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Greek Architecture & Styles

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A brief introduction & understanding of Greek architecture styles & traditions.

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Greek Architecture & Styles

  1. 1. Date: 22 April 2016 Abhinand GopalTHE DEMOCRACY THE CLASSICAL GREEK CIVILISATION
  2. 2. PANTHALASSA The Greek Islands PANGEA Plate Tectonics Movement 200 mil years ago apes started descending to the land from trees, attaining upright posture and rotating the thumb
  3. 3. Greece: a country in the E. Mediterranean Sea made of small islands and having a long indented coastline
  4. 4. present day international boundaries showing countries around the Mediterranean Sea
  5. 5. Egypt (5000 - 300 BC) Mesopotamia (4500 - 550 BC) Indus Valley (3000 - 1300 BC)
  6. 6. PLACES GREECE 1.Crete 2.Athens 3.Sparta 4.Troy 5.Corinth 6.Rhodes 7.Mt Olympia A. Med. Sea B. Aegan Sea C. Sea of Crete D. Ionian Sea E. Black Sea
  7. 7. Archaic Greece (800- 480BC) Hellenic (480-323 BC) Hellenistic (323- 146 BC)Dark Ages of Greece Archaic Greece: lays foundations for the classical period of architecture, society & culture Hellenic Period: often referred to as the Classical Architecture Building & Classical Philosophy period of the Greeks (Socrates & Plato) Hellenistic Period: the decline of the Greek empire to the conquest of the Roman Empire unknown 1100 - 800 BC Timeline of Ancient Greece
  8. 8. HELLENIC PERIOD ENDS WITH THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER HELLENISTIC PERIOD BEGINS IN 323 BC, WHEN THE GREEK EMPIRE IS DIVIDED AMONGST GENERALS WITH NO APPARENT HEIR OF ALEXANDER
  9. 9. What is the first thing that comes to mind about Greece other than Alexander, the Great?
  10. 10. The Olympic Games were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece. They were held in honour of Zeus, every 4 years from 776 BC to 394 AD, when it was abolished.
  11. 11. BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE, BETWEEN SPARTANS & PERSIANS
  12. 12. ANCIENT WONDERS OF THE WORLD
  13. 13. BATTLE OF TROY
  14. 14. AERIAL VIEW SKETCH OF TROY & IT’S FORTIFIED WALLS
  15. 15. development of Greek civilisation & Architecture in the Hellenic period
  16. 16. FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN SOCIETY & ARCHITECTURE ▸ natural factors - geography, geology, climate ▸ civilisation factors - religion, social structure, technology & history of the group, economy geography: availability of water, fertile soil & natural barriers geology: building materials & construction climate: building design & orientation, presence of fenestrations (doors, windows)
  17. 17. NATURAL FACTORS GEOGRAPHY & CLIMATE ▸ Mediterranean climate. ▸ Unique geography of Greece develops local micro-climates. ▸ Highest Peak: Mt. Olympus ▸ Dry & hot summers - wet winters ▸ Mainly consists of the peninsula & the islands in the Aegan Sea ▸ rocky and barren, bad for agriculture. People lived along coastlines.
  18. 18. CIVILISATION FACTORS DEMOCRACY & RELIGION ▸ Greeks created their own gods ▸ Invented the concept of ‘DEMOCRACY’: a system of government by elected representatives of the citizens. ▸ new political system of city states, they ruled as independent nations. ▸ fast paced population growth in the city states & competition ▸ advocating political, economic & legal equality which was missing during the dark ages. ▸ slaves did exist, but they did not enjoy the same rights as citizens did.
