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CGD Business in India: a report


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An overview of CGD Business in India

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CGD Business in India: a report

  1. 1. 1 Report on CGD Business: in India School of Petroleum Management, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India Prepared by Executive-MBA-2010 student: Abhik Tushar Das (20104001)Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  2. 2. 2 Contents: Contents: S No. Topic Page Number 1 Natural Gas facts 3 2 Overview of CGD business in India 4 3 CGD Infrastructure 8 4 Natural Gas Transportation Network 11 5 Supply Chain in CGD 13 6 Project Management aspects 15 7 Market Development 17 8 Customer Service issues 18 9 Major Commercial Issues 19 10 QHSE in CGD 20 11 CGD Regulation 21Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  3. 3. 3 Natural Gas facts: Natural Gas facts:Natural gas (also called Marsh Gas, Swamp Gas or Landfill Gas) is a naturallyoccurring gas mixture as a result of the decay of plant/ animal remains,consists primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons(primarily ethane). It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coalbeds, as METHANE CLATHRATES, and is an important fuel source and a majorfeedstock for fertilizers.Most of the natural gas that is brought out from under the ground is millionsand millions of years old. Britain was the first country to commercialize the useof natural gas. Around 1785, natural gas produced from coal was used to lighthouses, as well as streetlights. The American natural gas industry got itsbeginnings in this area in 1859, when Colonel Edwin Drake (a former railroadconductor who adopted the title Colonel to impress the townspeople) dug thefirst well to hit oil and natural gas at 69 feet below the surface of the earth.During most of the 19th century, natural gas was used almost exclusively as asource of light as without a pipeline infrastructure, it was difficult to transportthe gas very far, or into homes to be used for heating or cooking. In 1885,Robert Bunsen invented what is now known as the Bunsen burner. Hemanaged to create a device that mixed natural gas with air in the rightproportions, creating a flame that could be safely used for cooking andheating. One of the first lengthy pipelines was constructed in 1891 which was120 miles long, and carried natural gas from wells in central Indiana to the cityof Chicago.Based on the type of source Natural gas is classified as associated and non-associated gas and there is of no significance when end use is concerned. 1. Associated gas is natural gas found in crude oil reservoirs either dissolved or in conjunction with crude oil deposits and it is also called as Oil well gas 2. Non-associated gas is Natural gas found in reservoirs separate from crude oil wells and it is also called as Dry gasBased on the sulphur content the natural gas is classified as sour gas whichcontains higher level of sulphur content in its composition and sweet gas hasWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  4. 4. 4very little or nil sulphur. The thermal efficiency varies from 9000 to per Kg based on the composition of Gas.Natural Gas Transportation modes:  Through pipelines as gas  Through tankers as liquid (LNG)Natural Gas Distribution modes:  For industrial/ house hold consumers (PNG)  For transport vehicles (CNG)Approximate Composition of NG:Name Chemical Formula Composition (%)Methane CH4 70-90%Ethane C2H6 0-20%Propane C3H8Butane C4H10Carbon Dioxide CO2 0-8%Oxygen O2 0-0.2%Nitrogen N2 0-5%Hydrogen sulfide H2S 0-5%Rare gases A, He, Ne, Xe traces Overview of CGD business in India:Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas established the Petroleum and NaturalGas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) with effect from 01.10.2007, under thePetroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act 2006, to regulate therefining, processing, storage, transportation, distribution, marketing and saleof petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas excluding production ofcrude oil and natural gas. The Petroleum & Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act-2006 provides the legal framework for the development of the natural gaspipelines and city or local gas distribution networks. With the arrival of theWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  5. 5. 5PNGRB the implementation of PNG in various cities is being taken up in aphased manner as and when the bids are called for by the Regulator.Gas supply sources in India: 1. APM (Administered Pricing Mechanism) Gas from traditional fields of State PSU (Public Sector Undertakings) 2. KG (Krishna Godavari) Basin gas from private players 3. CBM (Coal Bed Methane) gas 4. RLNG (Re-gasified Liquefied Natural Gas) importsLargest Gas producing countries: 1. United States = 19.3% 2. Russia = 18.4% 3. Canada = 5.0% 4. Iran = 4.3% 5. Qatar = 3.6% 6. Norway = 3.3% 7. China = 3.0% 8. Saudi Arabia = 2.6% 9. Indonesia = 2.6% 10.Algeria = 2.5% Source:, 21 December 2011 Email:
