Social networking</li></ul>The popularity of the term Web 2.0, along with the increasing use of blogs, wikis, and social networking technologies, has led many in academia and business to coin a flurry of 2.0s, including Library 2.0, Social Work 2.0, Enterprise 2.0, PR 2.0, Classroom 2.0, Publishing 2.0, Medicine 2.0, Telco 2.0, Travel 2.0, Government 2.0, and even Porn 2.0. Many of these 2.0s refer to Web 2.0 technologies as the source of the new version in their respective disciplines and areas. <br />The meaning of web 2.0 is role dependent, For example, some use Web 2.0 to establish and maintain relationships through social networks, while some marketing managers might use this promising technology to "end-run traditionally unresponsive I.T. departments”. <br />There is a debate over the use of Web 2.0 technologies in mainstream education. Issues under consideration include the understanding of students' different learning modes; the conflicts between ideas entrenched in informal on-line communities and educational establishments' views on the production and authentication of 'formal' knowledge; and questions about privacy, plagiarism, shared authorship and the ownership of knowledge and information produced and/or published on line. <br />Marketing<br />For marketers, Web 2.0 offers an opportunity to engage consumers. A growing number of marketers are using Web 2.0 tools to collaborate with consumers on product development, service enhancement and promotion. Companies can use Web 2.0 tools to improve collaboration with both its business partners and consumers. Among other things, company employees have created wikis—Web sites that allow users to add, delete and edit content—to list answers to frequently asked questions about each product, and consumers have added significant contributions. Another marketing Web 2.0 lure is to make sure consumers can use the online community to network among themselves on topics of their own choosing. <br />Mainstream media usage of web 2.0 is increasing. Saturating media hubs—like New York Times, PC Magazine and Business Week—with links to popular new web sites and services, is critical to achieving the threshold for mass adoption of those services.<br /> <br />Web 2.0 offers financial institutions abundant opportunities to engage with customers. Networks such as Twitter,Linkedin & Facebook are now becoming common elements of multichannel and customer loyalty strategies, and banks are beginning to use these sites proactively to spread their messages. In a recent article for Bank Technology News, Shane Kite describes how Citigroup's Global Transaction Services unit monitors social media outlets to address customer issues and improve products. Furthermore, CitiGroup uses Twitter to release "breaking news" and upcoming events, and YouTube to disseminate videos that feature executives speaking about market news. <br />Small businesses have become more competitive by using Web 2.0 marketing strategies to compete with larger companies. As new businesses grow and develop, new technology is used to decrease the gap between businesses and customers. Social networks have become more intuitive and user friendly to provide information that is easily reached by the end user. For example, companies use Twitter to offer customers coupons and discounts for products and services. <br />According to Google Timeline, the term Web 2.0 was discussed and indexed most frequently in 2005, 2007 and 2008. Its average use is continuously declining by 2–4% per quarter since April 2008.<br />Web 2.0 Web-based applications and desktop Applications<br />Ajax has prompted the development of websites that mimic desktop applications, such as word processing, the spreadsheet, and slide-show presentation. In 2006 Google, Inc. acquired one of the best-known sites of this broad class, Writely. WYSIWYG wiki and blogging sites replicate many features of PC authoring applications.<br />Several browser-based "operating systems" have emerged, including EyeOS and YouOS. Although coined as such, many of these services function less like a traditional operating system and more as an application platform. They mimic the user experience of desktop operating-systems, offering features and applications similar to a PC environment, and are able to run within any modern browser. However, these operating systems do not directly control the hardware on the client's computer.<br />Numerous web-based application services appeared during the dot-com bubble of 1997–2001 and then vanished, having failed to gain a critical mass of customers. In 2005, WebEx acquired one of the better-known of these, Intranets.com, for $45 million. <br />Internet applications<br />Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) are web 2.0 applications that have many of the characteristics of desktop applications and are typically delivered via a browser.<br />Distribution of Media<br />XML and RSS<br />Many regard syndication of site content as a Web 2.0 feature. Syndication uses standardized protocols to permit end-users to make use of a site's data in another context (such as another website, a browser plugin, or a separate desktop application). Protocols which permit syndication include RSS (really simple syndication, also known as web syndication), RDF (as in RSS 1.1), and Atom, all of them XML-based formats. Observers have started to refer to these technologies as web feeds.