  19. 19. Uranus: Father of Zeus, Gaia: Mother of Everything;
  20. 20. Zeus: God of Sky; Hades: god of Underworld; Poseidon: god of the Sea & horses; Athena: daughter of Zeus & Hera; Apollo: God of Truth, Music & Prophecy. Artemis: Goddess of hunt, wildlife & protection, twin sister of Apollo; Helios: Sun God; Selene: Moon God, sister of Helios; Ares: God of War, Aphrodite: Goddess of Love THE YOUNG GODS: THIRD ORDER OF HUMAN BEINGS AFTER THE TITANS & PRIMARIES
  21. 21. “I have set eyes on the wall of lofty Babylon on which is a road for chariots, and the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus, and the hanging gardens, and the Colossus of the Sun, and the huge labour of the high pyramids, and the vast tomb of Mausolus; but when I saw the house of Artemis that mounted to the clouds, those other marvels lost their brilliancy, and I said, 'Lo, apart from Olympus, the Sun never looked on aught so grand.’ — Antipater of Sidon, Greek poet in 2nd century BC Statue of Zeus, Olympia, 435 BC by Greek sculptor Phidias
  22. 22. Temple of Artemis, present in modern day Seluck, Turkey, 550 BC
  23. 23. Colossus of Rhodes, for Sun god Helios, 290 BC
  24. 24. GODDESS OF VICTORY - IS PERSONIFED WITH WINGS, THE DIVINE CHARIOTEER IN THE WAR AGAINST THE TITANS a famous brand has taken her personality & attributes. the logo has been derived from her wings. guess? Goddess & Zeus on the Silver Medal of the first Olympics 1896 AD, Rear: Acropolis
  25. 25. World’s First Concept of Democracy & foundations to the Modern western world
  26. 26. AN ASSEMBLY: A SPACE FOR CONGREGATION OF IDEAS & DISCUSSIONS
  27. 27. TEXT
  28. 28. The concept of sister states to promote healthy competition
  29. 29. ▸ started with Crete, which built the first naval empire ▸ introduced to “thalassocracy” to the world (naval supremacy) ▸ currently world’s third largest cargo fleet (6% of tonnage) ▸ their technology was highly advanced ▸ economy revolved around naval routes & trade of goods TRADERS & SEA VOYAGERS GREEK NAVAL POWERS
  30. 30. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS BETWEEN GREEKS & THE REST OF THE WORLD
  31. 31. Trade Routes of Egypt & Mesopotamia
  32. 32. TRADE ROUTES INDUS VALLEY TRADE ROUTE WITH PERSIA AND MESOPOTAMIA
  33. 33. THE ANCIENT TRADE ROUTES SERVED AS A PRECURSOR TO THE SILK ROAD Ancient trade routes laid the foundations for the Silk Road by the Han dynasty in 270 BC - 220 AD
  34. 34. VARIOUSDIALECTS&CULTUREPRACTICESINGREECE
  35. 35. GREEK SYMBOL DECEPTIONS GO PLANETS, INTERPRETATIONS & SPACE
  36. 36. present day math, physics & military codes
  37. 37. THINGS TO LEARN ABOUT THE CLASSICAL GREEK CIVILISATION ▸ The Megaron Plan evolution & the Palace of Knossos ▸ Acropolis & it’s buildings ▸ Different Orders: Architecture Elements & Proportions ▸ Doric Style: Parthenon ▸ Ionic Style: Temple of Nike & Erecthiernon ▸ Corinthian style: ▸ Optical Corrections for buildings & Proportions
  38. 38. REPRESENTED WITH 9 LINES REPRESENTING GODDESS MUSE, GODDESS OF ARTS, LITERATURE & SCIENCE Flag of Greece
  39. 39. FEATURES OF MARBLE STONE “GREEK ARCHITECTURE IS CARPENTRY IN STONE” ‣ Exactness, architecture lines can be best represented ‣ Refinement of Structure ‣ Aesthetics
  40. 40. TWO DIVISIONS OF HOUSE BUILDING ▸ first: single room rectangular in shape developed in main land Greece, areas around Troy ▸ second: agglomeration of asymmetrical placed rooms found mostly in Asia Minor & island of Crete
