lumen: The luminous flux accounts forthe sensitivity of the eye by weighting theradiant power at each wavelength with Flux (Φ) = 683 ∫S λ Vλ dλ (lm)the human eye response function.Lumens per watt: Luminous efficacy of alight source is the total luminous flux Efficacy = Φ / W (lm/W)emitted by the lamp divided by the totallamp power (electrical) input. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 5
  6. 6. Light source technologiesIncandescent and halogen lightsources range in efficacy from 2to 30 lm/W.Fluorescent light sources range inefficacy from 25 to 105 lm/W.High-intensity light sources rangein efficacy from 25 to 150 lm/W. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 6 6
  7. 7. IncandescentFilament heating produces light Only 5% of the total energy input is converted to light and the rest is heat Very inefficientEfficacy Generally around 15 lm/WColor CRI = 95+ CCT = 2500K – 3000KLife (average rated) 750 – 2000 hours Dimming can extend life © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 7
  8. 8. HalogenA halogen lamp contains an inert gasand a small amount of halogen.Efficacy PAR and MR Lamps (line or low voltage) 10 to 25 lm/W IR PAR Lamps (Infrared reflector) 20 to 30 lm/WColor CRI – 95+ CCT – Typically 3000KLife (average rated) 2000 hours Shortens if consistently dimmed below 80% © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 8
  9. 9. FluorescentA fluorescent lamp is a low-intensity gas-discharge lampthat uses electricity to excite mercury vapor to produceultraviolet (UV) radiation that causes a phosphor tofluoresce and produce light. Linear fluorescent lamps (LFL) and compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) are popular choices for conserving energy. About 20% to 30% of the total energy input is converted to light. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 9 9
  10. 10. Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)Types: Pin-base for dedicated fixtures Screw-base self-ballastedEfficacy: 25 to 60 lm/WColor CRI = 82 typical CCT = 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, 4100K, 5000KLife 6,000 to 10,000 hours Frequent on-off switching can reduce life significantly Dimming is possible but can reduce life © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. Linear fluorescent lamp (LFL)Lamp Efficacy Ranges from 65 to 105 lm/WColor CRI = 82 typical CCT = 2700K to 5000KLife 20,000 to 30,000 hours Frequent on-off switching can reduce life significantly Dimming can reduce life © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. Ballasts for LFLFluorescent lamps require aballast to operate Magnetic Low frequency (60 Hz) operation May produce audible hum May produce noticeable lamp flicker Inefficient lamp operation Electronic High frequency (20 to 60 kHz) operation Quiet No noticeable lamp flicker More efficient lamp operation © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 12
  13. 13. High intensity discharge (HID)Metal halide lamps produce light bypassing an electric arc through a mixtureof gases, which causes a metallic vapor toproduce radiant energy. It contains a high-pressure mixture of argon, mercury, and a variety of metal halides in a compact arc tube. About 24% of the total energy input is converted to light.Three types of HID lamps: www.holophane.com Mercury vapor lamp Metal halide lamps High-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 13
  14. 14. Ballasts for HIDMetal halide lamps require ballasts toregulate the arc current flow anddeliver the proper voltage to the arc. Probe-start metal halide: Contains a starting electrode within the lamp to initiate the arc when the lamp is first lit. Pulse-start metal halide: No starting electrode but has a special starting circuit to generate a high-voltage pulse to the operating electrodes. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 14
  15. 15. Lighting controlsManual controls Wall switch: on or off DimmersAutomatic controls Time clocks Occupancy sensors Infrared Ultrasonic Dual technology Panel relays Centralized controls © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 15
  16. 16. Efficacy and energy savingsEnergy use depends on the connected load andtime of use Watt-hoursMYTH: High efficacy light sources always savemore energy than low efficacy light sources. Spatial – light not reaching the application area is wasted light (energy) Temporal – light beyond the required time is wasted light (energy) © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 16
  17. 17. Energy Conservation © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 17