  6. 6. 6India is the 7th largest energy producer, the 4th largest primary energyconsumer and the 13th largest Natural Gas consumer in the world. Hence it isevident that India lacks gas usage in its energy basket. According to the IndiaHydrocarbon Vision 2025, the contribution of Natural Gas in the Indian energybasket shall grow to a significant 25%.Share of future energy supply in India (%)YEAR COAL OIL GAS HYDEL NUCLEAR1997-98 55 35 7 2 12001-02 50 32 15 2 12006-07 50 32 15 2 12010-11 53 30 14 2 12024-25 50 25 20 2 3Source: India Hydrocarbon Vision 2025SUPPLY/DEMAND-NATURAL GASMMSCMD (in million standard cubic meters per day)YEARS DEMAND1999-2000 1102001-2002 1512006-2007 2312011-2012 3132024-2025 391Source: India Hydrocarbon Vision 2025Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  7. 7. 7Gas demand break-up:As evident from the trend, City Gas has a huge upside potential based onGovernment of India’s Hydrocarbon Vision-2025 and the existing fuel mix inour energy basket. The infrastructure development for transporting the gasfrom well head/ regassification terminals to the end user involves laying of GasHighways which are capital intensive and hence have long gestation periods.Moreover, with Durban Climate Change talks moving towards a substantialoutcome, India being the fourth largest GHG emitter in absolute terms wouldface emission cut targets by 2020. Switching over to cleaner fuel would helpIndia achieve reduction in Carbon footprints.Subsidy on LPG (cooking fuel) is another contentious issue concerning thenational exchequer with subsidy bills denting the fiscal deficit targets.Substituting LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) by PNG (Piped Natural Gas) wouldWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  8. 8. 8reduce the Governments subsidy burden and help market price realization forcooking fuel. Natural Gas would also reduce dependence on Kerosene andFirewood as source of cooking fuel which have high carbon emissions. CGD Infrastructure:CGD Value Chain:CNG stations are of four major types depending upon the structure andoperations: 1. CNG Mother Stations: Mother Stations are connected to the pipeline and have high compression capacity. These stations supply CNG to both vehicles and daughter stations through mobile cascades 6 . The Mother Station requires heavy investment towards compressor, dispensers, cascades, pipelines etc. 2. CNG Online Station: CNG vehicle storage cylinders need to be fitted at a pressure of 200 bars. Online stations are equipped with a compressor of relatively small capacity, which compresses low-pressure pipeline gas to the pressure of 250 bars for dispensing CNG to the vehicle cylinder.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  9. 9. 9 3. CNG Daughter Station: The Daughter Stations dispense CNG using mobile cascades. These mobile cascades at daughter stations are replaced when pressure falls and pressure depleted mobile cascade is refilled at Mother Station. The investment is least among all types of CNG stations. 4. CNG Daughter-Booster Station: Installing a booster compressor can eliminate drawbacks of daughter stations. The mobile cascade can be connected to the dispensing system through a booster. Daughter booster is designed to take variable suction pressure and discharge at constant pressure of 200 bars to the vehicle being filled with CNG. Pipeline pressure Specifications Main transmission grid line pressure (High Pressure System) = 14‐19 bar, Steel Distribution/Service line pressure (Medium Pressure System) = 4 to 1.5 bar, MDPE Domestic connection pressure (Low Pressure System) = 21 mbar, GISupply pressure (large commercial consumer) 2 bar Supply pressure (small commercial 300 mbar consumer) Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  10. 10. 10 LMC: Last Mile ConnectivityGas Supply System Comprises of: 1. The Service Regulator: It is housed in a grey metal kiosk, which reduces the gas pressure from 4 BAR to 110 mBAR and ensures the flow of gas at constant pressure at all time. 2. Buried Polyethylene Pipes: The pipes are installed at a safe and secure depth. It provides low-pressure gas (110 mBAR) to individual buildings. 