Feedback Sequential Circuits• The simplest bistable / latches / flipflops are all FSCs• Each has one or more feedback loops• Ignoring the behavior during transitions they store a 0 or 1 at all times• The feedback loops are memory elements and the circuits behavior depends on both the current inputs and the values stored in the loops
Analysis• FSCs are the most common example of Fundamental mode circuits. – Inputs are not normally allowed to change simultaneously. – Analysis procedure assumes inputs change one at a time – Circuit settles to a stable internal state• Differs from clocked circuits, in which multiple inputs can change at almost arbitrary times without affecting the state and all input values are sampled and state changes occur with respect to a clock signal• Feedback sequential circuits may be Mealy or Moore circuits.• A circuit with n feedback loops has n binary state variables and 2n states.
FSC structure for Mealy and Moore machines Mealy machine onlyInputs Next Output State Current state Logic Logic F G Outputs Feedback loops
• Break the feedback loops so that the next value stored in each loop can be predicted as a function of the circuit inputs and the current value stored in all loops.• Insert a fictional buffer whose output is Y• Y is the single state variable in this example• If current state Y and inputs C and D are known the next state Y* can be predicted
Excitation equation Y* = (C D ) + (C D’ + Y’)’ Y* = C D + C’ Y + D Y• Now the state of the feedback loop can be written as a function of the current state and input Transition table• Each cell in the transition table shows the output of the fictional buffer after the corresponding state and input combination occurs
• By definition, a fundamental–mode circuit does not have a clock to tell it when to sample its inputs.• Instead we can imagine that the circuit is evaluating its current state continuously• As a result of each evaluation, it goes into the next state predicted by the transition table• Most of the time, the next state is the same as the current state; this is the essence of the fundamental –mode operation
Some definitions• Total state: combination of internal state (value of feedback loop) and input state (current input value) .• Stable total state: Total state whose next state predicted by the state table is the same as the current internal state.• Unstable total state: Total state whose next state predicted by the state table is different from the current internal state. State table State Input CD S 00 01 11 10 S0 S0 S0 S1 S0 S1 S1 S1 S1 S0 Next State S*
• To complete the analysis, we must determine how the outputs behave as functions of the internal state and inputs.• There are two outputs and hence two equations Q = Y* = C D + C’ Y + D Y QN = C D’ + Y’•Note that Q and QN are outputs, not statevariables.•Even though the circuit has two outputswhich can take up 4 combinations, it hasonly 1 state variable Y, and hence only 2states•The output values can be incorporated in acombined state/output table whichcompletely describes the circuit
State output table•Although Q and QN are normallycomplimentary, it is possible for them tohave the same value momentarily•They have the value 1 momentarily duringthe transition from S0 to S1 under the inputcombination CD = 11•The behavior of the circuit can bepredicted from this state output table
Analysis for few transitions• Start with stable total state “S0/00” ( S = S0 and CD = 00)• 1 bit changes at a time• Change D to 1• Change C to 1
Multiple input changes• Start with stable total state “S1/11”• C and D are both simultaneously set to 0• Almost simultaneous input changes occur in practice• May change in different orders• -suppose C changes first, final is S1/00• -suppose D changes first, final is S0/00• Unpredictable final state, feedback loop may become metastable
Multiple input changes• Start with stable total state “S0/00”• C and D are both simultaneously set to 1• Almost simultaneous input changes occur in practice• May change in different orders• -suppose C changes first, final is S1/11• -suppose D changes first, final is S1/11• Simultaneous input changes don’t always cause unpredictable behavior.
Analyzing Circuits with Multiple Feedback Loops• Break each loop and insert buffers• Many possible ways – cut sets• Best? Minimal cut set• Different minimal cut sets• Different excitation equations, transition tables and state/output tables• However, stable total states derived from one set should correspond one-to-one to the stable total states from the other• State/Output table should give the same input/output behavior, with only the names and coding of the states changed• Even if non minimal cut sets are used the resulting state/output table will still describe the circuit correctly but using more states
Analyzing Circuits with Multiple Feedback Loops• A good example is the commercial circuit design for a positive edge triggered TTL D flip-flop• The circuit is simplified assuming that the Preset and Clear inputs are never asserted and showing the fictional buffers to break the 3 feedback loops
Races• A race is said to occur when multiple internal variables change state as a result of a single input changing state.• Starting at state 011/00 change CLK to 1.• The next internal state is 000• The state may change as 011→ 010→ 000• Or as 011→ 001→ 000
• Noncritical race: the final state does not depend on the order in which the state variables change.• Now modifying the next state entry for total state 010/10 to 110 instead of 000• The state may change as 011→ 010→ 110 → 111• Or as 011→ 001→ 000• The next internal state could be111 or 000• Critical race: the final state depends on the order in which the state variables change. 110
State Tables• Once it has been determined that a transition table does not have any critical races, the state-variable combinations can be named and outputs can be determined to obtain a state/output table.• State table shows that it takes multiple hops to reach a new stable total state in some cases• S0/11→S2/01→S6/01
Flow TablesFlow table eliminates: – Rows for unused internal states (states that are stable for no input combination). – Next state entries for total states that cannot be reached from a stable total state as the result of a single input change.• It eliminates multiple hops and shows only the ultimate destination of each transition.