  18. 18. Different forms of luminous efficacyLight source (lamp) efficacy: Total lumensout of the light source divided by the totalinput power to the light sourceLight source + ballast efficacy: Totallumens out of the light source divided by thetotal input power to the ballastLuminaire efficacy: Total lumens exitingthe luminaire divided by the total inputpower © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 18
  19. 19. Luminaire efficacyIn this example, the total luminaire efficiency is 33%to 54%.A 60 lm/W CFL would yield: 19 to 32 lm/W final system efficacy in these luminaires IR Halogen PAR lamp would be a better choice than combinations A to J 2 4 W C F L F ix tu re 100% Flux exiting the fixture 80% 60% 40% CFL 20% 0% A B C D E F G H I J K L © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 19
  20. 20. Application efficacyLighting Objective – Illuminating the picture on the wall Application lumens: Total lumens reaching a picture area Wasted lumens: Lumens beyond the area of the picture Wasted lumens Application lumens © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 20
  21. 21. Application efficacyIn this example, compared to sample 1, sample 3 isdesigned better to direct the exiting lumens to the areawhere it is needed. 60 50 Efficacy (lm/W) 40 -12% 30 +32% 20 10 0 Halogen F8T5 F8T5 LED LED sample 1 sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Application Efficacy (lm/W) (Fixture + Driver) Efficacy (lm/W) © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 21
  22. 22. Application efficacyNot switching off the light at the right time wastes energy. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 22
  23. 23. Environmental considerationsMercury An essential component of many energy-efficient light bulbs. Throwing these lamps into the garbage, which ultimately end up in landfills, can pollute the environment. – http://www.epa.gov/mercury/about.htm www.ci.st-joseph.mo.us/publicworks/CFL_Ad.jpgHealth Effects Mercury exposure at high levels can harm the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs, and immune system of people of all ages. – http://www.epa.gov/mercury/about.htmLamp Disposal Programs that promote energy-efficient technologies must also consider proper disposal programs. http://blog.lib.umn.edu/scha1028/architecture/htdocs/blog/scha1028/architecture/Lo-Landfill.jpg © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 23 23
  24. 24. Selecting Technologies for Energy-efficient Lighting Application © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 24
  25. 25. Lamps for residential applicationsToday, linear and compactfluorescent lamps can be used inhouses to conserve energy andreduce nighttime power demand. A variety of CCTs available for the different applications © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 25 25
  26. 26. Lamps for residential applications LFLs CFLs LFLs CFLsLFLs CFLs © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 26 26
  27. 27. Lamps for commercial applicationsLFL and CFL can be used in offices,shops, and hotels to conserve energyand reduce power demand. Cool-white and warm-white options Can use controls (occupancy and daylight) to save additional energy Dimming is an option, however it could shorten life © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 27 27
  28. 28. Lamps for commercial applicationsIncandescent / halogen PAR and MRlamps are the most commonly usedlamps in shops and hotels GE LightingCFL and ceramic metal halide (MH)reflector lamps are beginning to servethese applications to reduce energy,especially in accent lighting Philips Lightingapplications.However, dimming CFL and MH couldbe difficult GE Lighting GE Lighting © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 28 28
  29. 29. Lamps for industrial applicationsLinear and high-wattage compactfluorescent lamps, and HID lamps can beused in industrial lighting applications. High efficacy 70-95 lm/W Color rendering index >80 Can use controls (occupancy and daylight) to save additional energy © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 29 29
  30. 30. Lamps for roadway applicationsHPS, HID, CFL, and LFL lamps can beused in roadway applications to saveenergy and reduce power demand.During nighttime conditions we are www.westberks.gov.ukmore sensitive to light of a higher colortemperature. Mesopic vision www.osram- os.com/.../_img/CEC_Street_Lamp.jSeveral studies have demonstrated the pgbenefits of mesopic street lighting Observers’ perceptions of visibility, HPS CFL, LFL, MH, or LED safety, brightness and color 2100 K >4000 K rendering are more positive with mesopically tuned lighting. A 30% reduction in power is possible while maintaining visual performance. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 30 30
  31. 31. Emerging Technology © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 31
