Under Guidence Prof. Mrs S. P. ThoteLect. Deptt .Of Electrical Engineering G. P. Gadchiroli
Index Introduction Block Diagram Circuit Diagram IR Transmitter IR Receiver Circuit Microcontroller Digital Controller Power Supply Conclusion Advantages Reference
Introduction As in today needs the major aspect is to save the power that is bug issues in day to day work by saving bit by bit power by ever person can save a good amount of electrical power so keeping in mind we had tried to develop. An project which will automatically save the power by sensing the person in the elevatorit is based on microcontroller Which counts the person entering in the Mall elevator an accordingly It will switch the light ON and start counting the number of person entering insides the room. When this person leaves the elevatorit will count the person leavening the room. This Project “Automatic Mall Elevator ” is a reliable circuit that takes over the task of controlling the Mall elevator . When somebody enters into the elevator in the Mall will be ON and when any one leaves the elevator then is stop.
DESCRIPTION OF BLOCKDIAGRAMThe typical block diagram of the proposed project is shownin the figure.The block diagram consists of five parts. Regulated DC power supply. Microcontroller. Interfacing circuit. Motor and devices.
1)Regulated DC Power Supply:- It is used to provide the supply to the interfacing circuit. The whole arrangement is as shown in the block diagram.2)Micro Controller:- For controlling of the circuit the PC controller is provided. The PC controller is nothing but the keyboard. All the control can be done by keyboard.3)Interfacing Circuit:- Interfacing circuit consist of two circuit. First is switching circuit and second is speed controller circuit.4)Motor and Devices:- Motor is connected to the speed controller circuit and devices are connected to switching circuit.
Circuit Explanation IR emits the rays amplified by transistor and generated by 555 timer. TSOP sense the signal and sends to the transistor Which has 555 timer sends to the microcontroller will has the programming which sends to decoder which trigger the relay Through which it will trigger the relay ON. Certain frequency and ignores all other IR received. The best frequency for the job is between 30 and 60kHz, the most used is around 36kHz. So, remote controls use the 36kHz (or around) to transmit information. InfraRed light emitted by IR Diodes is pulsated at 36 thousand times per second, when transmitting logic level "1" and silence for "0".
To generate a 36kHz pulsating infrared is quite easy, more difficult is to receive and identify this frequency. This is why some companies produce infrared receives, that contains the filters, decoding circuits and the output shaper, that delivers a square wave, meaning the existence or not of the 36kHz incoming pulsating infrared. When switch S1 is in „on‟ position, the transmitter circuit, IR receiver module TSOP1738, which is commonly used in colors televisions for sensing the IR signals transmitted from the TV remote, is used as the sensor. IR signals transmitted from the TV remote, is used as the sensor. The IR beams transmitted by IR LED1 and LED2 fall on infrared receiver module IR RX1 of the receiver circuit to produce a low output at its pin 2. This keeps transistor T1 in non-conduction mode. Now when anyone enters through the gate to interrupt the IR beam, the IR receiver module produces a high output at its pin 3.
IR TRANSMITTER IC 555 is used as an Multivibrator. This is a free running oscillator and the frequency can be adjusted using 100k preset (variable resistor). Free running oscillator means, it is itself starting circuit which outputs a waveform that repeats itself without being either triggered or re-triggered. The output of the oscillator is periodic (i.e. repeats itself regularly) pulse or wave train. In a periodic signal the wave repeats itself indefinitely until the circuit is either turned off or otherwise inhibited. In this mode of operation, the capacitor charges and discharges between 1/3 Vcc and 2/3 Vcc. As in the triggered mode, the charge and discharge times and therefore the frequency are independent of the supply voltage.
IR RECEIVER CIRCUIT when IR signals does not falls on the TSOP 1738 its output pin no.3 goes high. R14 resistance is used to limit the current at the output of the TSOP and fed to pin1 of the NOT gate ic which has internal 6 not gate. 1st not gate invert its output and its output is again inverted by another not gate and increases its output current to switch the switching transistor 2N2222A or SL100 which is NPN switching transistor. The ground signal is generated by the transistor is fed. Receiver circuit operated at 5V DC and it is drive from power supply circuit. Transformer converts 230V AC to 12V AC and the 12V AC is converted into DC by Diode D1 & D2 it filtered by Capacitor C1, IC3 gives. Regulated 5V DC to other circuit. Infra-red receiver module detected 38 kHz signal this is transmitted from transmitter circuit.
Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, and toys. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems. The Light control of street is very crucial especially in applications where precision are of importance. This work investigates and implements a microcontroller- based adjustable system for a energy.
INFRARED IN ELECTRONICS Infra-Red is interesting, because it is easily generated and doesnt suffer electromagnetic interference, so it is nicely used to communication and control, but it is not perfect, some other light emissions could contains infrared as well, and that can interfere in this communication. The adventure of using lots of infra-red in TV/VCR remote controls and other applications, brought infra-red diodes (emitter and receivers) at very low cost at the market. This light can means something to the receiver, the "on or off" radiation can transmit different meanings. Lots of things can generate infrared, anything that radiate heat do it, including out body, lamps, stove, oven, friction your hands together, even the hot water at the faucet.
DIGITAL CONTROL Efficient control of motor and other electrical devices becomes critical where high precision, accuracy, flexibility; reliability and faster response are of paramount importance. Therefore for efficient control electronics and digital control are employed in which a solid state semiconductor are used. In advance we can use a software programming in which electronics circuit are interfaced with computers. By using software program there is less possibility of irregularity.
Advantages of Digital Control Digital control gives the high precision and accuracy. Digital control gives better speed regulation. Digital control gives faster response and flexibility. It gives better time response and improved performance. It has easy software control. It is economical and reliable. The greatest advantages of digital control is that by changing the program desired control technique can be implemented without any change in the hardware
POWER SUPPLY Power supply is the first and most important part of our project. In the proposed project the power supply circuit is used to provide the regulated supply to the IC`s used in the project. Power supply circuit consists of step down transformer, rectifier circuit, filter circuit and regulator IC. Step Down Transformero Transformers are static device which convert the electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit without any change in frequency and power.o Step down transformer means the transformer which reduces the supply voltage to the desired value.o In our project we need 12 volt DC supply, therefore in this project 12- 0-12, 500mA transformer is used.
Rectifier Circuito Rectifier is a circuit which converts the AC electrical energy into Dc electrical energy.o For operating of semiconductor devices used in this project we need regulated DC supply.o In this project we use centre tap full wave rectifier.o Full wave rectifier circuit is capable of converting sinusoidal input into a unidirectional output.o The circuit diagram is as shown in the figure.Filter Circuito It is seen that the output of the rectifier is not pure DC, because it contain some amount of AC component which is called as ripple factor.o This circuit is connected after the rectifier circuit. In our project capacitor input filter is used.o The circuit is as shown in the figure. The capacitor is connected in parallel to minimize the ripple factor.
Regulator Circuito In our project for the operation of IC we need +5 volt regulated supply is necessary therefore a voltage regulator circuit is used.o A voltage regulator is a circuit that supplies constant voltages regardless of change in the load current. IC voltage regulators are versatile and generally used.o The 7800 series consist of three terminal positive voltage regulators. These ICs are designed as fixed voltage regulator and adequate heat sink.o It can be deliver output current in access of 1A.o These devices do not required external component.o These ICs has internal terminal overload protection and internal short circuit and current limiting protection.
CONCLUSION In the designing of our projects, we have kept in mind the user in the implementation part which interacting with the user we had given lot of guideline to user with various massages.• It has powerful control with which you can easily implement various facilities in our projects .the screen are very user friendly.
ADVANTAGES Only single man can control the all over industry from one place with single unit control. The operation and working are performed very accurately as compared with existing technology. It saves the valuable time as well as man power. Chances of physical and mental stress on the worker are minimized.
APPLICATION It is used in Mall elevator for power saving. It is used in hotel It used in seminar hall It used in cinema hall It used in air ports It is used in Offices
Reference Power electronics laboratory O. P. Arora Wheezes publication, New Delhi. Power electronics and drive G. k. Dubey and C. Rao Tata Mc. Graw hill international ltd. Integrated electronics J. Millan and C. Halkias Tata Mc. Graw hill international ltd. Electrical technology volume 2 B. l. Thereja and A. k. Thereja S. Chand Publication. www.efy.com