Definition of report• A report is a document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation, tailored to the context of a given situation and audience.
Planning for report• Five steps involved in planning.1. Introduction.2. Structure Of A Report.3. How To Begin.4. Layout Of The Report.5. Conclusions.
1. INTRODUCTION• The purpose of a report is to convey information factually, briefly, and clearly. Brevity is important; a report is not an essay.• Clarity is achieved by subdividing the report into headed sections each with a definite part to play. There is no single "best" way to present a report.
2. STRUCTURE OF AREPORT There are five main parts to any report, and each of these has a different purpose:• Summary• Introduction• Core• Conclusions• Appendix
3. HOW TO BEGIN• Start with the introduction.• The core of the report may now be written, with as much detail as is required for the reader to understand everything which was done.• Conclusion• Discussion• Summary
4. LAYOUT OF THEREPORT• The purpose of structuring the report is to make it accessible to likely readers.• The purpose of layout is to enhance the ease with which the reader can find their way about.• With currently available word processors it is possible to use a variety of different methods to enhance the report (e.g. bold characters and bullet points).
5. CONCLUSIONS• Good reporting is very important.• The purpose of the report is to inform the reader.• Good layout helps the reader.• The abstract should be a self-contained guide to the contents• The introduction and conclusion should be sufficient to inform the reader of the main outcomes of the report.• The writing of a report is a straight-forward exercise, which will occur naturally if the above guidelines are followed.
General Formatting Guidelines• Here are some general formatting guidelines that apply to the entire report:• Use 1- or 1-1/2-inch margins for all four margins of the report. You might want to use a 1-1/2-inch margin at the top and 1-inch margins for the left, right, and bottom.• Use a 1-1/2-inch left margin if your binding uses a lot of space (for example, brad-type binders that require 2- or 3- hole punch).• Generally use double-spaced typing except in those areas where single spacing is shown (for example, in the transmittal letter, descriptive abstract, figure titles, short vertical lists, and items in the information-sources list).• Use one side of the paper only.
Formal Reports: Component byComponent• This section examines each component of the formal report and points out the key requirements in terms of content, design, and format. Remember that these are requirements, or "specifications."
Body of the report:introduction• The title of the report is set at the top, just above the first-level heading and that no page number is displayed
Page with headings andgraphics.• In the body of your report, be sure to use the standard format for headings, for lists, and for graphics. If you are writing instructions, dont forget to use the standard format for special notices.
List of information sources• Remember to put all information sources in this list, including no printed, no published ones. For style and format of these entries.
Appendix• The appendix is a good place to put information that just will not fit in the main body of the report, but still needs to be in the report. For example, big tables of data, large maps, forms used in an organization, or background discussion-these are good candidates for the appendix. Notice that each one is given a letter (A, B, C, and so on).
Page-Numbering Style• Pages within the front and back covers are numbered (except for the transmittal letter); but the page number is not always displayed.• All pages coming before page 1 of the introduction use lowercase Roman numerals.
Page-Numbering Style• All pages beginning with page 1 of the introduction use with Arabic numerals.• Page numbers are not displayed on the transmittal letter, title page, first page of the table of contents, page 1 of the introduction, and the appendix divider page.
Final Production• Make a good printout of your report, on good paper, using fresh print supplier. Remember to design and type or print your cover label.• Make sure your graphics are good quality. If they are, tape them down onto the pages. Make sure they fit neatly within the margins-top and bottom, left and right.• Make sure all the component are in place and everything looks okay.
Topic “Short Reports”Syed Hussain Zain ul Abeden Gardezi. Roll No. 85
Short Report:• As the name suggest it’s a short report of two or three paragraph usually use as a memorandum in an organization to inform and analyze any problem or suggestion. There are three main Features of Short Report:• Concise.• Accurate.• Unbiased.
For Example:• President Lincoln of America asked his cabinet to write him suggestion in the form of short report so that he could review them from his busy time, and do according to their suggestion.
Developing The Main Sections:Short Report contains three main section:3. Introduction.4. Body (discussion, text).5. Terminal Section (summary, conclusion, recommendation).
Introduction:• Main elements which should be included in short reports introduction are,• Purpose or aim.• Authorization.• Sources.• Scope.• Background.• Limits.
Body:The main point which should be included in the body of short report:• Present all facts accurately and impartially.• Emphasize important ideas by showing details.• Include visual aids.• Use headings.• Apply the seven C writing principles.
