Pathophysiology of bronchial asthma

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Pathophysiology of bronchial asthma

  1. 1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA Precipitating Factors Predisposing Factors Environmental Factors Genetics Atmospheric Pollutants Race Allergens Age Exercise, Stress on emotional Gender upset, Chemicals, Medications IgE Stimulants Mast Cell Degranulation Asthma AttackAltered immunologic Increased airway Increased lung Impaired mucocilary Altered O2-CO2response resistance compliance function exchangeChemical mediators Mucus secretion, Lungs become Increase mucus Increase airwayare released inflammation, hyperinflated production resistance bronchospasmHistamine,Prostaglandins,Bradykinins, etc
  2. 2. SPASM S/S: Slowed mucus Respiratory muscle works clearance harder Audible expiratory & inspiratory Accessory muscle Increased water loss Muscle fatigue and breathing from mucus exhaustion Nasal flaring Tachypnea Tachycardia Mucus becomes Respiratory Alkalosis increasingly viscous S/S: Wheezing Paroxysmal dyspnea Cough Production
  3. 3. Without medical With Medical interventionsinterventionsIndividual compensates O2 Therapywithout increased RRRespiratory alkalosis Medications: Inhaled steroid, beta 2 adrenergic agents, bronchodilatorsHypoxemia V Opens the airway GOOD PROGNOSISHypoventilation Deep breathing and Health teachings coughing exercise Increase Fluid IntakeRespiratory acidosis Elevate HOB Coughing up thick Limit exposure to tenacious sputum allergens Minimize strenuousSevere hypoxemia Adequate rest activitiesDeathBAD PROGNOSIS

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