SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 23
Download to read offline
“The Infinite Power of the Sun”
Single day provides enough energy for 27 years
{~ 127.518*10^15 W (127 PW) sun energy strikes earth/1hour.}
~30% Reflected
~19% Absorbed Atmosphere
~51% Absorbed by Earth
CURRENT TECHNOLOGY :
 Photovoltaic Technology.
Photon
DC
CURRENT
electron–hole
pairs
LIMITATIONS OF PV TECHNOLOGY :
• Band gap (heat loss, reduces efficiency)
• Expensive for large scale (multi junction) manufacturing
• PV is operational only during daylight hours.
• Delivers DC power
• Low efficiency
• Requires direct incidence(perpendicular to surface) of solar
radiation for optimum efficiency.
INTRODUCTION TO NANTENNA:
 A nantenna (nano antenna) is a nanoscopic rectifying
antenna. Nantennas are used for converting solar
radiation to electricity.
 Based on antenna theory, a nantenna is a EM
collector that can absorb any wavelength of light
efficiently provided that the size of the nantenna is
optimized for that specific wavelength.
 Ideally, nantennas would be used to absorb light at
wavelengths between 0.4–1.6 μm because these
wavelengths have high energy and make up about 85% of
the solar radiation spectrum.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF NANTENNA:
( Single loop metal Nantenna
)
( Array of loop Nantenna )
( Bow-tie Nantenna ) ( Array of bow-tie Nantenna )
THEORY OF NANTENNAS:
 The incident light causes electrons in the
nantenna to move back and forth at the same
frequency as the incoming light.
 This is caused by the oscillating electric field of
the incoming EM wave. The movement of electrons
causes an alternating current in the nantenna
circuit.
• Light propagates as an EM wave at certain frequency.
• Captured by a Nanoantenna
• Absorption occurs at Nantenna
resonance frequency.
• Induces a back and forth movement
of free electrons in Nantenna.
• THz current flows toward Nantenna
feed-point.
• This provides a convenience point to
collect and transport energy to other
circuitry for conversion (AC to DC).
• Diode is embedded in feed-point to
rectify signal.
THEORY OF OPERATION
 The NECs can be configured as FSS (frequency selective
surfaces) to efficiently absorb the entire solar spectrum.
 Nantenna capture electromagnetic energy from
naturally occurring solar radiation and thermal earth
radiation.
 Rather than generating single electron-hole pairs as
in the PV, the incoming EM field induces a time-
changing current in the Nantenna.
 To convert this AC into direct current, the AC is
rectified using diode. The resulting DC current can then
be used to power any external load.
( Square FSS element and its RLC circuit analog )
ANALYTICAL MODEL – RLC CIRCUIT:
 The metal loops give inductance to the NEC as thermally-
excited radiation induces current.
 The gaps between the metallic loops and the gap within the loop
compose capacitors with a dielectric fill.
 A resistance is present because the antenna is composed of lossy
metallic elements on a dielectric substrate.
 The resulting RLC circuit has a resonance “tuned” filter
behaviour.
COMPONENTS OF A NANTENNA:
 The nantenna consists of three main parts:
1.The ground plane
2.The optical resonance cavity
3.The antenna.
Ground plane - reflector
Dielectric resonance cavity
layer
Antenna
The antenna absorbs the EM wave, the ground plane
acts to reflect the light back towards the antenna, and the
optical resonance cavity bends and concentrates the light
back towards the antenna via the ground plane.
The NEC-to-ground plane separation (cavity) acts as a
transmission line that enhances resonance. The thickness of
the standoff layer is selected to be a ¼ wavelength to insure
better efficiency.
( path of incident wave )
WHY THIS STRUCTURE ??? :
MANUFACTURING OF NANTENNA:
SEM cross-section of
patterned oxide layer of
(prior to DRIE step)
SEM top view of Si wafer
after anisotropic oxide etch
LITHOGRAPHY & R2R:
1. LITHOGRAPHY (laboratory processing, small scale )
2. R2R (master pattern, large scale )
Roll to Roll Manufacturing
Equipment
Manufacturing Cost:~ $0.50-1.00/ft2
LARGE-SCALE MANUFACTURED SAMPLES:
SEM image of polymer replicas made
from wafer master template
Flexible Structures
BENEFITS AND APPLICATIONS
• Addresses many limitations of PVs.
• Utilize untapped infrared parts of spectrum
(Solar radiation & Thermal earth radiation)
• Can be inexpensively mass produced.
•DNA Nanoantenna & Cancer Fighting Lasers.
Many Diverse Applications :
• Nanoantenna “skins” e.g. self-charging AA battery design,car,laptop.
• Economically scales to large infrastructure (homes, businesses)
LIMITATIONS OF NANTENNAS:
 One of the major limitations of nantennas is the
frequency at which they operate. The high frequency of
light makes the use of typical Schottky diodes
impractical i.e. more advanced diodes are necessary to
operate efficiently at higher frequencies.
 Current nantennas are produced using electron beam
(e-beam) lithography. This process is slow and relatively
expensive because parallel processing is not possible with
e-beam lithography. (Can be eliminated by roll-to-roll
manufacturing method.)
FUTURE RESEARCH AND GOALS:
A rectifier must be designed that can properly turn the
absorbed light into usable energy. Researchers currently hope
to create a rectifier which can convert around 50% of the
nantenna's absorption into energy.
 Nantenna could be designed to work by absorbing the infrared
heat available in the room and producing electricity which could
be used to further cool the room.
Another focus of research will be how to properly upscale the
process to mass-production. New materials will need to be
chosen and tested that could be used with a roll-to-roll
manufacturing process.
REFERENCES:
[1] A. Csaki, F. Garwe, A. Steinbruck, A. Weise, K. Konig, and W. Fritzsche, "Localization of
laser energy conversion by metal nanoparticles basic effects and applications - art.
No.61911K," in Biophotonics and New Therapy Frontiers, vol. 6191, SPIE , 2006, pp. K1911-
K1911.
[2] Alda, J. Rico-García, J. López-Alonso,and G. Boreman, "Optical antennas for nano-
photonic applications," Nanotechnology, vol. 16, pp. S230-4, 2005
[3]Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator v10 User’s Guide, Ansoft
Corporation, (2005)
Nantenna

