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Colgate brand image

  1. 1. “A great brand is a story that’snever completely told” -Scott Bedbury
  2. 2. Brand Tracker Phase I – Brand Image Measurement A report submitted to Prof. Srinivas Govindrajan In partial fulfilment of the requirement of the course Product and Brand Management On 29th July 2012 By Abinas Mishra (B11002) Anubhuti Anup (B11008) Piyush Das (B11031) Sumedha Dutta (B110047)2|Page
  3. 3. Executive Summary Colgate-Palmolive is a New York based company established in the year 1806 by William Colgate. It is best known for its oral care products. It was ranked No. 155 in the list of Fortune 500 companies in the year 2012, with revenue of US$ 16.73 billion. Colgate enjoys global market leadership in the oral care segments. Colgate started as a starch, soap and candle business, it diversified itself into consumer goods category after it was taken over by Palmolive. In the first phase of the “Brand Tracker” project we have attempted to determine the current status of the brand and the brand identity in the minds of the consumers. A variant of the famous Brand Asset Valuator (BAV) was used to identify the current status of the brand while the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) was used to determine the brand identity. The BAV model measures the value of the brand along 4 dimensions namely Differentiation, Relevance, Esteem and Knowledge. Differentiation and Relevance together comprise the brand strength while Esteem and Knowledge build up the Brand Stature. For BAV, a simple random sample of 31 was surveyed using a questionnaire. COLGATE has the highest percentile score (100) along 2 pillars namely relevance and esteem while it has 80 percentile in Differentiation and Esteem second only to Dabur and Pepsodent respectively. On the BAV power grid COLGATE lies on the leadership category which shows that it has a high earnings and high growth potential. The only cause for concern, if any is the comparatively low differentiation score which shows that there is a problem in Colgate’s Serving as it is replicated by its competitors also. The ZMET technique was used as the qualitative research tool to gauge the brand identity of COLGATE. A sample of 6 respondents was chosen to execute this process. The technique is based on the fact that most human communication is nonverbal, much of which is visual. The ZMET interview employs several steps to surface and further define consumers key thoughts and feelings. Each step in ZMET provides a different opportunity for identifying and understanding metaphors, thereby gaining a deeper understanding about the consumers. The ZMET technique identified Colgate as a brand that promises satisfaction, confidence, love and care and gives value for money. And a highly trusted brand which is considered as a part of a family.3|Page
  4. 4. Table of Contents Executive Summary……....................................................................................... 3 Brief history of the brand................................................................................5-7 Quantitative research model – BAV………………………....................... ....9-20 Qualitative research model – ZMET………………………………………… 22-26 References...............................................................................................................274|Page
  5. 5. A Brief History of Colgate: The Founder: William Colgate was born in Hollingbourne, Kent, England, on 25 January 1783. He was the son of an 18th century English farmer, politician and sympathizer with the American war of Independence and French Revolution, whose Republican ideals impelled him to leave their farm in Shoreham, Kent in March 1798 and emigrate to Baltimore, Maryland, in the United States of America .Colgate formed a partnership with Ralph Maher to manufacture soap and candles, and William helped the two men, but the partnership dissolved after two years. William Colgate came to New York City in 1804. He there obtained employment as an apprentice to a soap-boiler, and learned the business. Colgate: From Soap & Candle manufacturer to Leader in Oral care In 1806, William Colgate, opened up a starch, soap and candle factory on Dutch Street in New York under the name of "William Colgate & Company". In the 1840s, the firm began selling individual cakes of soap in uniform weights and by 1873 they introduced toothpaste in jars. Today, Colgate is a leading brand in oral care sector with products selling across 200 countries and contributing a major proportion to the $17 billion revenue of Colgate-Palmolive. 1806: Colgate on Dutch Street5|Page