<br />Specialized protocols such as FOAF and XFN (both for social networking) extend the functionality of sites or permit end-users to interact without centralized websites.<br />Web APIs<br />Web 2.0 often uses machine-based interactions such as REST and SOAP. Servers often expose proprietary APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), but standard APIs (for example, for posting to a blog or notifying a blog update) have also come into use. Most communications through APIs involve XML or JSON payloads.<br />REST APIs, through their use of self-descriptive messages and hypermedia as the engine of application state, should be self describing once an entry URI is known. Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is the standard way of publishing a SOAP API and there are a range of web service specifications. EMML, or Enterprise Mashup Markup Language by the Open Mashup Alliance, is an XML markup language for creating enterprise mashups.<br /> Web 2.0 Buzzwords<br />Here are a few of the buzzwords that are driving the Web 2.0 era:<br />API: Application Programming Interface is a code interface over which programmer can built their own applications. APIs make it possible for the programmers to use some great features on the web without any complex coding.<br />Atom: Atom is a commonly used syndication format for web feeds. It is based on XML and is supported by most standard feed readers.<br />Blog: Blog or a Weblog is an online journal, which provides an easy to use interface for users to publish content. Blogs enable people to have an online presence without having any technical knowledge.<br />Feeds: Feeds allow you to get updates from the websites. It allows you to check the recent articles and content from web pages on the internet. A person may subscribe to a news feed to get the latest news right on his desktop.<br />Folksonomy: Folksonomy is the practice of collaboratively categorizing content by tagging the content under various connotations. This method is popularly applied in social bookmarking and tagging webpages and photos.<br />Mashup: Mashups are a interactive genre of web applications which accumulates data from various sources and conflates it in a single integrated application. Mashup generally collects data from Feeds and Web Services.<br />Microformats: Microformats are a set of simple open data formats, which allows the normal data in HTML and XHTML to be categorized by providing annotations in the existing markup. It aims at easier access of information such as contact addresses, locations etc making it easily place able by the searching software.<br />Perpetual Beta: Perpetual Beta is the software stage where the software is launched and is always under constant updates, which could be monthly, weekly or even daily. It follows the principle of "release early and release often", thus software is released at a premature state and new features are added frequently.<br />Podcast: Podcast is a form of a feed carrying digital media files which could be downloaded or streamed on media players. Online radio is a well comprehensible example of a podcast.<br />RSS: Really Simple Syndication is a collection of feed formats. It is used to syndicate updated content from a website.<br /> SEO: Search Engine Optimization is a process of improving your rankings on the search engines by using a set of techniques, which include ameliorating the quality of content and code of the website, placing links at strategic locations on the web and adhering to some web standards.<br />Social Bookmarking: Social Bookmarking is a folksonomy practice through which users bookmark pages on the web and create custom tags to annotate these pages.<br />Social Networking: Social networking is a method to promote online collaboration of people by creating communities of (net) citizens with similar interests. It is a popular method to connect with friends online.<br />Tagging: <br />Tagging is a practice of annotating the web content by creating tags or keywords to identify them. <br />Web Service: Web Services are the modules enable a programmer to use these modules in their programs without actually coding them. It allows machine to machine data transfer between applications in XML format that follow the SOAP standard.<br />Wiki: Wiki is a web application which allows you to easily create and edit content on the web. It is used to create collaborative websites and is a great tool for social content creation and organization.<br />XML: eXtensible Markup Language is a markup language which allows users to generate their own tags. It enables creation of structured data that could be easily exchanged over the web.<br />3.2 Web 1.0 vs. Web 2.0<br />The transition from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 can be effectively presented by the following transformations:<br />Read only to read/write web<br /><ul><li>Less user generated content to more
250,000 sites to about 80 million sites (2006) and crossed 100 million in 2010.
45 million users to 1.5 billion users and still growing rapidly