Newer textile fibers & their applications


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Newer textile fibers & their applications

  1. 1. 04-03-2012 Abstract….  As a famous Scandinavian economist said, “It is very dangerous to make predictions, particularly about the future!”  It is in this sprit that the predictions are made.  New science can produce products beyond our present perceptions. Such innovations are discussed in this paper, citing those are Bio-Degradable and High Performance Fiber & High Functional Fiber .  Now research and development make fibers were used Aravin Prince Periyasamy in high tech applications namely, Medical Textiles, Dept of Textiles, DKTE TEI, Ichalkaranji, MH, India Industrial Textiles, In Defense Textiles, Advance Composites, Power Saving And Etc. 1 2Introduction  From the year 1985 onwards textile research was switched over in the direction of developing new fibers especially Hi-Performance fiber and bio degradable to meet the challenges. High Performance Fiber &  With the invent of Hi- Performance fiber and bio degradable fibers the spectrum of application of fibers High Functional Fiber and textile materials were substantially widened.  High-Technology namely new fibers and can be split into two categories viz. - High Performance Fiber & High Functional Fiber and - Bio- Degradable Fibers 3 4 1
  2. 2. 04-03-2012Ceramic Fibers Melamine  Ceramic fibers are mostly used as refractory fibers in uses over 1000°C .  A manufactured fiber in which the fiber- forming substance is a synthetic polymer composed of at least 50% by weight of a cross-linked melamine  ceramic fibers are mostly used for thermal polymer. insulation at high temperatures and to make  Fiber is primarily known for its inherent special composites. thermal resistance and outstanding heat blocking capability in direct flame applications.  They are very expensive fibers because only a  It is used to designed for direct flame small quantity is produced, and they are used in contact and elevated temperature exposures. particular fields such as aerospace Materials used are boron, silica, carbide, alumina, and zirconia 5 6Super Absorbent Fiber Bicomponent Fiber  In last few years, super absorbents in fiber from have become a  Recently designed a commercial reality. bicomponent spin pack Bi- Bi-component fiber  Most recently the potential to benefit from their outstanding Component Fiber that structure resulted in spinning a very properties in a wide range of medical products have been unusual fiber. recognized. The product is marketed as „OASIS‟.  This is due to the small diameter of the fibers, which is about 30  This fiber is a type of island- microns, which gives a very high surface area for contact with in-the-sea. the liquid.  The above features that may be required for use in medical  This type of fiber should be product can be build up into nonwoven containing super ideal for filtration absorbent fibers applications both in woven and nonwoven construction. 7 8 2
  3. 3. 04-03-2012Nano Fibers Spectra Fiber 1000: - High-strength, Lightweight Polyethylene Fiber  Spectra® fiber is, pound- Electro spinning: nano for-pound, 10 times Tensile strength of spectra fiber production technique stronger than steel, that is fiber  When referring to fibers, 40 percent greater than “Nano” refers to the aramid fiber. diameter of the fiber .  Electro spinning is  It is used in Police and common way to produce nano fibers. military ballistic vests and helmets, armor for vehicles and aircraft, Marine lines. 9 10Louts Like Fabrics Super Micro Fibers Butterfly Like Fabrics  Lotus leaves are water repellent and hence,  Change in color according to the natural water rolls off like mercury. environment is exhibited by many kinds of insects.  This is because the contact angle of water is large and the leaves are covered by wax like  In case of morpho structure fibers which copy substance. insect, highly twisted fibers of flat cross section with 80-120 TPI obtained by thermal processing.  These water repellent fibers are used in the production of outdoor sports wear general clothing industrial fabrics tents etc. 11 12 3
  4. 4. 04-03-2012Super Polyethylene Fiber Micro Fiber  Micro denotes man – made fibers which are finer DSM (Netherlands) developed very high tenacity high than any conventional fiber First used in functional modulus polyethylene fiber even higher than Kevlar sportswear. with the help of gel spinning technique.  Micro fibers are usually made of polyester, The method involves both spinning and drawing in polyamide or acrylic – with liters in the range of 0.5 which is a dilute solutions of high molecular weight to 1.2 dtex (1dtex, meaning that one gram of fiber is is extruded into water to form a gel like soft fiber. 10,000 meters long). Which is then heated and drawn out about 30 times  Microfibers clothing is not sensitive retaining its in original length. positive qualities after washing our cleaning. 13 14Power Fibers Perfumed Fibers Heat – regenerating fibers are produced form ceramic composites by applying heat insulation processing technology which utilizes the far intra – red radiations  The perfumed fiber Esprit De Fleurs produced by effect of ceramics when heated, ceramics radiation far kanebo was First exhibited in 1987. infra – red radiation which penetrates into the material and heats it homogeneously by activating molecular  It is made up of fibers to which resin – made motion zirconium, magnesium oxide or iron oxide can microcapsules of 5-10m in diameter containing be blended into synthetic fibers because these perfume essence are bound when the materials radiate Ca 60 MW far infracted of microcapsules are pressed and broken, the perfume wavelengths 8-14 m at a body. is released. . The insulating efficiency plays vital role to suppress  The Esprit de fibers can be used in scarves, T- the consumption of oxygen stored in muscles. shirts, handkerchiefs, hand knitting wools, stocking 15 etc. 16 4