  6. 6. Type: Public Company Traded as: NYSE Industry: Personal Care Founded: 1806 Headquarters: New York, USA Revenue: US$16.73 Billion Products: Soaps, Detergent and Oral hygiene Employees: 39200 (2011) BRAND COLGATE Colgate is one of India’s most admired and trusted brands. The brand has a permanent place in Brand Equity’s Most Trusted Brands ‘Hall Of Fame’, for consistently appearing in the top ten ranks. Over a hundred years ago toothpaste did not in squeezable plastic tubes but was available in glass jars. In India, oral hygiene meant munching on a piece of bark or root and a quick gargle afterwards. Today, Indian consumers have multiple brand and flavours and product features to suit every dental need. Colgate has led emphasis on basic oral care awareness in rural and urban India to build a bond with the consumer and the dental professionals. This has helped Colgate to shape the oral care category in India, taking it beyond cavities and expanding it with a product portfolio that now addresses a wide array of consumer oral health needs. Furthermore, constant innovation in products and communication has been at the heart of their growth strategy.It has followed a multi pronged communication strategy. Some of the significant mass media initiatives were the last year 1947 reprint of the times of India on Independence day advertising Colgate sensitive pro-relief and a limited edition night newspaper in Andhra Pradesh to spread awareness about night brushing. It has also active social media presence for Colgate MaxFresh and for Colgate Active Salt it ventured into the routine and daily lives of consumers with an ‘interruptive format’ marketing campaign. The Colgate ‘ask the dentist’ campaign was used for the Colgate Dental Cream to make the brand relevant and top-of-mind for consumers.6|Page
  7. 7. EVOLUTION (TIMELINE) 1806: William Colgate starts a starch, soap and candle business on Dutch Street in New York City. 1873: Colgate introduces toothpaste in jars. 1896: Colgate introduces toothpaste in a collapsible tube. 1947: Ajax cleanser is launched, for cleaning products. 1953: Colgate-Palmolive Company becomes companys official name. 1968: Colgate toothpaste adds MFP Fluoride, clinically proven to reduce cavities. 1983: Colgate Plus toothbrush is introduced. Today over 1.6 billion Colgate toothbrushes are sold annually worldwide 1987: Colgate acquires Soft soap liquid soap business from the Minnetonka Corporation. Today, Colgate is the global leader in liquid hand soap. 1995: Colgate enters Central Europe and Russia, expanding into fast-growing markets. Colgate acquires Kolynos Oral Care business in Latin America and launches market-leading Sorriso toothpaste. 2004: Colgate acquires the GABA oral care business in Europe, with its strength in the important European pharmacy channel and its ties with the dental community. 2006: Colgate enters the fast-growing Naturals segment by purchasing Tom’s of Maine, a leader in that market in the United States. Today … Today, with sales surpassing $15 billion, Colgate focuses on four core businesses: Oral Care, Personal Care, Home Care and Pet Nutrition. Colgate now sells its products in over 200 countries and territories worldwide.7|Page
  8. 8. Qualitative Research Model Brand Asset Valuator Model
  9. 9. Brand Asset Valuator (BAV) Brand Asset Valuator is Y & R is a proprietary research evaluating components of brand equity across categories and countries. The Brand Asset Valuator brings together years of thorough international scientific research into the biggest brand database existing today. With this knowledge, a brand will gain a competitive advantage by analysing and moving forward in an efficient and well-grounded manner. Research administered on more than 38,000 brands after questioning more than 500,000 consumers from 49 countries. It involves continuous validation and analyses customised to a brand. The analysis provides-  Brand Image Power  Brand Diagnostics via the four pillars  Brand image Comparison  Measurement of Current Strength & Future Potential BAV measures the value of a brand across four key pillars: Differentiation, Relevance, Esteem and Knowledge.  Differentiation measures how distinctive a particular brand is.  Relevance measures how personally appropriate a particular brand is.  Esteem measures how highly regarded a brand is.  Knowledge measures how well know a brand is. Indicates Report Card brands future of past value performance9|Page
  10. 10. Research Methodology The BAV model was used to measure the current status of the brand vis-à-vis its competitors. As questions of BAV are not available, hence an independent questionnaire was designed to gauge the consumer’s perception across the 4 pillars on which BAV is based. Weightage of 100% was assigned to each pillar of the BAV model  This weightage was split amongst the questions related to them.  Weights were assigned to these questions on the basis of how direct and how comprehensive was the information that could be derived from the question. Research Design: A descriptive research was conducted. Research Instrument: Questionnaire Sampling Unit : Users of Toothpaste Sample size :31 Calculation :  The calculation was done by adding the number of responses and multiplying them to the weightage of the question that was allocated to a particular attribute or a brand.  The process was followed to arrive at a score for each brand. All the scores from the questions pertaining to a specific pillar for a particular brand was added to get the final score.  Percentile was assigned on the basis of the final score received by each of the brands10 | P a g e