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

Plasmonic1 new
Plasmonic1 newPlasmonic1 new
Plasmonic1 new
 
Metamaterials
Metamaterials Metamaterials
Metamaterials
 
Photonics devices
Photonics devicesPhotonics devices
Photonics devices
 
Spintronics ppt
Spintronics pptSpintronics ppt
Spintronics ppt
 
Giant Magnetoresistance(GMR) & Spintronics
Giant Magnetoresistance(GMR) & SpintronicsGiant Magnetoresistance(GMR) & Spintronics
Giant Magnetoresistance(GMR) & Spintronics
 
Gmr
GmrGmr
Gmr
 
Photonic Materials
Photonic MaterialsPhotonic Materials
Photonic Materials
 
Metamaterials
MetamaterialsMetamaterials
Metamaterials
 
Spintronics
SpintronicsSpintronics
Spintronics
 
Spintronics
SpintronicsSpintronics
Spintronics
 
Introduction to metamaterials
Introduction to metamaterialsIntroduction to metamaterials
Introduction to metamaterials
 
556 2nd presentation by teja
556 2nd presentation by teja556 2nd presentation by teja
556 2nd presentation by teja
 
Optical Antenna
Optical AntennaOptical Antenna
Optical Antenna
 
Spintronics Introduction (Basic)
Spintronics Introduction (Basic)Spintronics Introduction (Basic)
Spintronics Introduction (Basic)
 
Solar cell materials me
Solar cell materials meSolar cell materials me
Solar cell materials me
 
Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)
Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)
Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)
 
Review on nanogenerator
Review on nanogenerator Review on nanogenerator
Review on nanogenerator
 
Application of Graphene in electronics
Application of Graphene in electronicsApplication of Graphene in electronics
Application of Graphene in electronics
 
Nuclear force
Nuclear forceNuclear force
Nuclear force
 
Dye sensitized solar cells
Dye sensitized solar cellsDye sensitized solar cells
Dye sensitized solar cells
 