3. The Riser Pipe (GI pipe): This is an external connection on the building to each apartment. Each Riser Pipe (GI pipe) has a Riser Isolation Valve. 4. The Meter Control Valve: Fitted in the entrance of the house / flat, this valve is between the riser pipe and your meter. 5. The Meter Regulator: Installed before the meter, the meter regulator reduces the gas pressure from 110 mBAR to 21 mBAR 6. The Appliance Valve: This valve switches on/off the gas to burning appliance.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  11. 11. 11 Natural Gas Transportation Network:Natural Gas is transported in two ways;  Through Pipelines (gaseous mode)  Through compressed cylinders (liquid mode)According to Oil and Gas Journal, India had approximately 38 trillion cubic feet(TCF) of proven natural gas reserves as of January 2011. EIA estimates thatIndia produced approximately 1.8 TCF of natural gas in 2010, a 63 percentincrease over 2008 production levels. The bulk of Indias natural gas productioncomes from the western offshore regions, especially the Mumbai Highcomplex, though recent developments of fields in the Krishna-Godavari (KG)basin. Currently trunk lines installed are around 11000 KM (300MMSCMD)mainly in northern and western India by GAIL =67%, RGTIL =14% andGSPL=11%, OIL/Gujarat gas =8%.Major Gas Pipelines in India:1. EAST WEST PIPELINE (EWPL): 1385 kilometers2. HAZIRA-BIJAIPUR-JAGDISHPUR (HBJ): 3397 kilometers3. DAHEJ-VIJAIPUR PIPELINE (DVPL): 770 kilometers4. DAHEJ-HAZIRA-URAN PIPELINE (DUPL): 500 kilometers5. Gujarat Gas Grid: 1550 kilometersGAIL owns and operates over 8000 km of pipeline and has about 2/3rd marketshare in the Natural Gas business in India. Other players include RGTIL andGSPL with a combined pipeline network of 3000 kilometers. However there isimmense scope of growth in this sector with the ambitious Gas HighwayProject connecting the east coast and the west coast with the hinterland.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  12. 12. 12Future expansion plans:  Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL) plans to add 6,663 kilometers of pipelines by FY13.  RELIANCE GAS TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE (RGTIL) plans to add 2,875 kilometers of pipelines.  GUJARAT STATE PETRONET (GSPL) aims to add around 800 kilometers of pipelines to its existing capacity in Gujarat.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  13. 13. 13 Supply Chain in CGD:CGD Companies in India: 1. MAHANAGAR GAS LIMITED (MGL): MGL is a joint venture between GAIL (India) Ltd, the BG Group, (U.K.) and the Government of Maharashtra. 2. SABARMATI GAS LIMITED (SGL): Sabarmati Gas, a retail joint venture between Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL) and Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation (GSPC). 3. INDRAPRASTHA GAS LIMITED (IGL): IGL is a joint venture between GAIL and Bharat Petroleum. 4. AAVANTIKA GAS LIMITED (AGL): AGL is a Joint Venture company of GAIL (India) Limited and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL). 5. BHAGYANAGAR GAS LIMITED (BGL): BGL is promoted by GAIL (India) Limited and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) 6. CENTRAL UTTAR PRADESH GAS LIMITED (CUGL): GUGL is a joint venture between GAIL (India) Limited and Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited. 7. CHAROTAR GAS (Cooperative Company): CHAROTAR GAS SAHAKARI MANDALI LTD is the first Co-Operative Sector in India in area of City Gas Distribution. 8. GAIL GAS: It is a wholly owned subsidiary of GAIL (India) Limited. 9. ADANI GAS: ADANI GAS is a wholly owned subsidiary of the ADANI ENTERPRISE LTD (AEL). 10. GUJARAT GAS COMPANY LIMITED (GGCL): GGCL was originally promoted by the Gujarat government and the Mafatlal Group. BGWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  14. 14. 14 Group acquired a majority stake (65.12%) in GGCL in 1997 and plan to exit in 2011-12. 11. GUJARAT STATE PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED (GSPC GAS): GSPC GAS is a wholly owned subsidiary of the GSPC Group. 12. GREEN GAS LIMITED: Green Gas is a joint venture between GAIL (India) Limited and Indian Oil Corporation Limited. 13. HARYANA CITY GAS DISTRIBUTION LIMITED (HCG): HCG is a company promoted by SKN- BENTEX group of Industries. 14. MAHARASHTRA NATURAL GAS LIMITED (MNGL): MNGL is a closely held company promoted by BPCL and GAIL with Govt. of Maharashtra. 15. TRIPURA NATURAL GAS COMPANY LIMITED (TNGCL): TNGCL is a joint venture of TIDC Ltd. [A Govt. of Tripura undertaking], AGCL [A Govt. of Assam undertaking] and GAIL.As is evident from the list, GAIL and BPCL/ HPCL/ IOCL are JV partners in allCGD ventures till date. This is done to ensure supply security of Gas ataffordable rates as opposed to sourcing from spot LNG markets which couldjack up gas costs.