  41. 41. FIRE BAKED BRICKS, MORTAR, TERRACOTTA TILED ROOF & STRONG FOUNDATION
  42. 42. DUPLEX HOUSES EVOLVED AROUND THE COURTYARD Gynaeceum: place for women recreation Andron, place of male members of the family Positioned on lower floor Kitchen with vents
  43. 43. THE MEGARON PLAN: ANCIENT ARCHAIC GREECE The Megaron was the throne room, the above shows a standard Mycenaean Megaron. The entrance was the feature that helps to distinguish the Megaron. The walls were decorated with frescos & the roof was made of ceramic tiles, either flat roof or barrel vault roof was used. The Megaron's functions were many, including poetry, feasts, meetings, and worship. In the theory of architecture, the Megaron is considered to be the earliest architectural act. NaosPronaos
  44. 44. EVOLUTION OF PERISTYLE TEMPLE ▸ increase in number of columns ▸ attempt to achieve grand scale ▸ peristyle plan is the standard design concept for a Greek temple
  45. 45. Other examples of temple plans showing the modifications done to the peristyle plan
  46. 46. The citadel of Troy started from the Megaron plan in 2500 BC and evolved into a fortified city
  47. 47. Palace of KNOSSOS
  48. 48. Palace of Knossos 1375 BC, Crete
  49. 49. TEXT 4 acres/ 1.6 hectares 1 North Entrance 2 Bastion 4 ante room 5 throne room 15 gallery 10 Propylea 25 Queen’s Suite
  50. 50. Dialects in ancient Greece Ionic was spoken in the coastlines, while the Doric developed from Crete & Dorian Corinth from which it derives it’s name
  51. 51. TEXT Mt Olympus: the place of the Gods
  52. 52. ACROPOLIS 1782 BC BAGHDAD the elevated hill considered holy by the Greeks, was the
  53. 53. TEXT
  54. 54. GODDESS ATHENA, PATRON OF THE CITY OF ATHENS
  55. 55. TEXT
  56. 56. TEXT
  57. 57. PROPYLEA, ENTRANCE GATEWAY TO ACROPOLIS
  58. 58. WESTERN ENTRANCE THROUGH PROPYLEA
  59. 59. Section of the Propylaea
  60. 60. PLAN OF PARTHENON
  61. 61. SECTIONS PARTHENON
  62. 62. STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE
  63. 63. TEXT
  64. 64. Viewing Angle of a person & the spherical aberrations a tendency for the human eye to perceive curves instead of straight lines at the distance
  65. 65. TYPICAL FEATURE IN GREEK DORIC COLUMNS METHOD OF ENTASIS ▸ The technique used by Greek builders: slight convexity in columns ▸ It is the slight curvature of a classical column that diminishes as it rises. ▸ In the doric column of Parthenon: 34’ feet in height & 6’3” feet in diameter at the bottom, with convexity of 3-4 inches ▸ Adopted later by the Romans
  66. 66. Fibonacci Series: The Golden Ratio || Universal Design Principle
  67. 67. TEXT
  68. 68. TEXT
  69. 69. TEXT
  70. 70. TEXT
  71. 71. TEXT
  72. 72. TEXT
  73. 73. TEXT
  74. 74. TEXT
  75. 75. TEXT
  76. 76. TEXT
  77. 77. TEXT
  78. 78. TEXT
  79. 79. TEXT
  80. 80. TEXT
  81. 81. TEXT
  82. 82. 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 45 79 ….. AN INFINITE SERIES OF NUMBERS GOLDEN RATIO 1.618 Based on the Fibonacci sequence, the golden ratio describes the relationship between 2 proportions. Fibonacci numbers follow a ratio of 1:1.618 ratio - which is referred to as the golden ratio Throughout history, the ratio of length & to width of rectangles has been considered most pleasing to the eye.
