08-Dec-13

1
b

08-Dec-13

2
08-Dec-13

3
08-Dec-13

4
-

-

Na

-

-

-

08-Dec-13

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
The

08-Dec-13

Rule – Ionic Compounds

6
-

-

-

-

Na:

22s22p63s1
1s
-

-

Na

-

Cl: 1s22s22p63s23p5

--

Cl
17

 Sodium has 1 valence electron - -  Chlorine...
This transfer forms ions, each with an
octet forms Na+ 1s22s22p6
Cl- 1s22s22p63s23p6
The resulting ions come together due ...
Properties of Ionic Compounds

Structure:
Melting point:
Boiling Point:
Electrical
Conductivity:
Solubility in
water:
08-D...
Covalent Bonding
The bond arises from the mutual attraction of 2 nuclei
for the same electrons.

HA + HB

HA

HB

A covale...
A covalent bond is formed by the overlap of orbital's of
one atom ,with the orbital of another atom

Conditions for overla...
The factor which decides the strength of covalent
bond is the extent of overlap, it depends on the
shape of orbital's .The...
Overlapping Of Orbital's
s-s overlap
It involves mutual overlap of half filled s-orbitals of the atoms
approaching to form...
Sigma bond (σ)
Sigma bond is formed by an axial or head-on overlapping of pure atomic orbital's
It is end to end overlap. ...
A bond pair means 2 electrons involved in bonding
Alone pair means a pair of 2 electrons not involved in
••
bonding
•

H

...
VSEPR theory and Molecular Geometry
(Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion)
This theory helps in explaining the shapes of ...
Steric Number 1
1 atom bonded to another atom

Steric
No.

Basic
Geometry
0 lone pair

1
08-Dec-13

1 lone pair

2 lone pa...
Steric Number 2
2 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of
the two, bonded to a central atom.

Steric
No.

2
08-...
Steric Number 3
3 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of
the two, bonded to a central atom.

Steric
No.

Basic...
Steric Number 4
4 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of
the two, bonded to a central atom.

Steric
No.

Basic...
Steric Number 5
5 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of
the two, bonded to a central atom.
Steric
No.

Basic
...
Steric Number 6
6 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of
the two, bonded to a central atom.
Steric
No.

Basic
...
Steric Number 7
7 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of
the two, bonded to a central atom.
Steric
No.

Basic
...
08-Dec-13

25
08-Dec-13

26
Chemical bonding
Chemical bonding
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Chemical bonding

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presentation on chemical bonding
topics-
.Types of bonds
.Octet rule
.Valence bond theory
.VSEPR theory
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Chemical bonding

