3. construction equipment subsystems


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3. construction equipment subsystems

  1. 1. Construction equipment subsystems
  2. 2. 1868
  3. 3. Construction equipment subsystems
  4. 4. Mechanical Components of construction equipment
  6. 6. I.C. Engines
  7. 7. Four-stroke cycle 1 2 2 3 4
  8. 8. JCB ENGINE
  9. 9. Ground Drive Track frame
  10. 10. Idler wheel sprocket wheel
  11. 11. Ground Drive JCB attachments
  13. 13. Hydraulic Ram
  14. 14. Hydraulic Components of construction equipment
  15. 15. Basic hydraulic circuit and components of construction equipment 110 lpm
  16. 16. Wire Ropes Construction: A rope is generally made up of number of strands twisted around a core. The strands are themselves formed from a number of wires twisted in a helical fashion. The wires are first formed into strands and then strands laid around a core to make a rope. Example: 6X36 (IS: 2266/89). This description means that there are 6 strands in the rope, each consisting of 36 wires. strength/ load bearing capacity of the wire rope. Usually, if you procure a rope as per IS specifications, the usual designations are 1770 N/mm2, 1960 N/mm2, or 2160 N/mm2.
  17. 17. The manner of laying the strands around the core is termed as lay of the rope
  18. 18. BEARINGS
  19. 19. Belt Conveyor The belt conveyor is an endless belt moving over two end pulleys at fixed positions and used for transporting material horizontally or at an incline up or down. The main components of a belt conveyor are: • The belt that forms the moving and supporting surface on which the conveyed material rides. It is the tractive element. The belt should be selected considering the material to be transported. • The idlers, which form the supports for the carrying and return stands of the belt. • The pulleys that support and move the belt and controls its tension. • The drive that imparts power to one or more pulleys to move the belt and its loads. • The structure that supports and maintains the alignments of the idlers and pulleys and support the driving machinery.
  20. 20. Belt Conveyor
  21. 21. Idler Assembly Recommended maximum belt speeds Speed (m/sec) Width (inches) Coal, damp clay, soft ore, fine crushed stone, Over burden and earth 2.032 18 3.048 24-36 4.064 42-60 5.08 1.778 72-95 18 2.54 24-36 3.048 over 36 Heavy, hard, sharp edged ore. Coarse crushed stone Top Cover (Carrying Side) End Cover End Cover Carcass Bottom Cover (Non-Carrying Side) Construction of conveyor belt.
  22. 22. Electric motors
  23. 23. TYRES
  24. 24. Tire nomenclature. Tread - The part of the tire in contact with the ground. It must provide traction, long wear and cut resistance. The tread depth and design vary based on site and application. Carcass - Contains the inflation medium. The greater its strength, the greater the pressure it can hold. Bias and bias/belted tire carcasses use many angled plies of fabric to achieve strength. Radials have one ply of steel wire. Breakers (Belts) - These are placed between the tread and carcass. They help to join these parts. They also distribute road shock to protect the carcass. In bias/belted and radial constructions, they control the diameter of the tire. They also impart superior tread impact and penetration resistance. Bead - Bundles of high tensile steel wire. They anchor the tire to the rim. Bias and bias/belted tires may have several bead bundles. Radials have one large bead bundle. Sidewalls - The protective rubber cover on the side of a tire. The rubber is compounded to flex without cracking. It also resists cuts and forms a barrier to protect the carcass from the weather. Inner Liner - Especially formulated rubber compound inside the tire that minimizes permeation. It works with the rim and O-ring to contain the inflation medium in tubeless designs
  25. 25. TYRE CODING 175/80 R14 88H • • • • • • 175 - Tyre width 80 – Aspect ratio R – Radial construction 14 – Wheel rim diameter 88 – Load index H – Speed rating (The aspect ratio or profile of the tyre is calculated as the sidewall height expressed as a percentage of the tyre width. So a tyre with an aspect ratio of 80 is a tyre whose height is equal to 80% of its width)
  26. 26. Proper inflation
  27. 27. Proper inflation
  28. 28. Proper tire maintenance 1. Proper inflation • • Over inflation under inflation 2. Proper loading 3. Proper speed
  29. 29. 4. Effect on heat on tires • • • • • Overloading Over speed Under inflation Quick stops and starts Insufficient spacing between dual tires 5. Driving habits 6. wheel misalignment 7. Storing of tires 8. Road conditions
  30. 30. TYRE PATTERN FOR ROAD CONDITIONS A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. Car moderate speed radial. Car high speed radial. Car very high speed radial. Car wet weather radial. Car winter radial with moulded stud holes. Car winter radial. Light vehicles off I on road winter tread. Truck steer axle tread. Truck drive axle tread. Truck rough ground tyre. Truck cross-country tyre. Tractor cross country tyre
  32. 32. pushing speed= 2.5kmph, return speed = 5kmph,loading time = 0.30min Note: swell = The ratio of the volume of loose excavation material to the volume of the same material in place
  33. 33. Time value for money