Similar to Nantenna

Poster on Nantennas/Nano antenna
Poster on Nantennas/Nano antenna Poster on Nantennas/Nano antenna
Poster on Nantennas/Nano antenna Nagarjuna P
 
Ldb Convergenze Parallele_sorba_01
Ldb Convergenze Parallele_sorba_01Ldb Convergenze Parallele_sorba_01
Ldb Convergenze Parallele_sorba_01laboratoridalbasso
 
Carnot - efficiency based Nanoantenna Systems
Carnot - efficiency based Nanoantenna Systems Carnot - efficiency based Nanoantenna Systems
Carnot - efficiency based Nanoantenna Systems Bhupendra Subedi
 
Wirelesspowertransmissionandreceptionusingsolarpowersatellitesandrectenna 130...
Wirelesspowertransmissionandreceptionusingsolarpowersatellitesandrectenna 130...Wirelesspowertransmissionandreceptionusingsolarpowersatellitesandrectenna 130...
Wirelesspowertransmissionandreceptionusingsolarpowersatellitesandrectenna 130...GAURAV SINHA
 
Electron beam lithography
Electron beam lithographyElectron beam lithography
Electron beam lithographyRohan Deokar
 
Using Carbon Nano-Tube Field Emitters to Miniaturize X-Ray Tubes
Using Carbon Nano-Tube Field Emitters to Miniaturize X-Ray TubesUsing Carbon Nano-Tube Field Emitters to Miniaturize X-Ray Tubes
Using Carbon Nano-Tube Field Emitters to Miniaturize X-Ray TubesCarestream
 
LEReC_RHIC_Retreat_2019.pptx
LEReC_RHIC_Retreat_2019.pptxLEReC_RHIC_Retreat_2019.pptx
LEReC_RHIC_Retreat_2019.pptxPedramMaghsoudi4
 
dielectric resonator nanoantenna at optical frequencies
dielectric resonator nanoantenna at optical frequenciesdielectric resonator nanoantenna at optical frequencies
dielectric resonator nanoantenna at optical frequenciesyadhukrishnan s
 
Wireless Power Transmission
Wireless Power TransmissionWireless Power Transmission
Wireless Power TransmissionAli Fathi
 
Ch.2-Anatomy of x-ray machine.ppt
Ch.2-Anatomy of x-ray machine.pptCh.2-Anatomy of x-ray machine.ppt
Ch.2-Anatomy of x-ray machine.pptAbubakar Hammadama
 
Wireless power transmission via solar power satellite(sps)
Wireless power transmission via solar power satellite(sps)Wireless power transmission via solar power satellite(sps)
Wireless power transmission via solar power satellite(sps)ShahinshaM
 
Wireless power transmission and reception using solar power satellites and ...
Wireless  power  transmission and reception using solar power satellites and ...Wireless  power  transmission and reception using solar power satellites and ...
Wireless power transmission and reception using solar power satellites and ...PRADEEP Cheekatla
 
Wirelesspowertransmission 130905035125-
Wirelesspowertransmission 130905035125-Wirelesspowertransmission 130905035125-
Wirelesspowertransmission 130905035125-ankur105
 
Solar cell technology_kartheek rp
Solar cell technology_kartheek rpSolar cell technology_kartheek rp
Solar cell technology_kartheek rpKartheek RP
 
Design and characterization of polarization reconfigurable heart shape monop...
Design and characterization of polarization reconfigurable  heart shape monop...Design and characterization of polarization reconfigurable  heart shape monop...
Design and characterization of polarization reconfigurable heart shape monop...IJECEIAES
 

Similar to Nantenna (20)

Nantenna
NantennaNantenna
Nantenna
 
Poster on Nantennas/Nano antenna
Poster on Nantennas/Nano antenna Poster on Nantennas/Nano antenna
Poster on Nantennas/Nano antenna
 
Serena barbanotti INFN milano
Serena barbanotti INFN milanoSerena barbanotti INFN milano
Serena barbanotti INFN milano
 
Ldb Convergenze Parallele_sorba_01
Ldb Convergenze Parallele_sorba_01Ldb Convergenze Parallele_sorba_01
Ldb Convergenze Parallele_sorba_01
 
Carnot - efficiency based Nanoantenna Systems
Carnot - efficiency based Nanoantenna Systems Carnot - efficiency based Nanoantenna Systems
Carnot - efficiency based Nanoantenna Systems
 
Wirelesspowertransmissionandreceptionusingsolarpowersatellitesandrectenna 130...
Wirelesspowertransmissionandreceptionusingsolarpowersatellitesandrectenna 130...Wirelesspowertransmissionandreceptionusingsolarpowersatellitesandrectenna 130...
Wirelesspowertransmissionandreceptionusingsolarpowersatellitesandrectenna 130...
 
