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Ocd seminar


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the pathophysiology of ocd

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Ocd seminar

  1. 1. By-Dr. abid rizvi Jr2 department of psychiatry jnmch AMU
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  OCD a common and disabling disorder marked by obsession, compulsion or both.  Prevalence is around 2% world wide  Up to 1980 considered a treatment resistant chronic condition of psychological origin.
  3. 3.  The observation that CLOMOPRAMINE (a TCA with serotogenic profile) is effective was a major breakthrough.
  4. 4. History  Prehistoric times-possessed by devil and exorcism as treatment.  During Renaissance(16 to 14 century ) devil theory was replaced by other naturalistic (albeit contradictory ) theories
  5. 5.  Oxford Don, Robert Burton, reported a case, the Anatomy of Melancholy (1621): "If he be in a silent auditory, as at a sermon, he is afraid he shall speak aloud and unaware, something indecent, unfit to be said”(religious meloncholy”.  In 1660, Jeremy Taylor,, was referring to obsessional doubting when he wrote of "scruples": [A scruple] is trouble where the trouble is over, a doubt when doubts are resolved.”
  6. 6. Different theories led to different treatment  Phlebotomy.  Laxative and purgatives.  Henry Maudsley (1895) - opium and morphine, to be taken three times a day,  adding low doses of arsenic along with these narcotics could be helpful.
  7. 7.  During 18 and 19 century - growth of mental asylum.  J.E.D. Esquirol advocated that such patients shouldn’t be placed in mental asylums. he described OCD as a form of monomania.  Late 19th century, consensus was that OCD was not a form of insanity.  More unusual to put OCD sufferers in asylums
  8. 8.  Westpahal ascribed obsessions to disordered intellectual function. He use of the term Zwangsvorstellung  In Great Britain Zwangsvorstellung was translated as "obsession," while in the United States it become "compulsion”  The term “OCD" emerged as a compromise.
  9. 9.  (Freud‘) patient's mind responded mal adaptively to conflicts between unacceptable, unconscious sexual or aggressive id and the demands of conscience and reality.  It regressed to concerns with control and to modes of thinking characteristic of the anal-sadistic stage of : AMBIVALENCE, which produced doubting, MAGICAL THINKING ,superstitious compulsive acts.
  10. 10. Ego marshalled certain defenses: 1. INTELLECTUALIZATION AND ISOLATION 2. UNDOING 3. REACTION FORMATION. The imperfect success of these defenses gave rise to ocd symptoms: (anxiety; preoccupation with dirt or germs or moral questions; and, fears of acting on unacceptable impulses.)
  11. 11. epidemiology  Lifetime prevalence is 2% to 3%  Equal across sex and culture.  Prevalence among adult and children same  67% have MADD ,25% have social phobias.  25% chronic schizophrenic have OCD symptoms.(poor prognosis).  ? Schizo-obsessive category
  12. 12.  Other co-morbid- panic disorder ,eating disorder ,alcohol use disorder.  Relationship with OCPD is debatable.(OCPD ) is not a prominent risk factor for developing OCD.
  13. 13. CLINICAL FEATURE AND DIAGNOSTIC CRITERION  Characterized by obsession, compulsion or both(75%)  Obsessional thoughts are- ideas, images or impulses that enter the individual's mind again & again in a stereotyped form.  Are invariably distressing ( they are violent or obscene, or simply because they are perceived as senseless) .  The sufferer often tries, unsuccessfully, to resist them.  Are, recognized as the individual's own thoughts, even though they are involuntary and often repugnant.
  14. 14.  Compulsive acts are stereotyped behaviors that are repeated again and again.  Are not inherently enjoyable, nor do they result in the completion of inherently useful tasks.  Individual often views them as preventing some objectively unlikely event ,often involving harm to or caused by himself or herself.  Usually, this behaviour is recognized by the individual as pointless or ineffectual and repeated attempts are made to resist it;( in very long-standing cases, resistance may be minimal).