  83. 83. TEXT
  84. 84. TEXT
  85. 85. A TYPICAL DIAGRAM SHOWING THE GREEK COLUMN ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL GREEK ARCHITECTURE ▸ Stylobate ▸ Column + Entablature ▸ Column: Base, Shaft, Capital ▸ Entablature: ▸ Pediment 1. Architrave 2. Frieze: Triglyph + Metope 3. Cornice
  86. 86. A stylobate is the top-most step of a Greek temple upon which columns are placed. While stereobate is used to describe the remaining steps of the platform beneath the stylobate and just above the levelling course. Height of the column in early Greek Temples 1/3 of the width of stylobate=
  87. 87. CAPITAL, SHAFT & BASE ELEMENTS IN A COLUMN
  88. 88. IONIC COLUMN ▸ Doric order obtained its proportion, its strength, and its beauty, from the human male. column height Entablature = = 3 x entablature 1 3/4 of the lower dia. MASCULINE FORM IN STONE
  89. 89. IONIC COLUMN column height Entablature = = 9 x base dia. 2 1/4 x base dia. FEMININE FORM IN STONE ▸ temple of artemis ▸ temple of nike ▸ slender columns that are taller than ionic and rest on the base
  90. 90. CORINTHIAN COLUMN: THE LAST PRINCIPAL ORDER NAMED AFTER THE CITY OF CORINTH ‣ It is the most ornate of the orders, characterised by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls. ‣ Developed by architect Callimachus after being inspired by a basket of flowers on the grave of a young girl. ‣ The capital represents vegetation. Shaft height Entablature = = 10 x base dia. 2 1/2 x base dia.
  91. 91. POTTERY WORK SHOWING GYNAECEUM
  92. 92. COLUMNS & ASSEMBLIES DERIVATIVES OF GREEK ELEMENTS
  93. 93. MERGER OF THE CLASSICAL GREEK ARCHITECTURE WITH BUDDHIST THOUGHT: GANDHARA SCHOOL OF ART
  94. 94. THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON DC, USA
  95. 95. OSLO TRADING CENTER, NORWAY
  96. 96. White House, Hyderabad A/C Marriage Hall
  97. 97. The Agora was a central space or square in ancient Greek city-states. The literal meaning of the word is "gathering place" or "assembly". The agora was the centre of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city.
  98. 98. VIEW OF ANCIENT ATHENIAN AGORA FROM ACROPOLIS
  99. 99. A caryatid is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head. The Caryatid Porch of the Erechtheion, Athens, 407 BC
  100. 100. PRESENT DAY GREECE DECONSTRUCTIVISM IN GREECE
  101. 101. TEXTTHE NEW ACROPOLIS MUSEUM, ATHENS, GREECE
  102. 102. THE NEW ACROPOLIS MUSEUM ▸ Architect: Bernard Tschumi ▸ Client: Archaeology Dept. of Greece ▸ Built year: 2002
  103. 103. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY A CLEAR VISUAL OF THE ACROPOLIS
  104. 104. TEXT REFECTION OF THE PARTHENON
  105. 105. LEVEL 1
  106. 106. LEVEL 3
  107. 107. TEXT Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 CIRCULATION OF SPACES *Courtesy: ArchDaily.com
  108. 108. Sketches Required: The Classical Greek Civilisation 1. Map of Greece 2. Acropolis Plan understanding 3. Parthenon: Plan, Column Elevation & Optical Correction 4. Ionic, Doric, Corinthian orders Date of Submission: 1st week of June Mode of Submission: A3 sketch books Movies recommended for better visual understanding into Classical Greek Architecture & Democracies: Troy, 300 & Series, Helen of Troy: miniseries, The Greek Tragedy movies: Iphigenia, The Trojan Women & Electra, My Big Fat Greek Wedding (the house set is interesting, else someday this will become a desi movie), Clash of Titans 2010
  109. 109. Date: 29 April 2016 Abhinand GopalTHE MAJESTIC ROMANS BUILDINGS OF THE ROMAN CIVILISATION
  110. 110. COLOSSEUM OF ROME
  111. 111. TREVIS FOUNTAIN, ROME, ITALY
  112. 112. PANTHEON, ROME

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