Electron beam lithography
Electron beam lithographyElectron beam lithography
Electron beam lithography
 
Production of x rays
Production of x raysProduction of x rays
Production of x rays
 
Using Carbon Nano-Tube Field Emitters to Miniaturize X-Ray Tubes
Using Carbon Nano-Tube Field Emitters to Miniaturize X-Ray TubesUsing Carbon Nano-Tube Field Emitters to Miniaturize X-Ray Tubes
Using Carbon Nano-Tube Field Emitters to Miniaturize X-Ray Tubes
 
LEReC_RHIC_Retreat_2019.pptx
LEReC_RHIC_Retreat_2019.pptxLEReC_RHIC_Retreat_2019.pptx
LEReC_RHIC_Retreat_2019.pptx
 
dielectric resonator nanoantenna at optical frequencies
dielectric resonator nanoantenna at optical frequenciesdielectric resonator nanoantenna at optical frequencies
dielectric resonator nanoantenna at optical frequencies
 
Sound Energy
Sound EnergySound Energy
Sound Energy
 
Wireless Power Transmission
Wireless Power TransmissionWireless Power Transmission
Wireless Power Transmission
 
Ch.2-Anatomy of x-ray machine.ppt
Ch.2-Anatomy of x-ray machine.pptCh.2-Anatomy of x-ray machine.ppt
Ch.2-Anatomy of x-ray machine.ppt
 
Wireless power transmission via solar power satellite(sps)
Wireless power transmission via solar power satellite(sps)Wireless power transmission via solar power satellite(sps)
Wireless power transmission via solar power satellite(sps)
 
Wireless power transmission and reception using solar power satellites and ...
Wireless  power  transmission and reception using solar power satellites and ...Wireless  power  transmission and reception using solar power satellites and ...
Wireless power transmission and reception using solar power satellites and ...
 
Wirelesspowertransmission 130905035125-
Wirelesspowertransmission 130905035125-Wirelesspowertransmission 130905035125-
Wirelesspowertransmission 130905035125-
 
X-ray Production
X-ray ProductionX-ray Production
X-ray Production
 
Solar cell technology_kartheek rp
Solar cell technology_kartheek rpSolar cell technology_kartheek rp
Solar cell technology_kartheek rp
 
Design and characterization of polarization reconfigurable heart shape monop...
Design and characterization of polarization reconfigurable  heart shape monop...Design and characterization of polarization reconfigurable  heart shape monop...
Design and characterization of polarization reconfigurable heart shape monop...
 

Recently uploaded

Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Jeffrey Haguewood
 
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better StrongerModern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Strongerpanagenda
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Nikki Chapple
 
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorial
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorialKuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorial
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorialJoão Esperancinha
 
React JS; all concepts. Contains React Features, JSX, functional & Class comp...
React JS; all concepts. Contains React Features, JSX, functional & Class comp...React JS; all concepts. Contains React Features, JSX, functional & Class comp...
React JS; all concepts. Contains React Features, JSX, functional & Class comp...Karmanjay Verma
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfIngrid Airi González
 
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platformsInfrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platformsYoss Cohen
 
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Hiroshi SHIBATA
 
Laying the Data Foundations for Artificial Intelligence!
Laying the Data Foundations for Artificial Intelligence!Laying the Data Foundations for Artificial Intelligence!
Laying the Data Foundations for Artificial Intelligence!Memoori
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Mark Simos
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Nikki Chapple
 
Why Agile? - A handbook behind Agile Evolution
Why Agile? - A handbook behind Agile EvolutionWhy Agile? - A handbook behind Agile Evolution
Why Agile? - A handbook behind Agile EvolutionDEEPRAJ PATHAK
 