  15. 15. DSM 4 criteria of obsession 1. Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced at some time during the disturbance as intrusive and inappropriate and that cause marked anxiety or distress . 2. The thoughts, impulses, or images are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems
  16. 16. 3. The person attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts, impulses, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action 4. The person recognizes that the obsessional thoughts, impulses, or images are a product of his or her own mind (not imposed from without as in thought insertion)
  17. 17.  Compulsions are defined by (1) and (2) 1. Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly
  18. 18. 2. The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing distress or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts either are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent or are clearly excessive
  19. 19.  Sims textbook of psychopathology states that: “Certainly OCD is not an anxiety disorder. Isolated obsession or obsessive compulsive disorder may occur with or without anxiety, with or without depression and with or without personality disorder .It is a distinct and separate phenomenon”
  20. 20.  The three essential feature of OCD are: 1.A feeling of subjective compulsion 2a resistance to it 3.Preservation of insight
  21. 21.  The sufferer knows that it his own thought (or act) ; arises from within himself and that it is subject to his own will. whether he continues to think(or perform). .He is tormented by the fear of what may happen if he disturbs the routine.
  22. 22.  The person usually functions satisfactorilly in other areas of his life untouched by his obsession thout, but as the obsession becomes more severe there is in creasing social incapability and mystery that can grossy impair his life.
  23. 23.  This is also reflected in thee icd 10 classification which lists ocd as a saperate entity from anxiety disorder.
  24. 24.  repugnant to the individual. prudish person is tormented by sexual thoughts, the religious person by blasphemous thoughts, and the timid person by thoughts of torture, murder and general mayhem.
  25. 25.  obsessional symptoms or compulsive acts, or both, must be present       on most days for at least 2 successive weeks and be a source of distress or interference with activities. (a)they must be recognized as the individual's own thoughts or impulses; (b)there must be at least one thought or act that is still resisted unsuccessfully, even though others may be present which the sufferer no longer resists; (c)the thought of carrying out the act must not in itself be pleasurable (simple relief of tension or anxiety is not regarded as pleasure in this sense); (d)the thoughts, images, or impulses must be unpleasantly repetitive.
  26. 26.  Predominantly obsessional thoughts or ruminations  These may take the form of ideas, mental images, or impulses to act. They are very variable in content but nearly always distressing to the individual.  Sometimes the ideas are merely futile, involving an endless and quasi-philosophical consideration of imponderable alternatives.  This indecisive consideration of alternatives is an important element in many other obsessional ruminations and is often associated with an inability tomake trivial but necessary decisions in day-to-day living.
  27. 27.  Predominantly compulsive acts [obsessional rituals]  The majority of compulsive acts are concerned with cleaning (particularly hand-washing), repeated checking to ensure that a potentially dangerous situation has not been allowed to develop, ororderliness and tidiness.  Underlying the overt behaviour is a fear, usually of danger either to  or caused by the patient, and the ritual act is an ineffectual or symbolic attempt to avert that danger.  Compulsive ritual acts may occupy many hours every day and are sometimes associated with marked indecisiveness and slowness.
  28. 28.  Mixed obsessional thoughts and acts  Most obsessive-compulsive individuals have elements of both obsessional thinking and compulsive behaviour. This subcategory should be used if the two are equally prominent, as is often the case, but it is useful to specify only one if it is clearly predominant, since thoughts and acts may respond to different treatments.
  29. 29.  The essential feature of obsession is that it occurs against the patient’s will  Hence only that event is obsession which under normal circumstances can be controled and resisted
  31. 31. IDEAS/ THOUGHT:  Are derivative of in tolerable or forbidden impulse  May be simple (repeatition of simple words or tunees) or commplicated  Contrast thinking  Compulsive blasphemy
  32. 32.  Rumination: these are pseudophilosophical ,irritating unnecessary ,repititive and achieve no conclusion.(why the sky is blue )
  33. 33. IMPULSE: Eg of obsessive impulses are  impulse to touch ,count or arrange objects  Commit antisocial acts .(mother harming her baby and priest of abusing in public).  Rarely carry out impulse.(reassurance can given provided that it is truly obsessional and not accompanied by depression and antisocial personality disorder).
  34. 34. Images:  these are very vivid images(gravestones with names )  Can be mistaken for hallucination(but are the product of patient’s own mind)  Are one of the 4 types
  35. 35. 1. Obsessive images: Images of flowing blood, Injuries and so on. 2. Compulsive image: A woman who saw the coffin of her child had to image her child standing happily. 3. Disaster images: Compulsive checker see the actual disaster happening if they do not check. 4. Disruptive image : May disrupt the ritual being performed and the whole ritual has to be repeated
  36. 36.  Fear: groundless fear which the patient realises as dominating without cause.