  5. 5. 04-03-2012Mirror Fibers  It is high performance mirror in the shape of hair like flexible fiber.  Its applications may include fabrics with Bio- Degradable Fibers embedded „bar codes‟ that identify the wearer potentially useful into battle suits.  These fibers could also be used as filters for Telecommunications applications. 17 18Alginate Fibers Collagen Fibers  Collagen is a protein fiber obtained from bovine Alginate in one form or another is used in the skin. It consists of there polypeptide chains food industry, pharmaceuticals and textiles. arranged in triple chain helix. Alginate name come from „algin‟.  These triple- chain helixes Assembles in to micro fibrils and then fibrils. The unique properties of alginate and its  Collagen has an excellent biocompatibility which derivatives have found applications where makes it a popular choice as a major component of thickening, suspending, emulsifying, and artificial issue and would dressing. stabilizing and gel formation is required.  Collagen products such as sutures can readily be accepted by body because of their low immunogenicity 19 20 5
  6. 6. 04-03-2012Bacterial Cellulose Poly Lactic Acid (PLA)• Bacteria produce cellulose called bio- cellulose or bacterial cellulose. Plant cellulose and bacterial cellulose have the same chemical structure, but different chemical and physical properties.  PLA minimizes environmental waste, as it may be fully biodegraded by microorganisms under This bacterial strain produces a gel like material appropriate conditions into carbon dioxide and containing fine cellulose fiber, which is too thin. water. It is used as an artificial blood vessel for  Biodegradable synthetic fibers and natural microsurgery. Also used to make artificial leather , biological fiber may be used to make textiles for skin substitute and wound healing bandages medical application. 21 22Bacterial Polyester Synthetic Silk More than 100 bacterial species are known to be polyester producing,  Now silkworms can be produce finer and which includes alcaligences species Bacterial polyesters longer silk than nylon using biotechnology. poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs), with poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB).  The national institute of sericulture and Advantages include production from fully renewable resources, entomological science Japan has succeeded rather fast and complete biodegradability, biocompatibility, and excellent strength and stiffness, which favor this material as a in breeding a new type of silkworms that can polymer of the future, bacillus species, photosynthetic bacteria and produce a fine homogeneous silk filament of blue green algae. about 1500 meters in length Poly (hydroxybutyrate) fibers were considered to be mainly used for  It is used for medical applications, such as production of scaffolds, surgical sutures, repair the bone fracture and etc sutures & etc. 23 24 6
  7. 7. 04-03-2012Chitosan Fibers Spider Silk  As the fluid oozes out, the protein molecules are aligned in such a way spider silk may form.  Chitosan is a natural biopolymer that is  The spider hauls out the silk with its legs, stretching, derived from chitin. fluffing it up or changing it in other ways to suit the purpose at hand.  Properties are useful for wound treatment and  Spider silk is up to 5 times stronger than steel of the same diameter. it also used as excellent material for healing wounds.  Spider silk is so elastic that it doesnt break even if stretched 2-4 times its length. Spider silk is also waterproof, and doesnt break at temperatures as low 25 as -40C. 26Spider Silk Conclusion The high-tech fibers can be specific properties to make them useful as industrial materials. Application of these fibers in high technology area, including the aero/space industry, the transportation industry , the marine industry ,the civil engineering and construction industry and the sports industry ,medical textiles. Now days, almost in all the fields‟ fibers are used. Fibers can replace even metals, so enormous developments are done in fiber field. The bio- fibers are environmental friendly fibers so it has been more demand in future.! 27 28 7
  8. 8. 04-03-2012 “ Dreams Make Thoughts Thoughts Make Things Things Make Wonder ” 29 30 References1. High performance fibers, J.W.S.Hearle, Woodhead publishing company2. High performance fibers and its applications- Aravin prince- Textile Magazine Nov 083. New Millennium fibers, Tatsuya Hongu et al, 1st edition, Woodhead publishing company,Cambridge,20054. Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology, Prof.T.Nakajimn, Woodhead publishing company,Cambridge,19945. Carbon fibers, Jean – Baptiste Donnet et al 3rd edition, Marcel Dekker Inc., Newyork,19986. High performance synthetic fibers for composites, National Research Council,National academy press, Washington, 19927. Developments in fiber science –V.K. Kothari IAFL publications8. New fibers – Philips and Hongu- woodhead publishing ltd9. Millennium of new fibers – Philips and Hongu- woodhead publishing ltd10.High technology fibers for technical textiles- S.K. Mukhopadhyay11.New fibers, Tatsuya Hongu, Glyn.O.Philips.” (1997)12.Synthetic metals,( R.V.Gregory , W.C.Kimbrell, H.H.Kuhn,1989)13.Handbook of technical textiles, Horrocks, Ananad,”- woodhead publishing ltd14.Nano fibers by S.S. Ramkumar et al. Indian journal of Fiber & Textile research, Vol 31, March 2006 31 8