  1. 1. 08-Dec-13 1
  2. 2. b 08-Dec-13 2
  3. 3. 08-Dec-13 3
  4. 4. 08-Dec-13 4
  5. 5. - - Na - - - 08-Dec-13 - - - - - - 5
  6. 6. The 08-Dec-13 Rule – Ionic Compounds 6
  7. 7. - - - - Na: 22s22p63s1 1s - - Na - Cl: 1s22s22p63s23p5 -- Cl 17  Sodium has 1 valence electron - -  Chlorine has- 7 valence electrons  An electron transferred gives each an octet 08-Dec-13 7
  8. 8. This transfer forms ions, each with an octet forms Na+ 1s22s22p6 Cl- 1s22s22p63s23p6 The resulting ions come together due to electrostatic attraction forming Nacl 08-Dec-13 8
  9. 9. Properties of Ionic Compounds Structure: Melting point: Boiling Point: Electrical Conductivity: Solubility in water: 08-Dec-13 Crystalline solids Generally high Generally high Excellent conductors, molten and aqueous Generally soluble 9
  10. 10. Covalent Bonding The bond arises from the mutual attraction of 2 nuclei for the same electrons. HA + HB HA HB A covalent bond is a balance of attractive and repulsive forces. 08-Dec-13 10
  11. 11. A covalent bond is formed by the overlap of orbital's of one atom ,with the orbital of another atom Conditions for overlapping are : 1. Only an orbital with unpaired electrons is eligible for overlapping 2. For orbital to overlap, the electrons in overlapping orbital's should spin in the opposite direction 3. After overlapping the shape of orbital's change such that a greater electron density Appear between the nuclei of atoms along internuclear axis 08-Dec-13 11
  12. 12. The factor which decides the strength of covalent bond is the extent of overlap, it depends on the shape of orbital's .The spherical ‘s’orbital’s can not overlap efficiently, where as the extent of overlapping the dumb bell shaped p orbital's more 08-Dec-13 12
  13. 13. Overlapping Of Orbital's s-s overlap It involves mutual overlap of half filled s-orbitals of the atoms approaching to form a bond. s-p overlap It involves mutual overlap of half filled s-orbitals of the one atom with half filled p-orbital of the other.. p-p overlap It involves mutual overlap of half filled p-orbitals of the two atoms. Order of strength of overlapping : 08-Dec-13 p-p > s-p > s-s 13
  14. 14. Sigma bond (σ) Sigma bond is formed by an axial or head-on overlapping of pure atomic orbital's It is end to end overlap. Sigma bonds are re presented by Greek latter σ Examples: (σ bond) Pi bond (∏) A pi body is formed by the sidewise overlapping of pure atomic orbital's.th extent of overlapping is less, hence a pi bond is weaker than σ bond 08-Dec-13 14
  15. 15. A bond pair means 2 electrons involved in bonding Alone pair means a pair of 2 electrons not involved in •• bonding • H Cl • •• Unshared or lone pair (LP) shared or bond pair This is a LEWIS ELECTRON DOT structure. 08-Dec-13 15
  16. 16. VSEPR theory and Molecular Geometry (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) This theory helps in explaining the shapes of single covalent molecules. according to this theory the Various electron pairs around a central atom orient themselves in a such way that there is minimum repulsion and maximumstability The decreasing order of repulsions among electron pairs is as under Lone pair -Lone pair > Lone pair-Bond pair > Bond pair -Bond pair 08-Dec-13 16
  17. 17. Steric Number 1 1 atom bonded to another atom Steric No. Basic Geometry 0 lone pair 1 08-Dec-13 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs 3 lone pairs 4 lone pairs linear 18
  18. 18. Steric Number 2 2 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of the two, bonded to a central atom. Steric No. 2 08-Dec-13 Basic Geometry 0 lone pair linear 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs 3 lone pairs linear 19
  19. 19. Steric Number 3 3 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of the two, bonded to a central atom. Steric No. Basic Geometry 0 lone pair 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs bent / angular 3 lone pairs linear 3 trigonal planar 08-Dec-13 20
  20. 20. Steric Number 4 4 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of the two, bonded to a central atom. Steric No. Basic Geometry 0 lone pair 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs 3 lone pairs bent / angular linear 4 tetrahedral 08-Dec-13 trigonal pyramid 21
  21. 21. Steric Number 5 5 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of the two, bonded to a central atom. Steric No. Basic Geometry 0 lone pair 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs 3 lone pairs trigonal bipyramid sawhorse / seesaw t-shape linear 5 08-Dec-13 22
  22. 22. Steric Number 6 6 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of the two, bonded to a central atom. Steric No. Basic Geometry 0 lone pair 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs Octahedral square pyramid 3 lone pairs square planar 6 08-Dec-13 23
  23. 23. Steric Number 7 7 atoms, or lone electron pairs, or a combination of the two, bonded to a central atom. Steric No. Basic Geometry 0 lone pair 1 lone pair pentagonal bipyramidal 2 lone pairs 3 lone pairs pentagonal pyramidal 7 08-Dec-13 24
  24. 24. 08-Dec-13 25
  25. 25. 08-Dec-13 26

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