  37. 37. SYMPTOM PATTERN  Contamination: 1. Most comman . 2. Obsession of contamination –repeated washing-compulsive avoidance of presumed contaminated object. 3. rub off their skin unable to leave their home due to fear of germs.
  38. 38.  It is interesting how the obsessional person omits other areas from his obsessionlity. (The patient who excoriates his hand by excessive washing and devotes a substantial portion of each day to the pursuits of cleaniness may drive to work in a dirty and ill serviced car and work in an untidy office).  The delimma of obsessional symptoms remain that they are both reckoned as part of the patient’s own behavior and resisted un succesfully that is they are under voluntary control but not all experienced as voluntary.
  39. 39.  PATHOLOGICAL DOUBT: Second most comman Obsession of doubt –compulsion of checking.
  40. 40.  Intrusive thought: Only intrusive thought without compulsive act(sexual or aggressive)
  41. 41.  Symmetry.  May take hours to do simple act as to shave or to cook a meal.
  42. 42. Major presenting symptoms obsessions % Concern with body waste,dit germs,toxins 30 Fear of terrible happening 18 Symmetry,order ,or exactness 12 Exceesive religious concern or praying(srupulocity) 9 Lucky and unlucky numbers 6 Forbidden or perversed sexual thought ,images ,impulses 3 Intrusive non sense sounds words or music 1
  43. 43. compulsion % Exessive or ritualised handwashing , bathing toothbrushing, grooming 60 Repeated rituals(going in & out of door , up & do2wn from chair) compulsion 36 Cheking doors lock stove car breaks 32 touching 14 Othering & arranging 12 Measure t prevent harm to self or others 11 counting 13 collecting 8 Miscellaneous rituals (liking , spiting, specila dress pattern) 18
  44. 44. etiology  Neurotransmitters. serotonin: 1. Dysregulation of sserotogenic system 2. ?pathogeenesis involvement.
  45. 45.  Measurng the level of 5HIAA( ammeeasure of serotonic turnn over) in CSF  Affinities of platelet serotonin bindind sites to radiolabled imipramine.  No consistent result found  Some study - decreased level of 5HIAA AFTER TREATMENT WITH CLOMIPRAMINE and normalization of plaatelet transporter after treatment with clomipramine.
  46. 46.  DOPAMINE: 1. ABUDANCE OF ocd symptom in basal ganglia disorer such as tourette syndrome ,postencephalitic parkinsonism ,and synderham’s chorea. 2. Also the efficacy of dopamine blocker and sri in ccontrolling the obsessive symptoms in subsects.
  48. 48. LL MEDIATE  IMMUNE FACTOR: 10 TO 30% OF PATIENT of reumatic fever develop synderham’s chorea and showw symptoms of OCD.  CELL mediated immune function dysfunction have been reported in OCD but has not been replicated in other studies
  49. 49. GENETICS: Realtives of proband with OCD have 3 to 4 times higher rates of the disorder. Monozygote twins have higher concordence rate as compared to dgygote twins. Increased rate of variety of condition in patients of OCD proband ( eating disorder, body dysmorphic disorder,hypochondriasis, tics disorder).
  50. 50. BRAIN IMAGING STUDIES.: PET scan has shown increased activity in the frontal lobe, caudate nucleus, and the cingulum of patients. CT AND MRI have shown decreased size of caudate nucleus bilaterally. DYSREGULATION OF FRONTAL Caudate thalamus neurocircuitory Pharmacological and behavioral therapy reverse these abnormalities.
  51. 51.  Behavioral factors. obsession are conditioned stimuli A relatively neutral stimuli become associated with fear or anxety through classical conditioning.previouslyy neutral stimuli become anxiety provocing. When a patient learns thaat a certain behavior reduces anxiety it become fixed to thee behavior via learning of classiacle conditioning.
  52. 52. TREATING OBSESSIVECOMPULSIVE DISORDER Psychiatric Management; 1. Establish and maintain a therapeutic alliance.  Tailor communication style to the patient needs .  Allow patients with excessive worry or doubting time to consider treatment decisions. Repeat explanations .  Attend to transference and countertransference.  Consider how the patient’€™ expectations are affected by his s or her cultural and religious background,beliefs about the illness, and experience with past treatments.
