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2,reform movements(History)--Abhishek Sharma


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2,reform movements(History)--Abhishek Sharma

  1. 1. Reform movements•Impact of British rule in India led to social &religious reform movements•Had scientific outlook & rationality in comparison toIndian static , decadent, superstitious society•Indian society suffered from many ills like positionof women, caste system, hierarchical societal systemilliteracy , poverty etc.•What made handful of the foreigner to rule India•Western educated middle class intellectual startedmany reforms on the basis of reason, logic
  2. 2. Woman emancipation•Abolition of “Sati” through regulation of 1829 ……Raja Rammohan Roy•Widow RemarriageIshwar Chandra Vidyasagar principle Sanskritcollege Calcutta … Hindu widow remarriage act 1856Vishnu Shastri Pandit founded widow remarriageassociation1850D.K Karve in western India ,opened widows homein poona, set up women university in Bombay in1916, himself married widow Veerasalingam Pantulu in madras made effort inthis directionOthers were Malabari, Ranade
  3. 3. Child marriage•“Native marriage act 1872” prohibited childmarriage•Parsi reformer Malabari made effort for“Age of Consent Act 1891” min. age of girl 12•“Sarda act 1930” marriageable age boy18, girl 14•“Child marriage (restraint ) act 1978” boys21,girls 18
  4. 4. Woman education•1819 Calcutta female juvenile society setup by Christian society•1849 Bethume school Calcutta byBethume 1st fruit of the movement forwoman education• 1854 Wood’s Dispatch on education laidemphasis on woman education•1916 Woman university Bombay …. Karve•1916 Lady Hardinge Medical college Delhi
  5. 5. Lord Hardinge II (1910-1916)•1911 …Creation of Bengal presidency likeBombay & Madras•1911 …..Transfer of capital from Calcutta toDelhi•1911 … Coronation durbar of King George Vin Delhi•1915 ….”Hindu Mahasabha” by MadanMohan Malviya
  6. 6. Role of Women later•Participated in Indian freedom movement•Swadeshi & boycott at the time of Bengalpartition 1905 played great role•Home rule movement of Annie Besant &Tilak•Sarojini Naidu became president of Indiannational congress in 1925 later governor ofUnited Province (1947-49)
  7. 7. Caste based exploitation•Brahmo samaj, prathna samaj , Aryasamaj, Ramakrishna Mission, Theosophist workedagainst it …. Though defended chaturvarnasystem•Principle of liberty & equality basis for freedommovt. to unify the society•INC govt. in 1937 did useful work for upliftmentof depressed•Gandhiji in 1932 founded All India Harijan Sangh
  8. 8. Caste based exploitation•Jyotiba Phule movement against Brahminicaldomination of Hindu society•Babasaheb Ambedakar organized All IndiaScheduled Caste Federation•1900’s Maharaja of Kolhapur encouragedNon- brahminical movement•1920’s south India Self Respect Movementby E.V. Ramaswamy•Sri Narayan guru in Kerala against upper classdomination “ One religion, one caste , oneGod for mankind’
  9. 9. Raja Rammohan Roy•Father of Indian Renaissance•Set up Brahmo Samaj 1828 earliest reform movement•Wrote Gift to Monothesis , preached monotheism•Translated to Bengali the Vedas & five Upanishads•1814.. Set up Atmiya Sabha in Calcutta•Focused on rationality & reasons in Vedanta•1820 wrote Precepts of Jesus•Sati was declared crime through Govt regulations•Supported David Hare to set up Hindu college 1817•1825 set up Vedanta college•Opposed Higher taxes , export duty on Indian export, East IndiaCompany’s trading rights•Supported Indianisation of Superior services, separation ofexecutives from judiciary•Radhakant Deb organized Dharma sabha opposed Roy
  10. 10. Brahmo Samaj•Followers of Brahmo samaj were KeshabChandra sen ,Debendra nath tagore, IshwarChandra Vidyasagar, Ashwani Kumardatta, Derozians•It denounced polytheism& idol worshipping•Criticized caste system
  11. 11. Prarthana Samaj•Keshab Chandra Sen founded it in 1863 inBombay•Other leaders included Mahadeo GobindRanade, R.G. Bhandarkar
