Abilittin james benitto


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its related to culture bound syndrome.

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Abilittin james benitto

  1. 1. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing 2012; 1(2): 49-51 49 Culture-Bound Syndrome or Folk Illness ABILITTIN JAMES BENITTO M.Sc. (Nsg), IInd Year Student Vinayaka Mission’s College of Nsg, Kirumampakkam, Puducherry – 607402 Introduction Definitions of culture-bound syndrome a. Culture-bound syndromes are a There are some diseases that have very combination of psychiatric and somaticlimited distributions around the world due to symptoms that are considered to be athe fact that they are caused by unique recognizable disease only within a specificcombinations of environmental circumstances society or culture. There is no objectiveand cultural practices. These are generally biochemical or structural alterations of bodyreferred to as culture-bound syndrome, culture- organs or functions, and the disease is notspecific syndrome or folk illness. These are recognized in other cultures.generally limited to specific societies or culture b. Culture-bound syndromes are definedareas and are localized, folk, diagnostic as‘episodic and dramatic reactions specific tocategories that frame coherent meanings for a particular community - locally defined ascertain repetitive, patterned and troubling sets discrete patterns of behavior’.of experiences and observations. Prevalence and etiology Meaning of Culture Culture-bound syndrome or folk illness is Patterns of behavior (values, perceptions, very familiar in the culture. This syndrome ismeaning, beliefs and practices) shared by a more common in teenagers and adults, it affectsgroup of people performing essential tasks of both sexes equally. This syndrome’s exact causedaily living. is idiopathic, but may be due to certain ego defence mechanisms. Projection, depression and shame or guilt arealso reasons for culture- Meaning of Culture bound bound syndrome. Whenever people live as part of a culture,they are to some extent imprisoned by it – withlimited exposure to other cultures or ways of Some common featuresthought. They think that their culture is Culture-bound syndrome patients usuallysuperior to all others. have some kind of acting out that attracts cultural attention, amnesia is common. The triggers of their behavior may be difficult to isolate as they are not being perceived in Western culture as stressors. Culture-bound Corresponding author: Abilittin James Benitto, M.Sc.(Nsg), IInd year student, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Nsg, syndromes are often seen in people havingKirumampakkam, Puducherry – 607402. histrionic personalities, and somatic symptoms E-mail: abilittin@gmail.comVolume 1 Number 2 Journal of Psychiatric Nursing
  2. 2. 50 Abilittin James Benitto / Culture-Bound Syndrome or Folk Illnessare often predominant. The patient’s related to cultural emphases and to specificlaboratory investigations reveal no biochemical stress situations which are typical of particularor tissue abnormalities. These syndromes populations and complete lack of familiarityimprove spontaneously or need sedation or of the condition to people in other cultures.antipsychotic medications. Treatment requires Therefore awareness of culture boundcollaboration with traditional healers. syndromes is very important for all the levels of health care professionals in order to make culturally appropriate diagnoses, timely Cultural influences on psychiatric syndromes management and appropriate treatment.• Cultural influence on the formation of a disorder (Pathogenic effect).• Culture selecting certain coping patterns to deal with stress, like family suicide References (Psychoselective effect).• Culture promoting the frequency of 1. Jilek W.G. Psychiatric Disorders: Culture-specific. occurrence (Psychofacilitating effect). International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier Science Ltd; 2001.• Culture shaping folk responses to the clinical condition (Psychoreactive effect). 2. Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 8th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins publication, 2005; 618-620. Management 3. Oxford handbook of psychiatry. Transcultural Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, 2009; 852-859. Psycho-Pharmacological management for 4. Verna Benner Carson. Mental Health Nursing. Thereducing the symptoms, psychological Nurse-Patient Journey, 2nd end. Sounders, 2000;management like culture bound psychotherapy 264-265.and collaboration with folk / traditional healer 5. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic andare some of the measures included under Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Textmanagement. revision. American Psychiatric Pub, 2000; 898. 6. Guarnaccia, Peter J. & Rogler, Lloyd H, Research Conclusion on Culture-Bound Syndromes: New Directions. American Journal of Psychiatry 1999; 56: 1322–1327. Culture bound syndrome is a clusters ofsymptoms and behaviors that can be probablyJournal of Psychiatric Nursing May - August 2012
  3. 3. Abilittin James Benitto / Culture-Bound Syndrome or Folk Illness 51 Types of culture-bound syndromes seen in Asian countries are, Name of the disease Geographical localization Symptoms Suddenly withdraws from family and Malaysia, Indonesia, friends, then bursts into a murderous rage, Running amok Philippines, Brunei, attacking the people around him often Singapore followed by a claim of amnesia. Comprises vague somatic symptoms of fatigue, weakness, anxiety, loss of appetite, Dhat syndrome India and Bangladesh guilt and sexual dysfunction, attributed by the patient to loss of semen in nocturnal emissions, through urine. An episode of sudden and intense fear or Chinese and Malaysian delusion that the penis (or in the rare female Koro Populations In Southeast cases, the vulva and nipples) will recede into Asia; Assam the body and possibly cause death. Hypersensitivity to sudden fright, often with echopraxia, echolalia, command obedience, and dissociative or trance like behavior. The Latah Malaysia and Indonesia Malaysian syndrome is more frequent in young girls. Similar to neurasthenia, symptoms include physical and mental fatigue, dizziness, Shenjing shuairuo Chinese headaches and other pains, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbance, and memory loss. Marked anxiety or panic symptoms including dizziness, backache, fatigability, Shenkui Chinese general weakness, complaints of sexual dysfunction, insomnia. Fear and guilt about embarrassing others Taijin kyofusho Japanese with one’s appearance or behavior prominent in younger people.Volume 1 Number 2 Journal of Psychiatric Nursing