EERO SAARINEN A Presentation By RINI T. MATHEW ABHINAINA BHATIA B. Arch – 3 K. R. Mangalam S. A. P. Sub: Theory Of Architecture
BRIEF BIOGRAPHY• Born in Kirkkonummi, Finland in 1910• Studied in Paris and at Yale University, after which he joined his fathers practice.• Initially pursued sculpture but then decided to become an architect. Much of his work shows a relation to sculpture.• He was one of the most EERO SAARINEN prolific, unorthodox, and controversial masters of 20th-century architecture.
DESIGN PHILOSOPHY & STYLE• Major influence: Eliel Saarinen, his architect father• Given his early experiences in Hvitträsk and Cranbrook communities, Eero learned to appreciate the symbiotic relationship between individuals and their communities, and came to believe that the interests of both must be carefully considered in the design process.• Saarinen developed a remarkable range which depended on color, form and materials.• He showed a marked dependence on innovative structures and sculptural forms, but not at the cost of pragmatic considerations.• He easily moved back and forth between the International Style and Expressionism, utilizing a vocabulary of curves and cantilevered forms.• International Style: A pared down, unornamented style that emphasized geometric shapes, viewing it as architecture for the modern age, utilizing new construction techniques and materials. Flat roofed, asymmetrical and with bands of windows set into a rectangular form, International style buildings were a dramatic departure from past eras.
• His design of the USA embassy in London is considered an example of CLASSICAL ECLECTISM.• Classical Eclectism: Classical eclecticism rejected high Victorian picturesque irregularity and seeks to restore order, unity, and restraint to architecture and interiors. Its four main styles emulate past examples and display monumental planning while using contemporary materials: a) Beaux Arts: symmetry, five part facade, rustication, smooth upper stories, advancing and receding planes, columns, dramatic skylines b) Neo Renaissance: Large in scale, rectangular block forms, rusticated lower stories, arched openings, quoining, flat and/or low pitched roofs c) Chateauesque: Vertical and picturesque, asymmetry, smooth stone walls, pointed arch openings, pinnacles d) Neoclassical Revival: rusticated basements, flat roofs, symmetry, Greek order, columns and pilasters, limited ornament ―the purpose of architecture is to shelter and enhance man’s life on earth and to fulfill his belief in the
FURNITURE DESIGN TULIP ARMLESS CHAIR WOMB CHAIR EXECUTIVE SIDE CHAIR FIBERGLASS CHAIR GRASSHOPPER CHAIR SAARINEN DINING, SIDE AND COFFEE
FURNITURE DESIGNWOMB CHAIR IN FABRIC, CHROME FRAMEDesigned for KnollThe Womb Chair (1946) has an envelopingform that continues to be one of the mosticonic and recognized representations ofmid-century organic modernism. By applyingfoam molded over a fiberglass shell,Saarinen created a single-piece form thatperfectly facilitates a SIDE CHAIR sitting EXECUTIVE relaxed WITH METAL LEGS IN FABRICposture. Designed for Knoll The molded shell flexes slightly with the sitter and the contoured plywood seat supported by metal or wood legs. Unlike Saarinens furniture, which was consistently sculptural in form, these fluid lines didnt appear in his architecture until 1950s. When looking at the dome-shaped glass wall of The expressive Kresge Auditorium at MIT, its not a big leap to sculptural forms of saarinen’s furniture, which became see the recognizable in the of American easily same shape icons back of his modernism, can also be found in his architecture, from the TWA Executive Chair.
