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BUILDING MATERIALS AS A PLASTIC

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BUILDING MATERIALS AS A PLASTIC...

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BUILDING MATERIALS AS A PLASTIC

  1. 1. As A Building Material AAERT_SID INTERIOR MATERIAL & TECHNOLOGY-1 SEM.- 01
  2. 2. Background Plastics are said to be the most versatile materials on earth. Almost all of the products we use in our daily lives containAlmost all of the products we use in our daily lives contain plastics. This display chronicles some of the key discoveries, inventions, and people that have helped make the plastics The use of plastics materials in buildings, both for industry what it is today. construction and decoration, continues to increase, particularly as architects, designers and builders appreciate their advantages in construction terms and in the provision oftheir advantages in construction terms and in the provision of so called ‘maintenance free’ structures. Today, plastics materials are so widely used in the building industry that itmaterials are so widely used in the building industry that it would be difficult to envisage the construction of any building without them. Many products are available which meet the various building and fire regulations. Some of the areas in which these materials are used are listed in table 1.
  3. 3. Table 1. Application of plastics and rubbers in building Adhesives Anti-vibration Decorative laminates Sealants Roofing materials mountings Window frames Geotextiles for earthworksg Waterproof membranes Glazing Pipes and gutters Laminates for formwork Floor coverings Sound insulation Drainage systems Fascia boards Laminates for decoration Sound insulation Thermal insulation Fascia boards Cladding panels Flexible foams for upholstery Fibres for carpets and fabrics Paints and varnishes
  4. 4. Chart 1. Commercial Use of plastics
  5. 5. Classification of Plastics: There are two main groups of Plastics: 1. THERMOPLASTICS 2. THERMOSETTING PLASTICS High Density Polythene Low Density Polythene Epoxy Resin Polyester Resin Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Polystyrene Polypropylene Glass Reinforced Plastic Carbon Fibre Plastic Melamine FormaldehydePolypropylene Acrylo-nitrile (Nylon) ABS Melamine Formaldehyde ABS Poly Vinyl Acetate (PVA) Acrylic (Perspex) Elastomers
  6. 6. High Density Polythene: HDPE is used for Buckets, Basins, Bottles, Containers and is extensively used in both Blow molding & Injectiong j molding process. Properties:Properties: Tough, Feels Waxy, Resistant to Chemicals Most LDPE application is film based. Low Density Polythene: Most LDPE application is film based. Industry uses also include wire & cables’ coating, injection & Blow molding is used for plastic bagsmolding is used for plastic bags, Bottles. Properties:Properties: Soft, Flexible, Good Electrical insulator.
  7. 7. PVC is used for Gutters Drain Pipes Polyvinyl Chloride: PVC is used for Gutters, Drain Pipes, Window/Door Frames & Shutters, Plumbing Fixtures, Furniture i t t It i ft d iequipments, etc…It is often used in the Extrusion Process (larger length possible). Properties: Rigid, Water & Weather Resistant, Light Weight, Ease of fabrication &g g , Installation. Polystyrene: It is used extensively in the Packaging Industry. It is also widely i I l t B ildi i y y use in Insulate Buildings, in Refrigerators, etc… Properties: Soft, Lightweight, Good Insulator, Water resistance.
  8. 8. Acrylic: Acrylic is used for Bath’s Fixtures & Sanitary wares, Lighting, Display Stands. Properties: Stiff Hard Brittle Scratches easilyStiff, Hard, Brittle, Scratches easily. It is generally used as a waterproof Epoxy Resin: adhesive of as a liquid for casting. Properties: Strong (When Reinforced), Clear.
  9. 9. I i l k F i i Melamine Formaldehyde: It is commonly known as Formica is a composite material made from resin and layers of paper, commonly used for worktops. Properties:p Clarity, Stability to Heat, Light, Chemicals, Abrasion and Fire. It is a composite material made from Glass Reinforced Plastic: Resin and Glass Fiber Sheet. This combination produces a lightweight yet extremely strong material andy y g used everywhere from Speed boat hulls to Aircrafts, Roofing sheets, etc.. Properties:Properties: Very Strong, Lightweight, Easily workable.
  10. 10. El l i i h l i Elastomers: Elastomers are plastics with elastic properties, most are capable of considerable deformation and will return to their original shape. Uses range from waterproof seals to foam padding.p g Properties: Flexible Waterproof Heat resistantFlexible, Waterproof, Heat resistant.
  11. 11. Disadvantages of Plastic as Building material: Two general types PLASTIC Thermoplastics (melt, deform, vaporize – burns very fast)p ( , , p y ) Thermosets (decomposes, loose strength under heat but will not melt, only burns with extreme temps) Fi i l i l tiFires involving plastics… Burn fast Very intense heatVery intense heat Dense black smoke Extremely toxic UV light will weaken certain plastics and produce a chalky faded appearance on the exposed surface. One disadvantage of plastics materials is their tendency toOne disadvantage of plastics materials is their tendency to soften at elevated temperatures. This has restricted their use as main structural elements and also in hot water systems. Cold can cause some plastics to become brittle and fracture under pressure.
  12. 12. The Monsanto House of the Future was constructed at Disneyland in 1957. The frame and structure of the house were 100% plastic. The house had four cantilevered wings floating above beautifully landscaped grounds and waterfallscantilevered wings floating above beautifully landscaped grounds and waterfalls. Like many concept designs, Monsanto’s House of the Future was never mass produced. However, today the building and construction industry is one of the largest and fastest growing markets for plasticslargest and fastest growing markets for plastics. USES
  13. 13. USES
  14. 14. USES
  15. 15. Plastic as a Roofing Systems: Corrugated plastic sheeting has been used for roofing in conservatories and buildings whereconservatories and buildings where transparent panels have been required. However, in more recent ti d bl d t i l ll dtimes double and triple walled polycarbonate sheeting has become increasingly used, since this provides not only diffuse daylight for illumination but also heat insulation and hence reduced heating costs.g
  16. 16. Twin or triple walled polycarbonate: Provides a number of advantages during installation since it can be cut with conventional tools, is rigid to handle, does not require closely spaced supports is light in weightspaced supports, is light in weight and can be easily fitted. In addition, it can be cold formed or thermoformed into a variety of shapes to provide attractive and f ti l d f Edfunctional curved surfaces. Edges and joints can be sealed to prevent draughts Another majorprevent draughts. Another major advantage is its resistance to breakage.
  17. 17. Cladding Panels: UPVC products are now frequently used in place of the more traditional products for external cladding panels fascia andfor external cladding panels, fascia and soft boards, particularly on new buildings. Some of the advantages ff d b UPVC li ht i htoffered by UPVC are lighter weight, resistance to rot, lack of warp and lack of need for regular maintenance painting. Products are available in a variety of colours, including wood grain finishes. These may be of solid UPVC, doubleThese may be of solid UPVC, double skin or foam filled double skin construction. Fixing of UPVC products due allowanceFixing of UPVC products- due allowance must be made for expansion and contraction to prevent buckling of the sheets due to the heating effect of sunlight.
  18. 18. Sound Insulation: Sound within buildings may be general noise transmitted through walls and floors or a specific noise from vibratingp g machinery. The latter can be dealt with by using vibration mounts as mentioned above Air-borne noise can also presentabove. Air borne noise can also present problems and must be taken into account when designing sound insulation systems. With general noise, the traditional method was to build very thick and heavy wallsy y and floors. However, as buildings have become lighter, other methods of sound reduction have become necessary As areduction have become necessary. As a general principle, sound insulation can be provided by either a simple and heavy or a light and complex construction which isa light and complex construction, which is now replaced by the rubber and plastics materials.
  19. 19. Thermal Insulation: As well as sound insulation, buildings need thermal insulation also. This can be met by using light weight aeratedy g g g concrete building blocks during the construction of the building or by incorporating foamed plastic sheetingincorporating foamed plastic sheeting within the structure. Typical foamed plastics include rigid polyurethane foam and expanded polystyrene althoughand expanded polystyrene, although various other foamed plastics may also be used. Plasterboard can be readily obtained with a 25 mm foamed polystyrene backing. Other composite sheet building productsp g p can be obtained with polyurethane foam cores. They can be kept clean with very little effortlittle effort.
  20. 20. Plastic Decorative Laminates: The normal structure of a plastic decorative laminate includes a sheet of decorative papersheet of decorative paper impregnated (saturated) with one or more resins. Plastic decorative laminates have a wide range of uses, they can be used in the furniture industry fory kitchen cabinet counters, bookshelves and door linings, among many other things In theamong many other things. In the building industry they can be used for partitions screens in order to divide space in offices housesdivide space in offices, houses, etc...
  21. 21. Plastic Adhesives & Sealants: There are also water-based versions that can provide betterp heat resistance. Generally solvent-based, these cost ff ti filli dh ieffective, gap-filling adhesives are suitable for bonding sheet flooring, adhering skirtings and architraves, signs and wall panels. They have good adhesion to most substrates (especially poroussubstrates (especially porous materials such as wood, concrete, brick and plasterboard). Sealants- create a flexible, durable bond which is vibration- and shock- resistantresistant.
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BUILDING MATERIALS AS A PLASTIC...

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