  53. 53. Assess the patient’s symptoms.  Use DSM-IV-TR criteria for diagnosis.  Consider using screening questions to detect commonly unrecognized symptoms.
  54. 54. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Screening Questions Do you have unpleasant thoughts you cannot get rid of? Do you worry that you might impulsively harm someone? Do you have to count things, wash your hands, or check things? Do you worry a lot about whether you performed religious rituals correctly or have been immoral? Do you have troubling thoughts about sexual matters? Do you need things arranged symmetrically or in a very exact order? Do you have trouble discarding things, so that your house is quite cluttered? Do these worries and behaviors interfere with your functioning at work, with your family, or with social activities?
  55. 55.  Differentiate OCD obsessions, compulsions, and rituals from similar symptoms found in other disorders
  56. 56. Disorder BDD Depressive disorders Eating disorders Generalized anxiety disorder Hypochondriasis Paraphilias Symptom How the Symptom Differs From Symptoms of OCD Recurrent,intrusive preoccupation The preoccupation is limited to the with a perceived bodily defect body. depressive ruminations are experienced as consistent with one’s self-image usually Depressive ruminations concern self-criticism,failures, guilt, regret, or pessimism about the future &do not lead to compulsive rituals. Intrusive thoughts regarding thoughts and behaviors are weight &eating limited to weight and eating. Unlike with OCD, worry does not Worry lead to compulsive rituals. In OCD, such fear arises from an external stimuli (e.g., that causes Fear or belief regarding serious contamination) rather than disease misinterpretation of an ordinary bodily sign or symptom. Intrusive sexual thoughts and OCD obsessions are resisted, urges morally abhorrent,are avoided. OCD thoughts and urges do not
  57. 57. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) Posttraumatic stress disorder Tourette’s disorder Hoarding, scrupulosity, perfectionism, preoccupation with rules and order In OCD, obsessions and compulsions usually focus on specific feared events; in OCPD, thoughts and behaviors are globally colored perfectionism and preoccupation with rules. Intrusive thoughts and images The thoughts replay actual events rather than anticipate future events as in OCD. Complex vocal or motor tics Tics, unlike compulsions, are not preceded by thoughts nor aimed at relieving anxiety or preventing or undoing an event.
  58. 58. CONSIDER RATING THE PATIENT’S SYMPTOM SEVERITY AND LEVEL OF FUNCTIONING.  Recording baseline severity provides a way to measure response to treatment.  A useful symptom scale is (Y-BOCS),  Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II),.  Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS).
  59. 59. Enhance the safety of the patient and others.  Assess for risk of suicide, self-injurious behavior, and harm to others.  factors associated with increased risk of suicide, including specific psychiatric symptoms and disordersr) and previous suicide attempts.  Evaluate the patient’s potential for harming others, either directly or indirectly (e.g., when OCD symptoms interfere with parenting)
  60. 60. Complete the psychiatric assessment.  Assess for common co-occuring disorders, including mood disorders, other anxiety disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders.
  61. 61. Establish goals for treatment.  include decreasing symptom frequency and severity, improving the patient's functioning, helping the patient to improve his or her quality of life.  targets include less than 1 h /day obsessing & compulsive behaviors , mild OCD-related anxiety, ability to live with OCDassociated uncertainty, and little or no interference of OCD with the tasks of daily living.  (Despite best efforts, some patients will be unable to reach these targets.)
  62. 62. Establish the appropriate setting for treatment.  In general, patients should be cared for in the least restrictive setting that is likely to be safe and to allow for effective treatment.  Outpatient t/t usually sufficient. More intensive settings (e.g., hospitalization, residential treatment, or partial hospitalization) patients with significant suicide risk, danger to others, unable to provide adequate self-care, have co-occurring psychiatric and general medical conditions, or need intensive treatment or monitoring.  Home-based treatment may be needed by patients who are unable to visit an office or clinic because of impairing fears or other symptoms
  63. 63. Enhance treatment adherence.  Recognize that the patient’™s fears, doubting, and need for certainty can influence his or her willingness and ability to cooperate with treatment and can challenge the clinician’s patience.  Provide education about the illness and its treatment, including outcomes and time and effort required. expected  Inform the patient about likely side effects of medications.  Consider the role of the patient’s family and social support system.  When possible, help the patient to address practical issues such as treatment cost, insurance coverage, and transportation.