  11. 11.  In question number Q.4, Z-test was done to find out whether the sample was representative of the entire population or not. After that ANOVA was executed to figure out which brand was the leader across all attributes being tested.  In question number Q.9, Z-test was done to find out whether the sample was representative of the entire population or not. Questionnaire 1. Which brands come to your mind when you think of toothpaste? (Brand Knowledge- 30%) 2. Identify the tooth paste brand from the audio clip played. (Brand Knowledge- 30%) 3. When it comes to toothpaste, which one of these will you recommend? (Brand Esteem- 50%) a. Pepsodent b. Close up c. Colgate d. Anchor e. Dabur 4. a. The understated brand is a trustworthy brand (Brand Esteem- 25%) Strongly Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Agree Agree nor Disagree Disagree Pepsodent Close up Colgate Anchor Dabur b. The quality of the understated brand is the best (Brand Esteem- 25%) Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree nor Disagree Disagree Pepsodent Close up Colgate Anchor Dabur11 | P a g e
  12. 12. 5. Among the following, which criteria would you choose while buying toothpaste? To be cross tabulated with question no.6 (Brand Relevance) a. Healthy tooth & gums b. Long lasting freshness c. Prevention of tooth decay d. Whiteness e. Use of natural herb f. Variety 6. (Brand Relevance) A. If you consider Pepsodent as a brand, rate the following attributes from 5 to 1 on the basis of the brand fulfilling the criteria (5 being the highest & 1 being the lowest) a. Healthy tooth & gums b. Long lasting freshness c. Prevention of tooth decay d. Whiteness e. Use of natural herb f. Variety B. If you consider Close up as a brand, rate the following attributes from 5 to 1 on the basis of the brand fulfilling the criteria (5 being the highest & 1 being the lowest) a. Healthy tooth & gums b. Long lasting freshness c. Prevention of tooth decay d. Whiteness e. Use of natural herb f. Variety C. If you consider Colgate as a brand, rate the following attributes from 5 to 1 on the basis of the brand fulfilling the criteria (5 being the highest & 1 being the lowest) a. Healthy tooth & gums b. Long lasting freshness c. Prevention of tooth decay d. Whiteness e. Use of natural herb f. Variety12 | P a g e
  13. 13. D. If you consider Anchor as a brand, rate the following attributes from 5 to 1 on the basis of the brand fulfilling the criteria (5 being the highest & 1 being the lowest) a. Healthy tooth & gums b. Long lasting freshness c. Prevention of tooth decay d. Whiteness e. Use of natural herb f. Variety E. If you consider Dabur as a brand, rate the following attributes from 5 to 1 on the basis of the brand fulfilling the criteria (5 being the highest & 1 being the lowest) a. Healthy tooth & gums b. Long lasting freshness c. Prevention of tooth decay d. Whiteness e. Use of natural herb f. Variety 7. The understated brand is a Unique brand (Brand Differentiation- 40%) Strongly Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Agree Agree nor Disagree Disagree Pepsodent Close up Colgate Anchor Dabur13 | P a g e
  14. 14. 8. Identify the following brands (Brand Knowledge- 40%) 9. Which of these photos, you can relate with (Brand Differentiation- 40%) a. Pepsodent b. Close up c. Colgate d. Anchor e. Dabur14 | P a g e
  15. 15. Result and Analysis of BAV (The details of analysis and the calculations are in excel sheet attached) The percentile score of all the individual brands across differentiation, relevance, esteem and knowledge was calculated and then converted into graphs. Then the graphs were compared with the graph given below to find out in which category( new, unrealized potential/niche, leadership, declining, eroded and unfocused) do these brands lie. The brands that were analyzed were  Colgate  Pepsodent  Close up COMPETITORS  Anchor  Dabur15 | P a g e
  16. 16. As we can see from the graph that the score of Anchor is low across all 4 parameters. Thus it is an Unfocused brand. As we can see from the graph, that Close up is low on relevance but has scored average in terms of knowledge, esteem and differentiation. Thus we can conclude that Close up is a Declining brand.16 | P a g e
  17. 17. Pepsodent scored high in Brand Stature but a comparative low in Brand Strength.Thus pepsodent can be termed as a Declining brand. (Declining from market leader) As we can see from the graph, that Dabur is low on Brand Stature but has scored high in Brand Strength. Respondents perceive it to be a highly differentiated brand. In the power grid Dabur comes in the Unrealized Potential category.17 | P a g e
  18. 18. From the data collated we find that Colgate scores high across the 4 dimensions of BAV, Colgate is considered a high earnings and high potential brand i.e. it falls in the Leadership category.18 | P a g e
  19. 19. Brand Asset Valuator Power Grid Colgate on BAV Model: From the analysis it was found that Colgate is the market leader. Analysis of 4 pillars of BAV (individually) is given below: Brand Knowledge- In terms of brand knowledge, Colgate has a percentile score of 80. Here it follows pepsodent whose percentile score is 100. Hence Colgate is a well known brand in this category. Brand Esteem- Colgate has scored 100 percentile in terms of esteem. Thus it can be concluded that, Colgate is a highly regarded and respected brand. Brand Relevance- Colgate has a 100 percentile in relevance. This leads us to realisation that the need identification process of Colgate is excellent which leads to conclusion that the most important building block for a brand is in place Colgate.19 | P a g e
