The presentation stresses the need for transport electrification and discusses few cutting edge technologies that are being used for it. It also highlights the Indian scenario and need to electrify transport in India.
Challenges posed by Fossil FuelsEnvironmental Degradation • Exploiting fossils produces GHG’s causing global warming and human sickness. • Transportation accounts for roughly 15% of energy related CO2 emissions globally & hence is a big contributor to climate change. Decreasing oil reserves and increasing oil prices • Oil is not forever. • Demand is increasing everywhere. • Oil prices are continuously rising and most of the developing economies are facing inflation.
Motivation To Embrace Electric Vehicles Reduce Oil Reduce Dependence GHG & Oil PriceEmissions Volatility Provide Promote Energy Fuel Security Diversifi- cation
Requirements of Electrification of the Urban Transport System0 Electric transport vehicles will need extra supply of electric energy necessarily generated from renewable sources.0 Vehicle-to-grid connection i.e. combining smart power charging and metering capabilities and an intelligent payment system.0 Supporting infrastructure . For e.g. For charging of electric vehicles public parking structures, work places or shopping malls as well as private garages will necessarily needs be equipped with charging stations.
Electric Drive Vehicles Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV’s) Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV’s) Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)
Battery Electric VehiclesPowered by an Electric Motor • Battery stores electrical energy that powers the motor. • Battery charged by plugging into outside electric power source. • Zero tailpipe emissionsDriving Range • EVs can travel 100-220 miles per charge, depending on the model.
Hybrid Electric vehiclesPowered by Engine and ElectricMotor • Internal combustion engine uses conventional fuel. • Battery charged by regenerative braking and engine. • Power from electric motor allows smaller engine and better fuel economy The two types- • Mild hybrid: Cannot power the vehicle using the electric motor alone. • Full hybrid: More powerful electric motor and larger batteries can drive the vehicle on just electric power for short distances and at low speeds.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric vehiclesPowered by an Electric Motor andEngine • Internal combustion engine uses alternative or conventional fuel. • Battery charged by outside electric power source, engine, or regenerative breaking. • During urban driving, most power comes from stored electricity. Long trips require the engineFuel-Efficient System Design • Parallel PHEVs connect the engine and the electric motor to the wheels through mechanical coupling. • Series PHEVs use only the electric motor to drive the wheels. The internal combustion engine is used to generate electricity for the motor.
Advantages of Hybrid VehiclesFuel Economy: Better thansimilar conventional vehiclesLow Emissions: Lower thansimilar conventional vehiclesFuel Cost Savings: Lessexpensive to operate than aconventional vehicleEnergy Security: Reduced U.S.reliance on imported petroleumFueling Flexibility: Fuel fromgas stations
Challenges to Transport Electrification 0 Renewable Enegry generation is much more decentralised and fluctuating than today’s fossil power generation. 0 In EV’s, high cost of storage systems . 0 In EV’s limited driving range, extended charging times & limited capacity. Though solutions to these challenges may be found through intense research at the level of the subsystems for energy storage and grid management in future.
The Indian Outlook 1400 12000 India imports about 41% of the oil the country 1000 requires from abroad. 2005 800 2008 20150 The country is suffering with high oil prices as India is 600 2025 held in the jaws of inflation. 400 2035 2000 The pollution level and the GHG emissions are surging 0 to peaks in the densely populated country creating Million tonnes of CO2 health problems. A study by a Delhi based organization ‘Centre for Science and Environment’ has depicted….
Electrified transport in India0 Basic charging infrastructure requires electricity distribution grid that is already installed in India and only the public charging stations need to be rolled out.0 Electrified public transport like Metro trains, etc. are already installed in metro cities and needs an expansion to all urban and semi-urban areas.0 It is inevitable for maintaining the competitiveness of the Indian automotive industry in a rapidly changing global economy.
Conclusion0 The move towards the electrification of transport will enable the future security of energy, a radical reduction of GHG emissions & local air pollution.0 Smart systems for energy management needs to be developed to match up to the infrastructural needs of Electrified Transport.0 Intense research efforts needs to be taken to overcome the challenges to transport electrification.