Deliver Latency Free Customer Experience
Deliver Latency Free Customer ExperienceDeliver Latency Free Customer Experience
Deliver Latency Free Customer ExperienceOpsTree solutions
 
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdf
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdfQMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdf
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdfROWELL MARQUINA
 
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesHow to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesThousandEyes
 
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...amber724300
 
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...panagenda
 
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observability
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security ObservabilityGlenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observability
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observabilityitnewsafrica
 
Which standard is best for your content?
Which standard is best for your content?Which standard is best for your content?
Which standard is best for your content?Rustici Software
 
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentEmixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentPim van der Noll
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
 
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better StrongerModern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
 
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorial
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorialKuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorial
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorial
 
React JS; all concepts. Contains React Features, JSX, functional & Class comp...
React JS; all concepts. Contains React Features, JSX, functional & Class comp...React JS; all concepts. Contains React Features, JSX, functional & Class comp...
React JS; all concepts. Contains React Features, JSX, functional & Class comp...
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
 
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platformsInfrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
 
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
 
Laying the Data Foundations for Artificial Intelligence!
Laying the Data Foundations for Artificial Intelligence!Laying the Data Foundations for Artificial Intelligence!
Laying the Data Foundations for Artificial Intelligence!
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
 
Why Agile? - A handbook behind Agile Evolution
Why Agile? - A handbook behind Agile EvolutionWhy Agile? - A handbook behind Agile Evolution
Why Agile? - A handbook behind Agile Evolution
 
Deliver Latency Free Customer Experience
Deliver Latency Free Customer ExperienceDeliver Latency Free Customer Experience
Deliver Latency Free Customer Experience
 
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdf
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdfQMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdf
QMMS Lesson 2 - Using MS Excel Formula.pdf
 
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesHow to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
 
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
 
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
 
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observability
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security ObservabilityGlenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observability
Glenn Lazarus- Why Your Observability Strategy Needs Security Observability
 
Which standard is best for your content?
Which standard is best for your content?Which standard is best for your content?
Which standard is best for your content?
 
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentEmixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
 