  64. 64. B. Choice of Initial Treatment First-line treatments for OCD are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs).  SRIs include clomipramine and all of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline are approved by FDA.  controlled trials, supports using CBT that relies ON (ERP).
  65. 65.  CBT alone is recommended for a patient who is not too depressed, anxious, or      severely ill to cooperate with this treatment modality, or who prefers not to take medications. In ERP, patients are taught to confront feared situations and objects (i.e., exposure) and to refrain from performing rituals (i.e., response prevention). The goal is to weaken the connections between feared stimuli and distress and between carrying out rituals and relief from distress. Cognitive techniques such as identifying, challenging, and modifying dysfunctional beliefs (e.g., magical thinking, inflated sense of responsibility for unwanted events, overestimation of the probability of feared events, "thought-action fusion," perfectionism, belief that anxiety will persist forever, and need for control) may be effectively combined with ERP. The patient must be willing to do the work that CBT requires (e.g., regular behavioral homework). Psychodynamic psychotherapy may be useful in helping patients overcome their resistance to accepting a recommended treatment and addressing the interpersonal consequences of OCD symptoms. Motivational interviewing may also help overcome resistance to treatment.
  66. 66. An SRI alone is recommended for a patient who has previously responded well to a given drug or who prefers SRI  SRI alone may enhance cooperation with t/t by diminishing symptom severity. SRI alone may also be considered in patients who have severe OCD or are not otherwise able to cooperate with CBT.  An SRI alone may also be necessary if CBT is not accessible.  SSRIs have a less troublesome side effect profile than clomipramine, an SSRI is preferred for a first medication trial.  Factors to consider when choosing among the SSRIs include safety, side effects , acceptability , and potential interactions..
  67. 67. Combined treatment (SRI and CBT) is more effective than monotherapy for some patients but is not necessary for all patients.  should be considered for pts who have had an unsatisfactory response to monotherapy, who have co-occurring psychiatric conditions for which SRIs are effective, or who wish to limit the duration of medication treatment.  Combined treatment for patients with severe OCD, since the medication may diminish symptom severity and allow the patient to engage in CBT.
  68. 68. C. Implementation of Treatment  Initiate pharmacotherapy at the dose recommended and titrate to      a maximally tolerable dose . Patients who are worried about side effects can be started at halfdoses or less. Lower doses and more gradual titration may be needed for patients with co-occurring anxiety disorders and for elderly patients. Evidence suggests that higher SSRI doses produce a somewhat higher response rate and somewhat greater magnitude of symptom relief. Some patients may benefit from even higher doses than those shown in the last column of Table 3. Monitor such patients closely for side effects including serotonin syndrome. There is no apparent relationship between OCD treatment outcome and plasma levels of SRIs.
  69. 69. SRI Starting Dose and Usual Target Incremental Dose (mg/day) Dose (mg/day)a Occasionally Usual Maximum Prescribed Dose (mg/day) Maximum Dose (mg/day)b Citalopram 20 40–60 80 120 Clomipramine 25 100–250 250 __c Escitalopram 10 20 40 60 Fluoxetine 20 40–60 80 120 Fluvoxamine 50 200 300 450 Paroxetine 20 40–60 60 100 Sertralined 50 200 200 400
  70. 70.  Continue pharmacotherapy for 8–12 weeks, including 4–6 weeks at a maximally tolerable dose.  Most patients will not experience substantial improvement until 4–6 weeks after starting medication, and some who will ultimately respond will experience little improvement for as many as 10–12 weeks.  Patients who have not responded to a known effective dose after 10–12 weeks may respond at higher doses.  Some clinicians prefer to titrate doses more rapidly (in weekly increments to the maximum recommended dose if this is comfortably tolerated) rather than waiting for 1–2 months before each dose increment.