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  15. 15. 15 Project Management aspects:Project Management for City Gas networks would consist of setting up of; 1. Gas Transportation Network 2. Gas Distribution NetworkAspects of Project Management associated with; a. Transportation:  Planning of Integrated pipeline network development for connecting major consumer centers such as Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s), Industrial units, Power plants, Fertilizer units and commercial establishments including related investigations.  GIS/GPS/Remote Sensing based Feasibility studies for identification of Route for laying cross country pipelines. GIS based Route optimization studies considering factors such as Terrain, Land Development, Environment clearance, Ease of Construction, Land cost, Accessibility for O&M, pipeline Economics and other constraints.  Preliminary 3D analysis of pipeline corridors using latest satellite stereo images, generation of Alignment Sheets, Cadastral mapping including generation & management of ownership details.  Detailed Hydrological Studies for pipeline crossing locations of water bodies including major rivers with firm recommendations regarding depth of pipeline burial.  Stability analysis including slope protection works on turnkey basis (EPC) for laying pipeline in highly erosive type of soil, GHAT regions & hilly terrains.  Project Management Consultancy Services (PMC) for pipeline construction involving Quality Monitoring, Progress Monitoring, Certification of bills and close out reports.  IT enabled project monitoring applications for Quality measures including online/web progress reporting systems.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  16. 16. 16  WEB based Asset Management - Design and development of web application to support activities in the area of engineering, construction, Health-Safety-Environment (HSE) and Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of pipelines. b. Distribution:  Development of accurate Base maps and GIS database using high resolution satellite imageries for showing present and future development to facilitate prioritization of development of Gas distribution network.  Study of Demand and Supply by undertaking field survey and interaction with all concerned statutory bodies including projection of future growth to create a master database of Demand centers.  Optimization & Planning of CGD network considering feasibility of laying pipeline from the availability of corridor (by scanning for foreign utilities using GPR/pipe locator), Ease of construction, O&M, Disaster management and Environmental impact.  Preparation of corridor mapping, Identification of various statutory authorities and ownership along the identified pipeline corridor including preparation of necessary proposals and obtaining necessary clearance/approval (ROW: Right-of-Way and ROU: Right-of-Use).  Design of CGD network including optimization, selection of suitable material and finalization of thickness including preparation of Bill-of- Quantity (BOQ) and Tender documents  Floating of tenders, bid evaluation and appointment of contractors  Trenchless technology for laying pipeline in Dense Urban area including renovating old pipelines.  Project Management Consultancy Services (PMC) for CGD network construction involving Quality Monitoring, Progress Monitoring, Certification of bills and close out reports.  IT enabled project monitoring applications including for Quality measures, online/web progress reporting systems.  WEB GIS solution for City Gas Distribution operation & maintenance - Design and development of web application to manage city gasWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  17. 17. 17 distribution enterprise geo database with functions to support Marketing, Engineering and O&M. Market Development:The CGD Market consists of gas consumers whose gas usage is less than 0.5MMSCMD and hence can be classified as; 1. Automobile users refilling CNG in vehicles: Natural gas replaces conventional fuels like Gasoline and Diesel which demand a modified engine design for adapting to the change. The market development in this segment would depend upon Government’s subsidy policies on Diesel as well as international crude oil prices which would influence the buyer sentiments. The cost of conversion (CNG kit installation) also plays a major role in consumer demand for the fuel as is the availability of Gas in remote destinations. 