  12. 12. Henry Vivian Derozian•Led Young Bengal Movement•Teacher in Hindu college Calcutta 1826-31•Inspired by French revolution•Had radical thoughts of liberty & freedom
  13. 13. Jyotiba Phule•Was against upper class Brahminicaldomination•In 1873 founded Satya Shodhak samaj•Wrote Gulamgiri & Sarvajanic Satyadharma
  14. 14. Others•Gopalhari Deshmukh ‘Lokhitwadi’ advocatedreorganization of the Indian society onrational principles…. “If religion does notsanction social reform , then change thereligion”•Gopal Krishan Gokhale set up Servant ofIndia Society in 1905 with aim of trainingmissionaries for national service•Narayan Malhar Joshi founded Social serviceleague in Bombay
  15. 15. •1885 Seva Sadan was started by BehramjiMalabari to take care of discarded & exploitedwomen•1830 Dharma Sabha started by Radhakant Debopposing abolition of Sati & maintaining statusquo in the socio religious matters•Bharat Dharma Mahamandal stood againstArya Samaj, Theosophical Society, RamkrishnaMission , Head quarter at Varanasi MadanMohan Malviya was leader of it
  16. 16. Ramkrishna movement•Ramkrishan Parmahansa priest at Kali templeDakshineshwar Calcutta•Spread the message of Vedanta•Narendranath Datta (Swami Vivekananda) disciple ofParmahansa founded Ramkrishna Mission in 1897 atBelur near Calcutta for religious & social reforms•“Service of man is service of God”•Followed teachings in Upanishads & Gita•He represented India in world parliament of religionin 1893 held at Chicago , preached healthy balance ofmaterialism of west with spiritualism of east.
  17. 17. Dayanand Saraswati•Founded Arya Samaj as a reaction to western influence in 1875 atBombay, later headquarter at Lahore•Mulshankar (Dayanand saraswati) born in old Morvi state of Gujrat inBrahmin family•Wrote “Satyarth Prakash”•Preached supremacy of Vedas “ go back to Vedas.•Was disciple of blind teacher Swami Virjananda of Mathura whotaught him Vedanta•Criticized later hindu scriptures as Puranas•Preached Vedic notion of chaturvarna as per occupation & not by birth•Samaj fixed min marriageable age at 25 for boys & 16 for girls•1st DAV school at Lahore in 1886 emphasized the importance ofwestern education•Swami Shradhanand started Gurukul at Hardwar in 1902 to providetraditional education•Started Shuddhi movement to reconvert the hindu from other religionsit led to the communal politics later
  18. 18. Aligarh Movement•After 1857 British played divide & rule policy•1885 INC formed Indian Muslim were led by some leaders topreach loyalty towards British to take care of their interests•Syed Ahmad Khan wanted Indian Muslims to develop & geteducated in western education•Loyalty to British earned him knighthood in 1888 , he wanted toreconcile western scientific education with the teachings of Quaran,but believed in adaptability of religion on basis of rationality•Started Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875, toimpart modern education among Muslims, & prevent them fromparticipating in politics•Deoband School preached orthodox tenets of religions & jihadagainst foreign rulers, set up in Saharanpur district of UP in 1866 byMohd. Qasim Nanotavi & Rashid Ahmed Gangohi, it supported INC& issued fatwa against Sayed Ahmad Khan’s organization
  19. 19. Sikh Movement•Singh Sabha movement started in Amritsar in1873 to impart western education to Sikhs &to protect Sikh religion from conversions•Akali movt. Was its offshoot & founded toprotect the gurudwaras from corrupt mahantsenjoying government patronage•Sikh Gurudwara act 1922 gave control ofGurudwaras to masses to be administrated byapex body SGPC
  20. 20. Theosophical Movement•Madame Blavatsky & colonel Olcott inspired byIndian thoughts & culture founded it in USA in1875, shifted HQ to Adyar in India in 1882•Believed in Hindu philosophy of reincarnation& karmas , Upanishads, Yoga , & became part ofHindu renaissance•Annie Besant became it’s president after Olcottin 1907. She had come to India in 1893, foundedcentral Hindu college in Benaras in 1898 laterbecame BHU in 1916•This gave self respect & sense of pride toHindu’s fighting against British