ARCHITECTURAL WORKS• in the postwar decades of what has been called ―the american century,‖ saarinen helped create the international image of the United States with his designs for some of the most potent symbolic expressions of American identity. BERKSHIRE MUSIC SHED, GATEWAY ARCH, GENERAL MOTORS TECHNICAL TANGLEWOOD, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, CENTER, MASSACHUSETTS, 1940 1961-1966 WARREN, MICHIGAN, 1946 - 1955 TWA, KRESGE CHAPEL, IBM RESEARCH BUILDING, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, CAMBRIDGE, YORKTOWN, NEW YORK, 1956 -1962 MASSACHUSETTS, 1955 1957 -1961
NORTH CHRISTIAN YALE HOCKEY RINK, CHURCH, NEW HAVEN,COLUMBUS, INDIANA, CONNECTICUT, 1959 - 1963 1956 - 1958 DULLES AIRPORT, CHANTILLY, VIRGINIA, 1958 -1962 JOHN DEERE AND KRESGE AUDITORIUM, COMPANY, CAMBRIDGE, MOLINE, ILLINOIS, MASSACHUSETTS,
NORTH CHRISTIAN CHURCH • Location: Columbus, Indiana, U.S.A. • Project Year: 1959 – 1963 • designer’s Intent: To design the church to be a ―prototype for 20th century christianity‖ • Materials: 3800 yards of concrete, 320 tons of reinforced rods & 22 tons of leaded copper • Floor space: 33,000 NORTH CHRISTIAN CHURCH square feetSOURCE: Berkey, Ricky. 2011. http://www.columbus.in.us.html
FACADE • Saarinen wanted to make the building appear as one single form with the church spire an integral part of the structure extending down to the lower corners of the roof structure differing from most steeples that simply appear to sit on the very top of the building. • The roof and spire seem to float over the massive concrete base. It also works symbolically to represent the feeling of reaching upward to God & FACADE represents the development of Christianity from its Jewish traditions. • The sloping slate roof ofSOURCE: Berkey, Ricky. 2011. http://www.columbus.in.us.html
• An experience to get inside like taking a spiritual journey from SPIRE the parking area to the Church • The hexagonal shape is thought to be symbolic of the Star of David, a Jewish SECTION motif. AUDITORIUM • Symmetric structure with CLASSROOMS the sanctuary as focus in SANCTUARY the center MAIN ENTRANCE PEW AREAS • Surrounding it are classrooms and offices with an auditorium, ALTAR, CHOIR AREA & kitchen and other PLAN ORGAN functions below.SOURCE: Berkey, Ricky. 2011. http://www.columbus.in.us.html
COMPARISON WITH A TRADITIONAL CHURCH SPIRE SECTION AUDITORIUM CLASSROOMS SANCTUARY MAIN ENTRANCE PEW AREAS ALTAR, CHOIR AREA & ORGAN PLAN OF A TRADITIONAL CHURCH PLAN OF NORTH CRISTIAN CHURCHSOURCE: Archpriest Sokolof, D. 2011. A Manual of the Orthodox Church’s Divine Services
• The organ is presented in a sculptural form above the altar area. The communion table is at the very center as a focus. • Natural light from the oculus shines directly down onto the area where the communion tables sit. • The sanctuary ceiling is white and soars high enclosing a very positive, spiritual space with a INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH seating capacity of 615. • The lower level contains an auditorium/fellowship hall which seats 350 but can be reconfigured intoSOURCE: Berkey, Ricky. 2011. http://www.columbus.in.us.html or two separate spaces
DAVID S. INGALLS RINK • Location: New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. • Project Year: 1956 – 1958 YALE HOCKEY RINK • Materials: concrete & cablesSOURCE: http://www.yalebulldogs.com/information/facilities/ingalls_rink/index.html
• New York Times recently named it the rink with the "Best Design" across all of America. • Named after former Yale mens ice hockey captains David S. Ingalls & David S. Ingalls Jr. • The arena gets its distinctive exterior look from a humpbacked roof, supported by a 300-foot backbone. As a result, it is also called the Yale Whale. • Over the years the rink YALE HOCKEY RINK has played host to commencements, concerts and rallies. • Logistics of the building won’t allow for expansion of the rink’s cozy seating capacity of 3,500.SOURCE: http://www.yalebulldogs.com/information/facilities/ingalls_rink/index.html
• Cast-concrete walls run round the two long edges of the elliptical plan. • These walls slant upwards and outwards at an angle of 15 degrees. PLAN • For the roof, a INTERIOR central arch spans the major axis of the ellipse and from it, cables take out two catenary curves in both directions. The concave and theSOURCE: Sharp, Dennis. Twentieth Century Architecture: a Visual History. p225
COMPARISON WITH A TRADITIONAL HOCKEY RINK EXTERIOR VIEW EXTERIOR VIEW PLAN PLAN MIAMI ARENA, INGALLS RINKSOURCE: Sharp, Dennis. FLORIDA Architecture: a Visual History. p225 Twentieth Century
DULLES AIRPORT• Location- Virginia• Date 1958 to 1962• Building Type- airline terminal• Construction System-concrete• Climate-temperate• Context-suburban• Style-Modern SKETCH (DULLES AIRPORT) PAGODA LIKE CONTROL TOWE• Set on a huge (10,000 acre), flat site, this is a highly distinctive building with colonnades of tipped and tapered columns on its two long facades.• a gracefully curving roof hung between them, and a pagoda-like control tower nearby.• Mobile lounges are used to carry passengers from the terminal to their planes. An underground tunnel consisting of a passenger walkway and moving sidewalks was opened in 2004 .• Dulles Airport is an important part of the economy of the Washington, D.C. area. It employs thousands of people and generates billions of dollars of business.