2. Domestic PNG User for cooking and heating purposes: Domestic LPG is highly subsidized by the Government of India and is delivered to the consumer in filled cylinders. As cylinders can be stored, LPG offers reliability of supply as well as low cost of ownership. Natural Gas cannot be stored in cylinders and hence is routed to the customer through a network of Gas pipelines up to the point of usage. Since laying of gas pipelines involve high fixed costs, the whole cost is unfeasible to be borne by the Gas company. Hence the consumer needs to share the cost burden which acts as a disincentive as against LPG ownership costs. 3. Commercial establishments like Hotels, garages, restaurants etc: Commercial establishments are supplied with LPG at an unsubsidized rate. These establishments use moderately higher volumes of gas as compared to domestic users. Frequent changing of cylinders pose logistical challenges to these establishments in terms of costs and availability of gas. But India is dominated by unorganized retail wherein supplying PNG to roadside food vendors is not feasible. Hence policies framed by Government and local bodies (Municipalities) would help in developing markets for CGD companies in this sector.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  18. 18. 18 4. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME): Small-scale factories offer the most lucrative business opportunity for CGD companies. These establishments thrive on Diesel/ Fuel Oil for heating their furnaces and incur huge logistical cost of storage. Some processes which demand clean fuel opt for commercial LPG which is costly. Use of FO can involve high maintenance cost and poor burner-tip efficiency. CGD companies can leverage the high calorific value aspect of gas and can promote near- zero emissions for marketing their product.Though gas can substitute existing fuels, affordability remains a key issue. Withspot-LNG rates peaking by the day, the cost of ownership for gas usersbecomes high and hence unfeasible. Support from financial institutions andCGD companies are required to incentivize businesses to switch over fromtraditional fuels to a more efficient and clean fuel. Moreover internationalregulations in the form of emission targets (KYOTO Protocol) can aid the gasbusiness. Customer Service issues:Customers are most valuable for any businesses, hence identifying andaddressing customer service issues is of paramount importance. The mainareas of concern for a CGD customer can be listed as; 1. Quality of Gas: The calorific value of Gas determines the quality of gas. The lower the calorific value more volume of gas would be required to get the desired amount of heat energy. The quality of gas in a CGD network depends upon the HHV (High Heating Value), LHV (Low Heating Value) and the WOBBE Index. The gas quality also depends upon the share of non-combustibles (Nitrogen, CO2, H2S, and inert gas) in the gas. The customer needs to be convinced that the gas quality at the burner- tip is optimum to the price paid. 2. Safety of equipment: Natural Gas being highly combustible can be a source of potential hazard if not handled adhering to safety precautions. CNG is stored at high pressures and hence equipments need to be builtWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  19. 19. 19 conforming to safe design standards. Consumers need to be assured of safe working of equipments and round-the-clock emergency support. 3. Reliability of supply: As Natural Gas cannot be stored, the supply reliability has to be 100%. Any disruptions in supplies can result in direct impact on business operations which could lead to losses. In case of CNG, refilling time has to be minimized to attract potential customers. Serpentine queue’s at refilling station is a common sight which dissuades automobile users to switch over to Gas. 4. Billing issues: Erroneous metering can result in over/ under billing which could be detrimental to customer sentiments. As gas cannot be easily measures (against LPG/ Oil which can be weighed/ measured) the consumer relies on the quality of meters supplied by the CGD Company. Regular calibration of meters would reduce billing errors and installing smart meters would help CGD companies avoid issues of meter tampering. Major Commercial Issues: As demand for Natural Gas increases, CGD companies are faced withcommercial challenges such as; 1. Sourcing of cheap gas: Due to high price differential between APM/ non-APM/ RLNG, CGD companies need to fix long term purchase contracts to ensure consistent prices of supplies as well as to avoid frequent tariff revisions which dissuades consumer buying attractiveness. 