What is network?
A network is a group of two or
more computer systems or mobile
system linked together.
What is 1G wireless technology?
1G was introduced in 1980. The main difference
between then existing systems and 1G was invent of
cellular technology and hence it is also known as First
generation of analog cellular telephone. In 1G wireless
technology the network contains many cells (Land
area was divided into small sectors, each sector is
known as cell, a cell is covered by a radio network
with one transceiver) and so same frequency can be
reused many times which results in great spectrum
usage and thus increased the system capacity i.e. large
number of users could be accommodated easily.
1G WIRELESS ADVANTAGE
Using Analog signals
Listen to handset
Frequency typically 150MHz & above
Poor voice quality
Poor battery life
Large phone size
Frequent call drops
Limited capacity and poor handoff
2G phones using global system for mobile
communications (GSM) were first used in the early
1990 s in Europe. GSM provides voice and limited
data services and uses digital modulation for
improved audio quality. Digital AMPS(Advanced
Mobile Phone System) , CDMA were some of the 2G
o Phone calls/ Fax
o Voice mail
o Send/Receive e-mail messages
o web browsing
o camera phones
o speed: 64-144 kb/sec
o Time to download a 3 min MP3 song: 6-9 min
3G is the third generation of mobile
telecommunication.3G networks support
services that provide an information transfer
rate of at least 200 kbit/s. Later 3G releases,
often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also
provide mobile broadbandaccess of
several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile
modems in laptop computers.
3G finds application in wireless
voice telephony,mobile, Internet
access, fixed wireless Internet
access, video calls and mobile
To meet the growing demand in network capacity,
rates required for high speed data transfer and
multimedia applications , 3G standards started evolving.
It is based on the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards.
3G technologies enable network operators to offer
users a wider range of more advanced services.
Services include wide-area wireless voice telephony,
video-calls and broadband wireless data , all in a mobile
The data are sent through the technology called
Packet switching.Voice calls are interpreted
through circuit switching.
3G technology has taken the gaming to the next level.
Real-time multiplayer gaming is possible in 3G system.
Innovative new services are being added by developer daily.
Also known as “Mobile Broadband Everywhere”
One of the terms used to describe 4G is:
Global mobility Support
Integrated wireless solution and
Customized personal service.
Faster and more reliable – 100 Mbps
Lower cost than previous generations.
Multi-standard wireless system
- Bluetooth , Wifi
Coverage of wide area.
Wide Variety of services capability.
Ad Hoc networking
Potentially IEEE standards 802.11
Only packet switching used unlike previous generations.
OFDMA(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple access)
and MIMO(Multiple In Multiple Out) replace CDMA
spread spectrum radio technology.
Specifications 3G 4G
Frequency band 1.5- 2.8 GHz 2-8 GHz
Band width 5-20 MHz 5-20 MHz
Data rate upto 2 Mbps 20 Mbps or more
Access wideband CDMA Multi-carrier-CDMA
FEC Turbo codes concatenated codes
Switching Circuit/ Packet Packet
Top speeds 200kmph 200kmph
ADVANTAGES OF 4G
High usability: anytime, anywhere and with any
Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost.
Higher bandwidth , tight network security.
DISADVANTAGES OF 4G
The equipment required to implement a next generation
network is still very expensive.
Carriers and providers have to plan carefully to make sure
that expenses are kept realistic.