• When the need for Dulles Airport arose in the mid twentieth century, the entire functionality of how an airport works and operates was studied by Eero Saarinen to design an efficient new airport specifically geared for jet airplanes.• Saarinen focused on this aspect of the structure when planning the flow of passengers from the drop off outside of the Main Terminal, through the building, and onto the waiting airplanes.• A significant feature of saarinen’s design was the mobile lounge concept. The mobile lounges allowed for the Main Terminal to be a single independent mass without what Saarinen called extending structural ―fingers.‖ The mobile lounges were a modernistic design to bring passengers directly to the plane and to shorten the walking distance.• Saarinen also planned for the growth of the Main Terminal and the airport complex and incorporated future
• At Dulles, Saarinen had a unique series of problems: 1. he was designing a complete new airport, providing a modern gateway to the capital of the nation and building it for the Federal Government. 2. The site was a flat plain. The main terminus is a single, compact structure, not entirely free from formalist tendencies but one which is technically exciting. 3. The final design concept arrived at was a suspended structure, high at the front, lower in the middle, slightly higher at the back, generated by a rectangular plan.• The form of the building was designed to be centered between earth and sky, and as Saarinen stated to ―both rise from the plan and hover over it.‖
PLAN•The interior space of the main level is one large, open areadesigned to expedite flow of passengers from the roadwayto the waiting planes and to connect the interior of theterminal to the exterior.•The ground floor contains baggage circulation, and anadditional basement also serves this function.
SECTION• Eero Saarinen – did notwant to design an ordinaryairport. His main goalwas to find ―the soul of theAirport.‖• The Main Terminal alonecost $108.3 million dollarsto build, and that was in1962! Because of its uniquedesign, the Airport uses DULLES AIRPORT CONSTRUCTIONMobile Lounges (bigvehicles which hold 102
The columns punctuate the roof andcurve over the top of the structure The spaces between columon the north and south elevations. roof are filled with glass panels c into the bldg. EXTERIOR FACADE • The Main Terminal is reached by an access road leading to a three-leveled oval roadway that runs parallel to the north elevation. • The 1,240’ long building is composed of concrete columns 40’ apart along the north and south elevations supporting an upward curving concrete panel roof held
• In 1962, Dulles Airport was one of the most modern airports in the whole world! While only 666,559 travelled through the Airport in 1963, 19.8 million passengers were served by 1999.• Throughout the 1990s, Dulles Airport went through a lot of construction. This construction included making the Main Terminal bigger, building new Concourses and adding more parking areas for cars.• Dulles Airport is now undergoing another big construction program which includes adding two more runways and building an underground Airport Train System and stations. DULLES AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION
There have been many significant alterations to the airport since its construction.• In 1980 a fifty foot corridor designed by Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum (HOK) was added to the length of the Main Terminal.• In 1991 The International Arrivals Building was completed 300’ west of the Main Terminal designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM).• In 1996 the expansion of the Main Terminal from 600’ to 1,240’ was completed and designed by SOM. The expansion reflected the original design of Saarinen, who planned for an expansion to accommodate the growth of the facility. The International Arrivals building was connected to the Main Terminal due to the expansion on the west elevation.• In 2005, the interior of the Main Terminal was renovated and ticket counters and baggage handling facilities were updated. An additional baggage basement was
• Eero saarinen’s design of Dulles Airport was centred on how architecture could facilitate the travel experience of the passenger in the new age of jet travel. His modernistic creation reflected the connection of ground to sky, and Saarinen was also attempting to express ―the movement and excitement of modern travel by air.‖• Saarinen was making a statement against static Federal architecture by incorporating the concept of movement into his design. Saarinen also extended the role of the architect by not only creating a functional and stylistic design for the Main Terminal but by providing a master plan which would take into consideration future expansion of the entire complex.• The architectural design of the Main Terminal subtly reflects flight and movement. The airport has been
JOHN DEERE AND COMPANY• Location-Moline, Illinois• Building Type-commercial office block• Construction System-steel frame, weathering steel and glass façade• Climate-temperate• Context-wooded• Style-Modern• This headquarters for a farm equipment manufacturer pioneered in the use of weathering steel—high-tensile steel that, if left unpainted, forms its own cinnamon brown protective coating.• Set on a wooded site with two man-made lakes, its three original facilities were an auditorium, an office building, and display building, the latter two connected by a bridge across a ravine.