Terminal Section:• Remember that a summary condenses the text, conclusion evaluate the text, and recommendations offer specific course of action.• Do not include any new material in the terminal section of the report.• Usually list summary points in the same order as topics are discussed in the report.
Five Cautions Regarding toHeadings & Sub Heading• Place the most important ideas in the highest degree of headings.• Balance the section according to the number of headings.• Have at least two subheading if you divide any topic.• Use about three to seven main points in a report.• Avoid using the report title as a section heading.
Short reports are to be completed asdescribed below. • Short reports are not to exceed 1 page. • Your work should be double-spaced with 1" margins on all sides. • Preferred font is 12-point Times- Roman.
Topic “Long Reports” Zeeshan Bhutta Roll no. 89
Cover & External TitleFive Suggestions i)Remember the W’S questions. ii)Keep the title short. iii)Consider subtitle with colon such as: Argentina:Recommendations for establishing joint venture.
iv)Vague Titles: Example: Unclear BetterRoot causes Core issues affecting decline in profits.Company plans A strategic financial plans 1998-2000.Drugs Marijuana & its abuse in the work place.V)Eliminates judgment Terms:Example: Why overseas personnel do badly. Error in accounting procedures in the past two years.
Title Fly & Internal Title The four main parts of the title page are title,for whom,by whom,date.
Example[Title] Industrial water Pollution.[For Whom]For the environmental Committee. [By Whom]Prepared by Olga lotz.[Date]September 25.199.
Contents of the Reports. Table of tables. Visuals or figures. Executive Summary.
Topic “Technical Reports” Mirza Ali Raza Roll No.90
Technical Reoprts:A technical report (also: scientific report) is a documentthat describes the progress or results of technical orscientific research, or the state of a technical or scientificresearch problem. Such reports are often prepared forsponsors of research projects. A technical report is a formal report designed to convey technical information in a clear and easily accessible format. Examples of such reports include annual environmental reports to regulators, annual reports to shareholders, project proposals, tender documents and journal articles.
Planning steps before writing TR:•Report topic: Decide what subject you are going to write on; narrowit as much as possible.•Report audience: Define a specific person or group of people forwhom you are going to write the report. Define the circumstances inwhich this report is needed.•Report purpose: Define what the report will accomplish—what needsof the audience it is going to fulfill.•Report type: Decide on the type of report—for example, technicalbackground report, feasibility report, instructions, or some other.
Report on DVD TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS submitted to Dr. David McMurreyTechnical Research Associates, Inc. 1307 Marshall Lane Austin, TX 78705 May 6, 1998 by Thurston Taylor E. Taylor, Consultants
• Technical-background report: The background report is the hardest to define but the most commonly written. This type of technical report provides background on a topic—for example, solar energy, global warming, CD-ROM technology, a medical problem, or U.S. recycling activity2) Feasibility, recommendation, and evaluation report:• A feasibility report tells whether a project is "feasible"—that is, whether it is practical and technologically possible.• A recommendation report compares two or more alternatives and recommends one (or, if necessary, none).• An evaluation or assessment report studies something in terms of its worth or value For example, a college might investigate the feasibility of giving every student an e-mail address and putting many of the college functions online.
3) Primary research report:Primary research refers to the actual work someone does in a laboratory orin the field—in other words, experiments and surveys.4) Technical specifications: In this report type, you discuss some new product design in terms of itsconstruction, materials, functions, features, operation, and marketpotential.5) Report-length proposal:As you may be aware, proposals can be monster documents of hundredsor even thousands of pages.Most of the elements are the same, justbigger. Plus elements from other kinds of reports get imported—such asfeasibility discussion, review of literature, and qualifications; these becomemuch more elaborate.
6) Business plans:If you are ambitious to run your own business, you can write a businessplan, which is a plan or proposal to start a new business or to expandan existing one. It is aimed primarily at potential investors.7) Technical Manuals and Instructions :Here the emphasis is on using appliances, equipment or programs. Thetask here is to write step-by-step procedures anyone can understandand follow.
