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PRESENTED
BY
ABHISHEK T MENDHE
M.TECH (HPE)
Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management ,NAGPUR
FANS AND BLOWERS
INTRODUCTION
• Fans and blowers provide air for ventilation and industrial
process requirements.
• Fans generate a pressur...
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FANS,BLOWER
AND COMPRESSOR
• As per “ASME” Depending on the specific ratio and rise in system
pressure....
TYPES OF FANS AND BLOWERS
2)Axial Flow Fan:-
Air enters and leaves the fan with no change in direction.
1)Centrifugal Flow...
A. Centrifugal Fans:-
• Rotating impeller increases air velocity.
• Air speed is converted to pressure.
• This fans produc...
1.Radial Blade Fan
Characteristic:
• Usually contain 6 to 16 impeller blades.
• High static pressures up to 1400 mm WC
can...
2.Forward curved Blade Fan
Characteristic:
• Usually contain 24 to 64 impeller blades.
• Produces low pressure up to 5 in-...
3.Backward Curved Blade Fan
Characteristic:
• Usually contain 6 to 16 impeller blades.
• Produces high pressure (40 in wg)...
B. Axial Fans
• Air is pressurized by blades which creating aerodynamic lift.
• Typically provide large air volumes at rel...
1.Propeller Axial Fan
Characteristic:
• Have two or more blades that generate very high
airflow volumes
• Produces low sta...
2.Tube Axial Fans
Characteristic:
• Tube axial fans have a wheel inside a cylindrical housing which
improves the air flow ...
3.Vane Axial Fans
Characteristic:
• Vane-axial fans are similar to tube-axial fans
with guide vanes that improves efficien...
BLOWER
•Blowers can achieve much higher pressures than fans, as high as
1.20 Kg/cm2.
•The impeller is typically gear-drive...
Functions of Fans in Power Plant
• Supply air for complete combustion of the fuel in the furnace.
• For evacuation of the ...
In Power Plant ,Air Used for Combustion is divided into two major
parts which are,
1.Primary Air:-
Portion of total air se...
Air Path In Thermal Power Plant
Types of Power Plant Fans
There are three main types of Fans used in Power Plant which are,
1. Forced Draft Fans
2. Primar...
1.Forced Draft Fan
• They installed at inlet to the air preheater.
• Forced Draft Fans (FD) supply the air necessary for f...
Forced Draft Fan Cycle
F
U
R
N
A
C
E
FD FAN A
FD FAN A
atmospheric air
atmospheric air
APH A
APH B
2.Primary Air Fan
• Supply high pressure primary air through APH needed to dry &
transport coal directly from the pulveris...
Primary Air Fan Cycle
M
I
L
S
S
APH A PA FAN
A
ATMOSPHERIC
AIR
PA FAN
B
APH B
3.Induced Draft Fan
• Located in between the ESP and foot of the stack.
• Sucks the combustion gases out of the furnace an...
Induced Draft Fan Cycle
F
U
R
N
A
C
E
APH A ESP A ID
IDESP BAPH B
S
T
A
C
K
Fan Performance Evaluation
Done by System resistance curve(System curve) and Fan curves.
System resistance curve:-
•The sy...
Fan curves:-
• The fan curve is a performance curve for the particular fan under a
specific set of conditions.
• The fan c...
Fig. Fan Curve
Operating Point:-
• The intersection of the system curve(SC) and the static pressure curve
defines the operating point.
• ...
Fan Laws
The fans operate under a predictable set of laws concerning speed,
power and pressure.
REFERENCES
1. Technology Menu on Energy Efficiency (NPC)
2. SADC Industrial Energy Management Project
3. Energy Audit Repo...
THANK YOU
Fans and blower
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Fans and blower

introduction to fan and blower, types of fans and blower,various application, performance parameters.

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Fans and blower

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY ABHISHEK T MENDHE M.TECH (HPE) Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management ,NAGPUR FANS AND BLOWERS
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Fans and blowers provide air for ventilation and industrial process requirements. • Fans generate a pressure to move air (or gases) against a resistance caused by ducts, dampers, or other components in a fan system. • Large capacity fan units typically consist of a bladed rotating impeller enclosed in a stationary casing. • The rotor system causes the motion of the air/gas and the casing directs the air flow. •The fan rotor receives energy from a rotating shaft and transmits it to the air.