  32. 32. Rapidly emerging light sourcesNow, solid-state light (SSL) sources—LEDs andOLEDs—are evolving to displace some of thetraditional light sources in some applications. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) LumiLeds OSRAM Opto Cree Light-Emitting Polymer (LEP)Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Universal-display Universal- © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 32
  33. 33. What is an LED?Semiconductor p-n junction Light Junction P-type (depletion region) n-type + + + + - - - - + + - Holes + + +- - Electrons + + Light + + - - + - - - - Electrons LumiLeds OSRAM © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 33
  34. 34. Colored LEDs All colors within the visible range. However, efficiency is not equal at all wavelengths.1.00.80.60.40.20.0 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 Wavelength (nm) 450 530 590 650 nm nm nm nm © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 34
  35. 35. Creating white light with LEDsMixing different colored LEDs (red, green, and blue)in the right proportions produces white light. RGB – LED Systems © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 35
  36. 36. Creating white light with LEDsCombining blue or UV LEDs with phosphors produces whitelight. Phosphor-converted White (PC-white) www.olympusmicro.com/primer/java/leds/basicoperation/ ledmuseum.candlepower.us/ninth/tf6led1.gif www.emsd.gov.hk/emsd/images/pee/image1.jpg © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 36
  37. 37. Projected efficacySSL sources hold the promise to reduce electricenergy use by 50% 250 200 Efficacy (lm/W) Projected for SSL 150 100 Fluorescent 50 Incandescent 0 1990 2000 2010 2020 Year © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 37
  38. 38. National programs around the worldIn 1998, Japan initiated the first national program to catalyze SSLtechnology. The Japan Research and Development Center of Metals established the five-year national project "Light for the 21st Century".In early 2000, USA initiated a national program in SSL. Congressional Appropriation for SSL Portfolio, 2003-2009 US DOE Program Mission: Guided by a Government-industry partnership, the mission is to create a new, U.S.-led market for high-efficiency, general illumination products through the advancement of semiconductor technologies, to save energy, reduce costs and enhance the quality of the lighted environment.In mid 2000, China started their national program in SSL. $350M RMB($70M USD) was invested from the Ministry of Science and Technology to support the development of solid-state lighting. The five-year program is lead by Ms. Wu Ling.Several other countries have initiated national SSL programs to catalyzeenergy efficiency in lighting. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 38 38
  39. 39. Commercial white LEDs Cool White Warm White 100 100 XRE (Q5) 90 90 Z-Power P4 80 80 Rebel Rigel 70 Z-Power P7 70 XRE (P3)Luminous efficacy (lm/W) Luminous efficacy (lm/W) Golden DRAGON 60 Acriche 60 Rigel Moonstone Z-Power P4 Vio Vio 50 Ostar 50 Diamond Luxeon K2 Rebel Acriche DRAGON Golden 40 Titan 40 DRAGON Luxeon I Moonstone Platinum Platinum DRAGON Ostar 30 DRAGON 30 Luxeon K2 Ostar Luxeon I Titan 20 20 Luxeon K2 Luxeon III 10 10 0 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Luminous flux (lm) Luminous flux (lm) © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 39
  40. 40. LED applicationsMid-2000Early 2000 to mid-2000 www.lumileds.com/gallery/ www.ledeffects.com/Late 1990s to early 2000 © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 40
  41. 41. Festival lightingPower demand increasesduring festivals wherelights are used Colored lights LEDs can reduce load and save energy © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 41
  42. 42. Present trends Outdoor Street and Area Lighting LED streetlights to take over downtown Ann Arbor 17 Oct. 2007 – Ann Arbor plans to become the first U.S. city to convert 100 percent of its downtown streetlights to LED technology, with the installationwww.treehugger.com/files/2008/0 of more than 1,000 LED fixtures.7/led-streetlights-anchorage-alaska-16000.php OSRAM Opto Semiconductors today announced that its Golden DRAGON LEDs are lighting up a major thoroughfare of Jing Jiang City in the Jiangsu province of China. The 180W prototype LED streetlights were installed by Jiangsu Hua Jing Photoelectronics for replacing traditional 250W HID lamps. http://ecoworldly.com/2008/10/17/intelligent-flowery- street-lights-that-smell-humans-unveiled/ GE Lumination’s outdoor LED area light According to the article, it saves up to 60 percent energy, longer life, and significantly improved light-level uniformity compared with traditional HID lamp sources and optical systems, such as a standard 400- www.ledjournal.com/.../june/ GE_outdoor%20LED.jpg watt quartz metal halide system © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 42