Nantenna

  • 1.
  • 2. “The Infinite Power of the Sun” Single day provides enough energy for 27 years {~ 127.518*10^15 W (127 PW) sun energy strikes earth/1hour.} ~30% Reflected ~19% Absorbed Atmosphere ~51% Absorbed by Earth
  • 3. CURRENT TECHNOLOGY :  Photovoltaic Technology. Photon DC CURRENT electron–hole pairs
  • 4. LIMITATIONS OF PV TECHNOLOGY : • Band gap (heat loss, reduces efficiency) • Expensive for large scale (multi junction) manufacturing • PV is operational only during daylight hours. • Delivers DC power • Low efficiency • Requires direct incidence(perpendicular to surface) of solar radiation for optimum efficiency.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION TO NANTENNA:  A nantenna (nano antenna) is a nanoscopic rectifying antenna. Nantennas are used for converting solar radiation to electricity.  Based on antenna theory, a nantenna is a EM collector that can absorb any wavelength of light efficiently provided that the size of the nantenna is optimized for that specific wavelength.  Ideally, nantennas would be used to absorb light at wavelengths between 0.4–1.6 μm because these wavelengths have high energy and make up about 85% of the solar radiation spectrum.
  • 6. DIFFERENT TYPES OF NANTENNA: ( Single loop metal Nantenna ) ( Array of loop Nantenna )
  • 7. ( Bow-tie Nantenna ) ( Array of bow-tie Nantenna )
  • 8. THEORY OF NANTENNAS:  The incident light causes electrons in the nantenna to move back and forth at the same frequency as the incoming light.  This is caused by the oscillating electric field of the incoming EM wave. The movement of electrons causes an alternating current in the nantenna circuit.
  • 9. • Light propagates as an EM wave at certain frequency. • Captured by a Nanoantenna • Absorption occurs at Nantenna resonance frequency. • Induces a back and forth movement of free electrons in Nantenna. • THz current flows toward Nantenna feed-point. • This provides a convenience point to collect and transport energy to other circuitry for conversion (AC to DC). • Diode is embedded in feed-point to rectify signal. THEORY OF OPERATION
  • 10.  The NECs can be configured as FSS (frequency selective surfaces) to efficiently absorb the entire solar spectrum.  Nantenna capture electromagnetic energy from naturally occurring solar radiation and thermal earth radiation.  Rather than generating single electron-hole pairs as in the PV, the incoming EM field induces a time- changing current in the Nantenna.  To convert this AC into direct current, the AC is rectified using diode. The resulting DC current can then be used to power any external load.
  • 11. ( Square FSS element and its RLC circuit analog ) ANALYTICAL MODEL – RLC CIRCUIT:  The metal loops give inductance to the NEC as thermally- excited radiation induces current.  The gaps between the metallic loops and the gap within the loop compose capacitors with a dielectric fill.  A resistance is present because the antenna is composed of lossy metallic elements on a dielectric substrate.  The resulting RLC circuit has a resonance “tuned” filter behaviour.
  • 12. COMPONENTS OF A NANTENNA:  The nantenna consists of three main parts: 1.The ground plane 2.The optical resonance cavity 3.The antenna. Ground plane - reflector Dielectric resonance cavity layer Antenna
  • 13. The antenna absorbs the EM wave, the ground plane acts to reflect the light back towards the antenna, and the optical resonance cavity bends and concentrates the light back towards the antenna via the ground plane. The NEC-to-ground plane separation (cavity) acts as a transmission line that enhances resonance. The thickness of the standoff layer is selected to be a ¼ wavelength to insure better efficiency. ( path of incident wave ) WHY THIS STRUCTURE ??? :
  • 15. SEM cross-section of patterned oxide layer of (prior to DRIE step) SEM top view of Si wafer after anisotropic oxide etch
  • 16. LITHOGRAPHY & R2R: 1. LITHOGRAPHY (laboratory processing, small scale ) 2. R2R (master pattern, large scale ) Roll to Roll Manufacturing Equipment Manufacturing Cost:~ $0.50-1.00/ft2
  • 17. LARGE-SCALE MANUFACTURED SAMPLES: SEM image of polymer replicas made from wafer master template Flexible Structures
  • 18. BENEFITS AND APPLICATIONS • Addresses many limitations of PVs. • Utilize untapped infrared parts of spectrum (Solar radiation & Thermal earth radiation) • Can be inexpensively mass produced. •DNA Nanoantenna & Cancer Fighting Lasers.
  • 19. Many Diverse Applications : • Nanoantenna “skins” e.g. self-charging AA battery design,car,laptop. • Economically scales to large infrastructure (homes, businesses)
  • 20. LIMITATIONS OF NANTENNAS:  One of the major limitations of nantennas is the frequency at which they operate. The high frequency of light makes the use of typical Schottky diodes impractical i.e. more advanced diodes are necessary to operate efficiently at higher frequencies.  Current nantennas are produced using electron beam (e-beam) lithography. This process is slow and relatively expensive because parallel processing is not possible with e-beam lithography. (Can be eliminated by roll-to-roll manufacturing method.)
  • 21. FUTURE RESEARCH AND GOALS: A rectifier must be designed that can properly turn the absorbed light into usable energy. Researchers currently hope to create a rectifier which can convert around 50% of the nantenna's absorption into energy.  Nantenna could be designed to work by absorbing the infrared heat available in the room and producing electricity which could be used to further cool the room. Another focus of research will be how to properly upscale the process to mass-production. New materials will need to be chosen and tested that could be used with a roll-to-roll manufacturing process.
  • 22. REFERENCES: [1] A. Csaki, F. Garwe, A. Steinbruck, A. Weise, K. Konig, and W. Fritzsche, "Localization of laser energy conversion by metal nanoparticles basic effects and applications - art. No.61911K," in Biophotonics and New Therapy Frontiers, vol. 6191, SPIE , 2006, pp. K1911- K1911. [2] Alda, J. Rico-García, J. López-Alonso,and G. Boreman, "Optical antennas for nano- photonic applications," Nanotechnology, vol. 16, pp. S230-4, 2005 [3]Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator v10 User’s Guide, Ansoft Corporation, (2005)