  20. 20. Brand Differentiation- Colgate has scored 80 percentile and is following Dabur which has scored 100%. Colgate has been able to differentiate itself from others. High Relevance, Low Differentiation- From the quantitative analysis, it is found that Colgate has scored highest in relevance but a comparative low in differentiation. The conclusion that can be drawn from here is “ need identification is done well by Colgate but competitors are serving similar”20 | P a g e
  21. 21. Qualitative Research ModelZaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique
  22. 22. ZMET (Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique) ZMET (Zaltman, 1997; Zaltman & Coulter, 1995) is a method developed in the early 1990s to understand customers by eliciting metaphors that reveal important aspects of their underlying mental model. By incorporating laddering techniques into ZMET interviews, ZMET is capable of building the connections found in a traditional laddering study. By using the strength of metaphor elicitation, ZMET goes further to describe, in the voice of the respondent, the meaning of the concepts and ideas in the mental model. Further, by using metaphor as research tool, ZMET can help us understand more deeply the linkages themselves that form the consumers mental structure (of both thoughts and feelings). This allows the researcher the opportunity to look at the data in a more varied and deeper ways than through a traditional laddering study. A researcher using a ZMET approach can develop a rather rich mental model and explore the meanings associated with specific subsections of a hierarchical value map or a consensus map of consumers’ mental models. Why ZMET? – The control is in respondent’s hand, not the researcher – Use of metaphor helps uncover the importance of non-visual sensory images – Reduces problem of consistency – Pays attention to cognitive and emotional sides of the brain ZMET research provides fundamental understandings of consumers, by identifying a broad set of meanings, at several levels of experience. It helps understand how unconscious and conscious processes interact to creation of need and influencing & shaping the criterias of satisfying the needs, as well as judging the experiences. ZMET uses visual and non-visual "images" gathered and/or generated by consumers to elicit and probe the metaphors that represent consumer’s thoughts and feelings about a topic. The images provide a clear idea of what consumers really think and feel. The insights gained by ZMET are far deeper and clearer than the insights to be gained from verbal discussions alone. Images can be visual; many images can take other forms as well such Touch, smell and sound. An image represents a feeling much more distinctly than words. Hence use of images is referred to as a Metaphor. In a ZMET interview, verbal descriptions of the thoughts and feelings are represented by images to help understand their meaning. The verbal descriptions are far more complete and far more useful to managers because they were stimulated initially by these images or metaphors. In the interview, people collect images on their own, hence it gives them control of the research and provides efficient involvement with the interview topic. Therefore, it provides flexibility to the participant to express their opinions and feelings more accurately. STEPS FOLLOWED IN THE QUANTITIVE RESEARCH Samples of six respondents were selected and they were asked to collect ten images that best convey their thoughts and feeling about Colgate. The respondents were given a duration of two to three days to collect the images. They were then taken through a number of steps, all of which intended to obtain stories about the images.22 | P a g e
  23. 23. Step 1: Storytelling Olson and Zaltman referred the first step as the Storytelling step. In this step the respondents were asked select eight images which they feel best describe their feeling and thought for Colgate. Then they were asked to tell the story behind each image. During this process the respondents conveys how they relate each image with Colgate. Further deep metaphors were identified by probing the respondent. Three probing techniques were used: i. Basic elaboration: The statement used by the respondents was repeated in form of questions ii. Laddering Technique: It aims at identifying the ways in which the respondents link the various concepts and thoughts iii. Breaching: It was used as a probing technique when the respondents showed resistance and found it difficult to articulate Step 2: Missing Images The respondents were then asked if they wanted to include any other image in the eight selected image. If they answered yes then they were probed the reason behind it and were asked to expand their thoughts and feeling behind the missing image. Describing the missing image was similar to storytelling step. Step 3: Triad Comparison The Triad task seeks to identify concepts and distinctions at a higher level. The respondents were shown three selected images out of the eight. They were then asked to indicate the similarities between any two and how they were different from the third one. This step provided more in depth concepts which were not collected in the first two steps. Step 4: Metaphor Probe (Expanding the frame) In this step the respondents were asked to widen their frame of thought and to describe what else would they include in the picture frame that would reinforce the original idea. This step uncovers the hidden meaning as well as the hidden un-described thoughts. Step 5: Digital Imaging The respondents were then asked to make a collage of the images selected. They were then asked to give one word metaphor to each image as well as to the collage they created. This brought out what they thought of as well as their feelings. This step was thus the summary to the whole exercise and brought some new thoughts. But most of the thought were already described the respondents initially. ANALYSIS OF ZMET DATA The transcript of each individual interview was read to identify the words, phrases and sentences used by the respondents to articulate their thoughts and feeling. This provided the23 | P a g e