  43. 43. Present trendsReplacement Lamps & Light Engines Philips-Master LED BulbFigures from: Progress Lighting Figures from Prescolite © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 43
  44. 44. Present trends Downlighting Lightoliers ColorWash Sharp Corporation will introduce into the Japanese market six new LED Downlight Lightings, including three that deliver a light intensity equivalent to a 150-watt incandescent lamp, an industry first for downlight models.© 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 44
  45. 45. General illuminationFrom the Press: Over 4,200 recessed LED lights to be installed in the Pentagon. Recessed LED lights to save over 22 percent energy compared with fluorescent lights, and save 140 tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year. Cree LR24 Before: A Pentagon room before Crees LED lights were installed. After: The same room at the Pentagon after Crees LED lights were installed (Credit: Cree) (Credit: Cree) © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 45
  46. 46. Lighting rural homes Kerosene lamps are the predominant source for lighting in many rural homes Expensive Hazardous Poor quality lighting rolexawards.com/.../02_RAE98WG019.jpg www.wordjourney.com/images/kerosene-lamp.jpg www.designthatmatters.org/k2/pictures/IMG_N29 Affordable battery powered LED, LFL, or CFL lamps can be effective in providing lighting solutions to rural homesDavid Irvine-Halliday, founder of the Light Up The World Foundation (Calgary, Alberta, Canada) © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 46
  47. 47. Lighting transformation LEDs are providing new life to old systems www.backcountry.com/store/CMN0105/C oleman-8D-... www.stuga-cabana.com/petromax.gif www.wordjourney.com/images/kerosene-lamp.jpg www.allproducts.com/.../torches/product5-s.jpgwww.giftsscentfromheaven.com.au/s hop/images/l... www.shoppingmallsonline.org/uploads/ images/be © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 47
  48. 48. LED lighting systems performance (2009) At best, LEDs have 60% 250 system efficiency. Performance (lm/W) 200 White LED Even though the best LEDs can have 100 lm/W, R&D Results lighting systems will be at 150 60 lm/W. 100 Linear Fluorescent Systems Majority of commercial 50 CFL Systems LED products have LED Systems Incand. Systems efficacies in the range of 10 0 to 30 lm/W. 2000 2004 2008 2012 Year www.hrg-ledlighting.com/ProductPicture-china/... deals2give.com/.../uploads/2007/07/ www.global-b2b- p13112a.jpgwww.blogcdn.com/.../2007/02/led-light-bulb.jpg network.com/.../LED_Light.jpg © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 48
  49. 49. LED life Reliability is still a concern High Power LEDs 100% Buyer beware…Relative light output 90% 80% 70% 100% 60% 50% LRC Data 2004 Light Output 100 1000 Hours 10000 100000 90% White Red Blue Green Increasing heat 80% 70% 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 Hours © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 49
  50. 50. Over-promised products TaipeiLong life is not a guarantee. System integration greatly determines the life of the product. © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 50
  51. 51. LED system life Fixture B - 26W LED Downlight 110% 100% Both systems were rated atRelative Light Output 90% 40,000 hrs, life 80% 70% Fixture C - 12W LED Downlight 110% 60% 100% Relative Light Output 50% 100 1,000 10,000 90% Time (hours) 80% Enclosed Semi-ventilated Open air 70% 60% 50% 100 1,000 10,000 Time (hours) Enclosed Semi-ventilated Open air © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 51
  52. 52. Final thoughtsSelecting a product for an applicationcan be challenging. Performance varies significantlyLook for independent laboratory testreports. http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/NLPIP/about.aspwww.ci.berkeley.ca.us/.../lightbulbs2.jpg www.nesllc.com/images/Compact-Array.gif © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 52
  53. 53. Final thoughtsIt is not about the technology……. it is about the productand the application. Within the same technology the product performance varies significantly Same product in different applications performs differently © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 53
  54. 54. Thank you 7W 12W 40W LED CFLIncandescent Technology on the move © 2009 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. All rights reserved. 54

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