• Saarinens first inspiration was to raise a "rugged" concrete building: a pyramid inverted, on the highest bluff overlooking the valley floor.• The building is not of shiny steel like many office buildings of the day, but rather, rugged Cor-Ten steel, made to rust. Cor-Ten dated to 1933 and was developed for the railroads. John Deere World Headquarters was the first use of Cor-Ten in such a major architectural application.• Saarinen created a working monument that glorifies •Comprising four farms with dignity industry, technology and craftsmanship, totalling 720 acres (290 all in balance with nature. The building is in, of, by and hectares), the site contained for the land- the land which is this buildings reason to some existing trees and views of be. the valley that promised the kind of elegance Hewitt(the client) was looking for.INITIAL DESIGN CONCEPT (JOHN DEERE COMPANY) Saarinens first proposal for John Deere headquarters was an
• Saarinen engaged Hideo Sasaki to be the projects landscape architect.• The looping driveway lassoed the building complex, moving from the ravine bottom at the road intersection, rising along the ravine embankments and revealing stunning views across the ponds to the building facades, banking upward into the woodland landscape, eventually arriving at the principal parking lots disclosed at the last possible moment, and then dropping back down again to encircle the building complex at the rear to provide service access.• Saarinen used the cage of Cor-Ten steel not only as an exterior manifestation of structural members but to form exterior louvers over the banks of glass wrapping the buildings seven floors.• To avoid curtains or Venetian blinds, which would
SECTION• At its fourth floor level, glass-enclosed flying bridges stretch out to the laboratory and the exhibition buildings on the high slopes of the ravine.• The complex is approached from the valley below. the roads have been planned carefully, keeping in mind how the building would be seen as one drove along the man- made lake up to the parking lot behind the building and to the entrance.
KRESGE AUDITORIUM• Location-Cambridge, Massachusetts• Date-1950 to 1955• Building Type-school auditorium• Construction System-thin shell concrete dome, copper roof• Climate-temperate• Context-urban park campus• Style -Structuralist Modern• this building consists of a spherical segment dome-shaped concrete roof enclosing a triangular area approximately 160 feet on a side.• The primary building function is the enclosure of an 1238 seat auditorium and associated lobbies, restrooms, and projection facilities.• The dome is entirely supported on three points at the vertices of the triangle, or was by the original design. As every article written on the dome seems to mention, the total weight of the roof is approximately 1500 tons, and
TECHNOLOGY• The building’s roof structure is a spherical dome. However, because of the interruptions to the doubly-curved spherical shape due to the triangular plan of the building, severe edge disturbances to the membrane stresses in the shell result.• This requires the addition of a stiffening beam around the perimeter of the building. The thickening of the shell to18‖ at the perimeter is intended to provide the necessary stiffening to the edge of the shell.• Other technological concerns in the design of the structure were the transmission of sound from the exterior into the auditorium, and the application of a roof membrane to the shell. The selection and application of a roof membrane to the doubly-curved shell was a particularly difficult technical problem. KRESGE AUDITORIM SKETCH
CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS• Placement of concrete on sloped doubly curved surfaces is difficult at best, and the problems were compounded in the construction of the Kresge Auditorium by the steepness of the slopes at the vertices, and by the edge stiffening beams that were raised above the level of the top of the roof slab. The selection of the concrete mix for a project like this presents difficulties of its own. It is necessary to choose a stiff mix.• The roof system was a liquid-applied roof, consisting of fine limestone chips Picture shows extensive in an acrylic polymer binder. preparations for one of the steepest concrete placements in the building. The crew size is very large for a concrete placement of this size. LABOR AT WORK(KRESGE AUDITORIUM)
PLAN•This large auditorium seats a maximum of 1226 people,although only 1144 seats are available when the stage isextended over the pit seating section. It is used forconcerts, lectures, conferences, plays, and other majorevents.
• The Kresge Auditorium demonstrates several important principles in the management of thin-shell concrete structures. Even from the time of its design, it reveals the tensions between the architectural and the engineering profession over the principals to be applied to design.• As Billington points out, the conception of the Kresge Auditorium shell depends on a misunderstanding of the importance of edge effects, which resulted in severe structural problems for the Kresge Auditorium shell.• The problems with this building did not end with the resolution of the structural problems. The shell was difficult and unusual to construct, and significant difficulties were encountered in concrete placement, protection of the reinforcing steel and above all in waterproofing the roof of the building.• The satisfactory resolution of these problems had to
CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR WORKSTIME WORK REMARK1940 Chair designed Won first prize together with Charles Eames for the "Organic Design in Home furnishings― Competition1948 Jefferson Won first prize, National not completed till Expansion, 1960 Memorial, St. Louis.1949-1955 General motors First major technical centre architectural commission1953 Kersge Auditorium, MIT