  24. 24. metaphors that were explicitly mentioned by the respondent during each interview. From these explicit metaphors, deep metaphors were identified by probing. These deep metaphors provided the hidden, deep concepts under which the explicit metaphors could be categorised. RESULTS The metaphors used by each respondent to articulate their thoughts and feeling during the interview are as follows: RESPONDENT 1 RESPONDENT 02 RESPONDENT 03 Satisfaction Value for money Positivity Motivation Faith Happy Faith Heredity Achievement Trust Content Pride Fascinating Pride Bright Rid of tiredness Life Saviour Attitude Healthy Strong Calm Hygiene Social Completeness Eye Opener Self Satisfaction Success Satisfaction Trust Hygiene Proud RESPONDENT 04 RESPONDENT 05 RESPONDENT 06 Innocence Satisfier Protective Oldest Brand Happiness Love Flavour Better Performance Care Enjoy Energetic Peace Affection Confidence Social Whiteness Trust Happiness Success Care Satisfying Personality Love Trust Trust Safe Completeness Performance Calm Confidence Protection Cheerful Friendship Confidence Hope Strength Fun Celebration Carefree Value for money Fun24 | P a g e
  25. 25. COMMON THOUGHTS Satisfaction Faith Pride Hygiene Value for money Confidence Performance Protection Enjoy Care Love Social Trust Strong Success Happiness DIFFERENTIATOR When the respondents were asked to represent similarities between any two and how the two images differ from the third image from the set of three selected images, the following metaphor were obtained: Cleanliness Taste Price Degree of happiness obtained Emotion attached to it Happiness gained Personification Achievement Confidence gained These metaphors acts as a differentiator or distinction in the mind of the respondents selected. In order to structure the findings the deep metaphors were identified. These deep metaphors were obtained by the process of laddering used during the process of interview. Brushing teeth with Colgate brings smile and happiness Some respondent described Colgate as a means to get happy smile which in turn gives a feeling of fulfilment. Colgate was also compared with a person who always smiles and hence, other characteristics of that person like confidence were also related to Colgate25 | P a g e
  26. 26. Brushing teeth with Colgate gives satisfaction Some respondent related Colgate with honesty which brings self satisfaction in the person himself. Other related Colgate with something that brings encouragement to work hard which in turn gives satisfaction Brushing teeth gives peaceful sleep and relaxation Colgate was related by some respondent to peaceful sleep. As per some respondent, sleeping helped in getting rid of tiredness and gives relaxation. Thus, Colgate was seen as a catalyst to get rid of tiredness Colgate being an oldest brand is trustworthy Few respondents described Colgate to be a trustworthy as it was the oldest brands Brushing teeth builds affection This reflects some respondent’s reason behind the use of Colgate. Its use gets rid of bad breath which helps in building better relation and hence, increases affection Colgate gives confidence Colgate was also described as something that brings confidence. In order to illustrate confidence a respondent used an image of a cat seeing itself as a lion in the mirror. Another respondent used the image of a father catching a child to describe the confidence. It also showed the trust one has. Using Colgate gives a feeling of “care” Colgate is visualized as a care taking toothpaste. The care of Colgate was compared by the care that a mother takes for her child. Colgate is like a part of family Some respondents described Colgate was like a family to them. Just like a family stays together in good and bad times and they are much more comfortable together, some respondent are comfortable using Colgate Colgate is a part of “Journey of Life” The collage of the images formed by a respondent represented it as a “Journey of Life”. Thus, the respondent visualized Colgate as a part of his journey of life. Summarizing all the above obtained metaphors, as well as the Zaltman Story telling approach, the brand identity of Colgate as per the respondent feedback can be interpreted as follows: Colgate is a brand that promises satisfaction, confidence, love and care and gives value for money. It is a highly trusted brand which is considered as a part of a family.26 | P a g e
  27. 27. References Prof. Srinivas Govindrajan’s PPTs Marketing Management : Philip Kotler- 13th Edition The Economic times: Brand Equity:28 sept 2011