2. Delivery contracts: CGD companies need to ensure robust contracts to avoid take-off failures which lead to under-utilization of its network capacity. Take-or-pay contracts with accurate nomination are essential to determine the consumer usage pattern which prevents supply/ delivery shocks.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  20. 20. 20 3. Capacity booking: Optimum capacity booking to minimize the transportation charges of gas over long distances can help CGD companies increase margins. 4. Gas pooling: The proposed concept of gas pooling by the Government of India to reduce price volatility as it is extremely difficult for price sensitive consuming industries to plan operations purely based on LNG from future sources. A single benchmarked price of natural gas in India would be in the larger interest of the consumers, and also benefit the market development of natural gas in this country. QHSE in CGD:Natural Gas MSDS:Natural Gas is a highly flammable gas and hence handling large volumes ofNatural Gas can be a challenging task. CGD network passes through denselypopulated areas and hence the potential threat of any hazard is significantlylarge. PNGRB regulations of T4S (Technical Standards and Specificationsincluding Safety Standards) include; 1. Schedule – 1A MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT 2. Schedule - 1B WELDING 3. Schedule – 1C PIPING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND FABRICATION DETAILS 4. Schedule – 1D DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND TESTING 5. Schedule – 1E OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURESWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  21. 21. 21 6. Schedule – 1F CORROSION CONTROL 7. Schedule – 1G MISCELLANEOUSQHSE issue in CGD business; 1. High transmission pressures 2. Remote location of transmission pipelines (high emergency response time) 3. Distribution lines pass through thickly populated areas 4. No control of source of ignition near pipelines 5. Pipelines are buried; hence maintenance and leak detection is tedious 6. Consumers are not well equipped to deal with exigencies 7. Unplanned/ un-notified dredging by external agencies 8. Use of non-standard fittings by the customer (CNG kits)Possible solutions; 1. Use of SCADA/ GIS to map remote pipeline networks 2. Automatic isolation valves 3. Customer education programs 4. Proper route mapping and marking as hazardous zone 5. Proper Leak Detection Equipments to prevent major disasters 6. Synchronization with local bodies/ agencies to avoid pipeline damage, notifying fire brigade about new gas pipeline routes in a given area 7. Undertake Asset Integrity Management (AIM) of all equipments 8. Follow design/ operating standards as prescribed by OISD 9. Prepare robust Disaster Management Plan (DMP) to deal with disasters CGD Regulation: PNGRB objectives: To regulate the refining, processing, storage, transportation, distribution, marketing and sale of petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas excluding production of crude oil and natural gas so as to protect the interest of consumers and entities engaged in specifiedWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  22. 22. 22 activities and to ensure uninterrupted & adequate supply and to promote competitive markets. Why PNGRB: 1. It promotes market dynamics 2. Protects customer interest 3. Set up operating guidelines in business 4. To ensure benefits of Natural resources to all 5. Fixes network tariff and quality benchmarksPost APM regime, the Government needed a regulator to oversee the marketfor CGD which started to grow with the entry of private players in the erstwhilePSU dominated market.PNGRB regulations provide;Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  23. 23. 23Third-Party Access codes: This Access Code aims at establishing industry widetransparent and uniform principles for allowing entities to gain/ allow access tothe pipeline systems and CGD networks. The present access code coversproviding access to both the natural gas transmission pipelines and CGDNetworks.The objective of this access code is to; 1. Promote the development of a competitive gas market by establishing uniform principles for owners and users of gas pipelines to allow transparent and non-discriminatory access to the gas pipelines and CGD networks. 2. Prevent abuse of monopoly power. 3. Ensure that a pipeline/CGD owner provides minimum service of access to available capacity on a "firm service" basis and/or on "interruptible service" basis. 4. Provide basis for resolution of disputes.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:
  24. 24. 24 Bibliography:            transmission-company   %20Review%20Summary.pdf   dia.pdfWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email: