DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
A TECHNICAL SEMINAR ON
A STUDY ON AUTOMOBILE
2. PARTS OF DIFFERNTIAL SYSTEM
3. WORKING OF DIFFERENTIAL
4. CASE STUDIES
5. OTHER FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERNTIAL
6. DRAWBACK OF STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL
7. LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL
Differential is an integral part of all four wheelers.
A differential is used to allow the wheels to spin at
This is necessary when the vehicle turns
PART’S OF DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM
Pinion drive gear: transfer power from the drive shaft
to the ring gear.
Ring gear: will transfer power to differential case
Spider gears: The spider gear lies at the heart of the
differential and special mention should be made about
Differential case assembly: Hold the gear and drive
Rear drive axel: Transfer torque from differential
assembly to the drive wheels.
WORKING OF DIFFERENTIAL
When turning, the inner and outer wheels have arcs of
different turning radii.
The inner wheels travel less distance than the outer
From the drive shaft power is transferred to the pinion
gear first, since the pinion and ring gear are meshed,
power flows to the ring gear.
As the spider gear is connected with the ring gear,
power flows to it.
Finally from the spider gear, power gets transferred to
both the side gears.
1. The vehicle moves straight
In this case the spider gear rotates along with the ring
gear but does not rotate on its own axis.
So the spider gear will push and make the side gears
turn, and both will turn at the same speed.
2. Vehicle takes a turn(right)
In this along with the rotation of the ring gear it rotates
on its own axis.
So the spider gear is having a combined rotation.
When the spider gear is spinning as well as rotating,
peripheral velocity at the left side of spider gear is the
sum of the spinning and rotational velocity.
But at the right side, it is the difference of the two, since
the spin velocity is in the opposite direction at this side.
OTHER FUNCTIONS OF
1) First is speed reduction at the pinion-ring gear assembly.
since the power flow at the pinion and ring gear are the
same, such a speed reduction will result in a high torque
2) can also note one specialty of the ring gear, they are
hypoid gears. Hypoid gears have more contact area
compared to the other gear pairs.
3) The other function of the differential is to turn the power
flow direction by 90 degree.
DRAWBACK OF STANDARD
The problem is an open diff always tries to balance
Almost no torque is needed to spin one wheel, and
since the open differential always sends the same
amount of torque to both output shafts.
LIMITED SLIP DIFFERNTIAL
In the case of a standard differential in off-
roading or snow situations where one wheel begins to
slip or lose contact with the ground.
In this situation, a limited-slip differential prevents
excessive power from being allocated to one wheel,
and thereby keeping both wheels in powered rotation.
In automobile and other wheeled vehicles, the
differential allows each of the driving wheels to rotate
at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to
each of them.
Limited slip differential prevents excessive power
from being allocated to one wheel, and thereby
keeping both wheels in powered rotation.