  3. 3. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FANS,BLOWER AND COMPRESSOR • As per “ASME” Depending on the specific ratio and rise in system pressure. Equipment Specific Ratio Pressure rise (mmWC) Fan Up to 1.11 1136 Blower 1.11 to 1.20 1136 to 2066 Compressor More than 1.20 More than 2066
  4. 4. TYPES OF FANS AND BLOWERS 2)Axial Flow Fan:- Air enters and leaves the fan with no change in direction. 1)Centrifugal Flow Fan:- Airflow changes direction twice - once when entering and second when leaving . • Depending on types of flow, fans are categorized as, • Major blower types are, 1)Centrifugal Blower:- Similar to centrifugal fan but can achieve high pressure. 2)Positive Displacement Blower:- Provides constant volume of air.
  5. 5. A. Centrifugal Fans:- • Rotating impeller increases air velocity. • Air speed is converted to pressure. • This fans produces High Pressure which ranges from 550 mmwc to 1400 mmwc. • Efficiency varies from 60-83 %. • Used for Dirty air stream condition and material handling application. . It categorized by blade shapes, 1.Radial 2.Forward curved 3.Backward curved Fig. Centrifugal Fans
  6. 6. 1.Radial Blade Fan Characteristic: • Usually contain 6 to 16 impeller blades. • High static pressures up to 1400 mm WC can achieve with low flow rates. • low/medium airflow rates only. • Efficiency ranges from 69% - 75%. • Simple in Design. Application: • Suitable for handling heavily contaminated airstreams like dust laden, saw dust etc . • These are widely used in corrosive and high- temperature environments. Fig. Radial Blade Fans
  7. 7. 2.Forward curved Blade Fan Characteristic: • Usually contain 24 to 64 impeller blades. • Produces low pressure up to 5 in-wg • large airflow rates against relatively low static pressure. • Efficiency ranges from 60% - 65%. • Lighter in construction and less expensive Application: • Suitable for clean air environment as, blades easily accumulated dirt • Well suited for low pressure HVAC such as packaged air conditioning equipment • Not constructed for high pressures or harsh service. Fig. Forward curved blade
  8. 8. 3.Backward Curved Blade Fan Characteristic: • Usually contain 6 to 16 impeller blades. • Produces high pressure (40 in wg)with high flow rates. • More efficient than forward curved blade efficiency ranges from 79% - 83%. • High maintenance cost. Application: • Only recommended for clean air stream containing no condensable fumes or vapours • A common application is forced-draft . Fig. Backward Curved Blade Fan
  9. 9. B. Axial Fans • Air is pressurized by blades which creating aerodynamic lift. • Typically provide large air volumes at relatively low pressures pressure ranges from 250mmwc to 500mmwc. • Efficiency varies from 45% - 85%. • Popular with industry as compact, low cost and light weight. • Axial fans are frequently used in exhaust applications where airborne particulate size is small, such as dust streams, smoke, and steam. It categorized as, 1.Propellor Axial Fan 2.Tube Axial Fan 3.Vane Axial Fan Fig. Axial Fan
  10. 10. 1.Propeller Axial Fan Characteristic: • Have two or more blades that generate very high airflow volumes • Produces low static pressure (20-50)mmwc • Very low efficiencies of approximately 50 % . • Light weight and inexpensive. • Noise levels are higher than tube axial and vane axial fan. Application: • Air circulation within a space or ventilation through a wall without attached ductwork. • Ideally used for make up or replacement air supply. Fig. Propeller Axial Fan
  11. 11. 2.Tube Axial Fans Characteristic: • Tube axial fans have a wheel inside a cylindrical housing which improves the air flow efficiency. • Numbers of blades range from 4 to 8 . • Capable of developing a more useful static pressure range(250-400 mmWC ). • Efficient up to 65 %. Application: • Frequently used in exhaust applications. • Also used in some industrial applications such as drying ovens, paint spray. Fig. Tube Axial Fan
  12. 12. 3.Vane Axial Fans Characteristic: • Vane-axial fans are similar to tube-axial fans with guide vanes that improves efficiency by directing the flow. • Typically have 5 to 20 aerofoil type blades with a large hub diameter. • such fans generally used for pressure (up to 500 mmwc). • They can achieve efficiencies up to 85%. Application: • Typically used in high-pressure applications, such as induced draft service for a boiler exhaust. Fig. Vane Axial Fan
  13. 13. BLOWER •Blowers can achieve much higher pressures than fans, as high as 1.20 Kg/cm2. •The impeller is typically gear-driven and rotates as fast as 15,000 rpm. •They are also used to produce negative pressures for industrial vacuum systems. 1. Centrifugal blowers • Typically operate against pressures of 0.35 to 0.70 Kg/cm2. • they are most often used in applications that are not prone to clogging . 2. Positive-displacement blowers • They are especially suitable for applications prone to clogging, since they can produce enough pressure up to 1.25 Kg/cm2 - to blow clogged materials free.
  14. 14. Functions of Fans in Power Plant • Supply air for complete combustion of the fuel in the furnace. • For evacuation of the gaseous combustion products continuously from the boiler furnace. • To create Draft for required flow of air or combustion gas . • Supply air for cooling of equipments working in hot zones. • Supply air for sealing of gates , feeder and mills bearing . • Circulate the gases for better heat transfer.
  15. 15. In Power Plant ,Air Used for Combustion is divided into two major parts which are, 1.Primary Air:- Portion of total air sent through mills to the furnace. This air dries the pulverized coal and transport it to the furnace for combustion. 2. Secondary Air:- Large portion of total air sent to furnace for supply of necessary oxygen for the combustion. hence, increases the combustion efficiency.
  16. 16. Air Path In Thermal Power Plant
  17. 17. Types of Power Plant Fans There are three main types of Fans used in Power Plant which are, 1. Forced Draft Fans 2. Primary Air Fans 3. Induced Draft Fans
  18. 18. 1.Forced Draft Fan • They installed at inlet to the air preheater. • Forced Draft Fans (FD) supply the air necessary for fuel combustion by pushing the air through combustion air supply system and into the furnace. • Forced Draft fan produces pressure up to 510 mmwc at volume flow rates 20 to100 m3/s and operates against temperature 25 to 50°C for 200 MW plant. • These fans are typically the most efficient fans in the power plant because they have the cleanest operating environment. • For good reliability, 2 FD fan operating in parallel are used. • Centrifugal Fans with Backward curved blades are normally used.
  19. 19. Forced Draft Fan Cycle F U R N A C E FD FAN A FD FAN A atmospheric air atmospheric air APH A APH B
  20. 20. 2.Primary Air Fan • Supply high pressure primary air through APH needed to dry & transport coal directly from the pulveriser to the furnace. • PA fan operate at temperature up to 70 °C and produces pressure up to 1187mmwc at 75 m3/s volume flow rate for 200MW plant • Power requirement of PA fan is higher. • Centrifugal fan with backward curved blades are used.
  21. 21. Primary Air Fan Cycle M I L S S APH A PA FAN A ATMOSPHERIC AIR PA FAN B APH B
  22. 22. 3.Induced Draft Fan • Located in between the ESP and foot of the stack. • Sucks the combustion gases out of the furnace and discharge them into the stack . • Handles large volume hot dust/ash laden flue gases which are exhaust from furnace. • High power requirement than FD fan ,it require 1100 KW motor for 200MW plant . • Induced-draft fans produces volume flow rate up to 225 m3/s at inlet temperatures between 130 and 150°C and pressure ranges from 356 mmwc for 200MW plant. • Centrifugal fan with Radial blades are used.
  23. 23. Induced Draft Fan Cycle F U R N A C E APH A ESP A ID IDESP BAPH B S T A C K
  24. 24. Fan Performance Evaluation Done by System resistance curve(System curve) and Fan curves. System resistance curve:- •The system resistance is the sum of static pressure losses in the system. •The system resistance is a function of the configuration of ducts, pickups, elbows and the pressure drops across equipment • It is used to determine what volume the fan will produce. •The system resistance varies with the square of the volume of air Fig. System curve
  25. 25. Fan curves:- • The fan curve is a performance curve for the particular fan under a specific set of conditions. • The fan curve is a graphical representation of a number of inter- related parameters. • Fan curves are use to define the operating point. • Understanding this relationship is essential to designing, operating a fan system and it is the key for optimum selection of fan. It consist of three curves, 1. SP vs Air Flow rate. 2. BHP vs Air Flow rate. 3. Static efficiency vs Air Flow rate.
  26. 26. Fig. Fan Curve
  27. 27. Operating Point:- • The intersection of the system curve(SC) and the static pressure curve defines the operating point. • When the system resistance changes, the operating point also change • Once the operating point is fixed, the power required could be found from fan curve, similarly we can find the efficiency of fan. • In this figure, For fan speed N1. Point A- the fan’s actual operating point at, flow (Q1) against press (P1) .
  28. 28. Fan Laws The fans operate under a predictable set of laws concerning speed, power and pressure.
  29. 29. REFERENCES 1. Technology Menu on Energy Efficiency (NPC) 2. SADC Industrial Energy Management Project 3. Energy Audit Reports of NPC 4. Text book on “Power plant engineering” by P. K. Nag.
  30. 30. THANK YOU

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