General Characteristics of Technical Reports :Graphics: The report should have graphics. If you cantthink of any graphics for your report project, you may nothave a good topic.Factual detail: The report should be very detailed andfactual. The point of the report is to go into details, the kindof details your specific audience needs.Information sources: Your report should make use ofinformation sources. These may include not only books andarticles that can be found in libraries but also technicalbrochures, interviews or correspondence with experts, aswell as first-hand inspections
Documentation: When you use borrowed information inyour technical report, be sure to cite your sources. The styleof citing your sources (also called "documenting" yoursources).Realistic audience and situation: The report must be definedfor a real or realistic group of readers who exist in a real orrealistic situation.The audience cant merely be somethinglike "anybody who might be interested in global warming."Headings and lists: The report should use the format forheadings that is required for the course, as well as variouskinds of lists as appropriateSpecial format: The technical report uses a rather involvedformat including covers, binding, title page, table of contents,list of figures, transmittal letter, and appendixes.
Production: The technical report should be typed orprinted out neatly. If graphics are taped in, the wholereport must be photocopied, and the photocopy handed in(not the original with the taped-in graphics).Length: The report should be at least 8 doublespacedtyped or printed pages (using 1-inch margins), countingfrom introduction to conclusion.Technical content: You must design your report project insuch a way that your poor technical-writing instructor has achance to understand it—in other words, you must write forthe nonspecialist.
Format of technical reports:Title page:Must include the title of the report.Summary:A summary of the whole report including important features,results and conclusions.Contents:Numbers and lists all section and subsection headings with pagenumber.Introduction:States the objectives of the report and comments on the way thetopic of the report is to be treated. Leads straight into the report itself.
Conclusions:A short, logical summing up of the theme developed in the main text.References:Details of published sources of material referred to or quoted in the text(including any lecture notes and URL addresses of any websites used)Bibliography:Other published sources of material, including websites,notreferred to in the text but useful for background or further reading.Acknowledgements:List of people who helped you research or prepare thereport, including your proofreaders.Appendices (if appropriate):Any further material which is essential for fullunderstanding of your report (e.g. large scale diagrams, computer code, raw data,specifications) but not required by a casual reader
Topic “Proposals”Syed Ali Kamran Abidi. Roll No. 50
ProposalsSomething that is put forward for consideration.• Like proposals in general, documentation proposals can be lengthy or they can be a business letter under ten pages. For a lengthy proposal, use the standard design of reports. Use transmittal letter, covers, title pages, tables of contents, abstracts, headings, lists, tables, graphics etc.
Components of a Proposal:• Introduction.• Background.• Benefits and Feasibility.• Description.• Method or Procedure.• Schedule.• Qualifications.• Costs or Resources required.• Conclusions.
Introduction.• Indicate that the document to follow is a proposal.• Refer to some previous contact with the recipient of the proposal or to your source of information about the project.• Find one brief motivating statement that will encourage the recipient to read on and to consider doing the project.• Give an overview of the contents of the proposal.
Background on the problem,opportunity, or situation• Its true that the audience of the proposal may know the problem very well but writing the background section still might be useful, however, in demonstrating your particular view of the problem.
Benefits and feasibility of theproposed project.• Most proposals discuss the advantages or benefits of doing the proposed project. This acts as an argument in favor of approving the project. Also, some proposals discuss the likelihood of the projects success.
Description of the proposal:• Most proposals must describe the finished product of the proposed project. In this course, that means describing the written document you propose to write, the purpose; providing an outline; and discussing such things as its length, graphics, binding etc.
Method or procedure:• This acts as an additional persuasive element; it shows the audience you have a sound, well-thought-out approach to the project. Remember that the background section focused on the problem or need that brings about the proposal. However, in this section, you discuss the technical background relating to the procedures or technology you plan to use in the proposed work.
Schedule:• Most proposals contain a section that shows not only the projected completion date but also key milestones for the project. If you are doing a large project spreading over many months, the timeline would also show dates on which you would deliver progress reports. And if you cant cite specific dates, cite amounts of time or time spans for each phase of the project.
Qualifications:• Most proposals contain a summary of the proposing individuals or organizations qualifications to do the proposed work. Therefore, this section lists work experience, similar projects, references, training, and education that shows familiarity with the project.
Costs or resources required:• Most proposals also contain a section detailing the costs of the project, With hourly rates, projected hours, costs of equipment and supplies etc. and then calculate the total cost of the complete project.• For example, hours you will need to complete the project, equipment and supplies youll be using, assistance from other people in the organization, and so on.
Conclusions.• The final paragraph or section of the proposal should bring readers back to a focus on the positive aspects of the project. In the final section, you put in one last plug for you or your organization as the right choice for the project.