  71. 71.  Manage medication side effects.  A first step is to consider if lowering the drug dose may alleviate the side effect without loss of therapeutic effect.  Clomipramine is likely to induce anticholinergic effects, although these typically diminish over time. Side effects may include delayed urination, weight gain and sedation, orthostatic hypotension and postural dizziness, and cardiac arrhythmias and seizures. Starting at a dose of 25 mg/day or less will increase early tolerability.  Common side effects of SSRIs and management strategies are described in Table 4. Sexual side effects may affect one-third or more of patients taking SSRIs.  Carefully monitor patients taking SSRIs for suicidal thoughts and suicidal or other self-harming behaviors, particularly during the early phases of treatment and after dosage increases.  A discontinuation syndrome consisting of dizziness, nausea/vomiting, headache, and lethargy but also agitation, insomnia, myoclonic jerks, and paresthesias may occur if medication is suddenly stopped. The syndrome may occur with any SRI but is most often seen with paroxetine or the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine. A slow taper over several weeks or more will minimize the likelihood of discontinuation symptoms.
  72. 72. Fatigue or sleepiness Add modest doses of modafinil. Start with low doses. Gastrointestinal distress Advise that mild queasiness or nausea will usually disappear within 1–2 weeks at a constant dose. Recommend taking the medication in the morning. Insomnia Recommend sleep hygiene measures. Add a sleep-promoting agent. Reduce the dose to that which is minimally effective. Wait for the symptom to remit. Sexual side effects Recommend a once-weekly, one-day "drug holiday" before engaging in sexual activity (not effective for fluoxetine). Switch to another SSRI. Add a counteracting pharmacological agent (e.g., bupropion). Sweating Add a low-dose anticholinergic agent such as benztropine.
  73. 73.  Provide CBT at least once weekly for 13–20 weeks.  The literature and expert opinion suggest that 13–20 weekly sessions with daily homework (or 3 weeks of weekday daily CBT) is an adequate trial for most patients. More severely ill patients may require longer treatment and/or more frequent sessions.  Consider booster sessions for more severely ill patients, patients who have relapsed in the past, and those who show signs of early relapse.  The psychiatrist may conduct the CBT or refer the patient for this or another adjunctive psychotherapy.
  74. 74.  Monitor the patient’ psychiatric status in follow-up visits. s  The frequency of follow-up visits may vary from a few days to 2 weeks. The indicated frequency will depend on the severity of the patient's symptoms, the complexities introduced by cooccurring conditions, whether suicidal ideation is present, and the likelihood of troublesome side effects.  The patient should be encouraged to telephone between visits if medication questions arise. If telephone calls become reassurance rituals, work with the patient and the patient's family to limit call frequency, using treatment as for any other ritual.
  75. 75. D. Changing Treatment  Decide when, whether, and how to alter the therapeutic plan for patients who have continued OCD symptoms despite treatment.  First treatments rarely produce freedom from all OCD symptoms, and there is typically opportunity for improvement.  Decisions about altering treatment may depend on the degree of residual symptoms that a patient is willing to accept.  When patients are not motivated to pursue further treatments despite limited improvement, consider if depressed mood is diminishing hopefulness or if illness is associated with secondary gain.
  76. 76.  Consider whether other factors are contributing to limited      improvement and address them: Problems in the therapeutic alliance Interference of co-occurring conditions such as panic disorder, major depression, a substance use disorder, or severe personality disorder Inadequate adherence to treatment or failure to tolerate an adequate trial of psychotherapy or medication at the recommended dose Psychosocial stressors Family accommodation to symptoms
  77. 77.  Consider extending or intensifying the      psychotherapeutic or pharmacological intervention. If the patient continues to have an inadequate response to treatment, consider the following alternatives: Providing combined treatment (SRI and CBT) Augmenting an SRI with an antipsychotic medication Switching to a different SRI Switching to venlafaxine
  78. 78. After the above treatments and augmentation strategies have been exhausted, consider less well supported strategies.  Augmentation of SSRIs with clomipramine, buspirone, pindolol, riluzole, or onceweekly morphine sulfate.  Monotherapy with D-amphetamine, tramadol, MAOI ondansetron,TMS, or deep brain stimulation may be considered.  Intensive residential treatment or partial hospitalization may be helpful for patients with severe treatment-resistant OCD.  Ablative neurosurgery for severe and very treatment-refractory OCD is rarely indicated and, along with deep brain stimulation, should be performed only at sites with expertise in both OCD and these treatment approaches.
  79. 79. E. Discontinuing Treatment Because relapse appears to be common, continue treatment of some form for most patients.  Continue successful medication treatment for 1–2 years .  consider a gradual taper (of 10%–25% every 1–2 months) while observing for symptom return .  Follow successful CBT consisting of ERP by monthly booster sessions for 3–6 months
  80. 80. Thank you