What is GPS ?• GPS is the acronym for Global Positioning System – a “satnav”• GPS is a U.S. space-based radio navigation system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, velocity and timing services to civilian users on a continuous worldwide basis -- freely available to all.
SPECIFICATIONS• It covers 24 satellites and 6 orbital spares approx. The satellites orbit Earth roughly every 12 hours at an altitude of 20200KM, covering the entire planet 24x7• To determine its position in X,Y and Z coordinates, a GPS receiver needs unobstructed view of at least four GPS satellites
How can it be implemented in MINING• Numerous Uses• Monitoring the dig advance• Dumping Patterns• Road use in Open Cast Mines• Accident Investigations• Truck Dispatching and Shovel Positioning Systems
Component parts and WORKING ?• 1)Space Segment 2)Control Segment 3)User Segment
Space Segment• 24sat,6 orbital spares @ 20200Km above earth surface.• Have very accurate clocks on board• Continuously sends one-way radio signals• Signals continuously provide Position and Time to GPS receivers
Control Segments• 5 World Wide Monitor and Control stations• adjusts satellite clocks• Tracks satellites• Uploads updated navigational data• Maintains health and status of the satellite constellation
User Segment• GPS receiver equipment: Us!• Receives signals from GPS satellites• Calculates user’s three-dimensional position
• It requires four satellites to determine the position of the GPS receiver
GPS in MINING• GPS Based Truck Dispatching System• GPS Based Shovel Positioning Systems• GPS Based Auxiliary Equipment Positioning System
GPS Based Truck Dispatching System• Ensures reduction in cost , accuracy of data collection, reduced field hardware interference by unauthorized personnel and low response time with decrease in field hardware components(detectors).• Productivity can be increased by 28-33%• Each activity is Timed and availability of HEMM for various departments can be easily known.• Today this system has over 100 installations for its management control, machinery availability and utilization ,real time control and safety
• Real time monitoring improves utilization factors for coal truck, over burden and shovel.• System will assist to reduce fuel cost.• Everything recorded and goes systematically even at Fueling bay• System and Operation(Explanation of Process that how GPS is used with trucks)
GPS Based Shovel Positioning Systems• The system continuously takes precision readings of the bucket position, compares the positions with the coordinates of the blocks and highlights on the console-the block the shovel is digging.• The system also displays the exact dig points of the dipper in each block by analyzing the GPS’s data, which is different in various modes.• This allows operators to verify whether they are digging the correct blocks at all times, even at night in adverse weather.• This offers accurate load accounting, blending and quality control.• The mining block is displayed to operator and the same in computer at office.• This also can be used for Mine Planning and assess the dig advance and update the mine model.
GPS Based Auxiliary Equipment Positioning System• Dozers , water trucks, graders and Pick up vans can be equipped with Hub based GPS equipment as well.• Examples:1. Haulage truck driver-Spillage-GPS coordinates-Grader-Safety
CONCLUSION• IT becomes an essential tool & technique for MINING Professionals for problem solving and decision making• Internet for Global Marketing• Remote online PC based instrumentation system for continuous monitoring• POWSS is the first worthy software for calculating and selection of powered roof supports and capacity respectively.• Image Processing, Remote sensing and GIS are widely used.• Last but not least-it can be stated that in the near future the mining and allied industries would be more and more dependent on IT
References• Computer Applications in Mineral Industry by Bhandyopadhyay and RR sheorey• Introduction to Geo Spatial Technologies by Chris Dillard-Geospatial Extension Unit,Alabama.