Conclusion</li></li></ul><li>Introduction<br />There are Two methods for playing digital sound on the web.<br />1] You can wait for the entire sound file to download to your computer and then play it.<br />2] You can begin to play a downloading sound file as soon as enough of sound is cached in your computer buffer and downloading continues.<br /> The sound file streams into in your computer in the background.<br />
Media Server<br />Client<br />Fig. Client accessing Media Server<br />4<br />
History<br />In Early Days: <br /><ul><li> We download complete sound file.
Time consuming.</li></li></ul><li>Streaming<br />Streaming is the process of playing a file while it is still downloading. Streaming technology, also known as streaming media.<br />It is a technique for transferring data such that it can be processed as a steady and continuous stream.<br />Media streaming allows you to play back an audio or video file from the internet without having to first download the complete file to your computer.<br />
Characteristics<br />1] Streaming media technology enables real-time or on- demand access to audio, video, and multimedia content via the Internet or an intranet. <br />2] Streaming media is transmitted by a media server application, and is processed and played back by a client player application, as it is received.<br />3] A streamed file is received, processed, and played simultaneously and immediately, leaving behind no residual copy of the content on the receiving device.<br />
Types<br />Three basic types of streaming medias are:<br /><ul><li>Video: </li></ul>A simple link on your web page starts the playing the video using some pug-ins.<br /> Ex. Youtube<br /><ul><li>Audio:</li></ul> A simple link on your web page opens the player and starts the file. <br /> Ex. Mp3hungama<br /><ul><li>Synchronized:</li></ul> Several streams running simultaneously and synchronized to one another. <br /> Ex. PowerPoint presentation<br />
Working<br />Five basic steps while streaming:<br />Capture: The first step in the process of creating streaming<br /> video is to "capture" the video. <br />2. Edit: An authoring tool may also be used to integrate the video with other multimedia into a presentation, entertainment, or training format.<br />Encode: This generally involves the encoding software from the video-streaming vendor and specifying the desired output resolution, and data rate for the streaming video file.<br />4. Serve: The video server manages the delivery of video to clients using the appropriate network.<br />
Play: The client station the video player receives and buffers the video stream and plays it.<br />Fig. Steps in Streaming<br />
Components<br />The following are the Four basiccomponents of Streaming:<br /><ul><li> Server:The server is responsible for sending the file(s) to the client's system
Encoder: An encoder is a piece of software that will take an existing media file and alter its structure so that it may be streamed.
Player:A player is used to view streaming files independently of a web browser.
Plug-in:Plug-ins are web browser extensions that allow streaming media to be embedded and played directly in a web page.</li></li></ul><li>Protocols<br />Protocols Used in Streaming Technology:<br />Session Description Protocol(SDP): SDP is intended<br />for describing multimedia streaming sessions for the<br />purpose of session announcement, session invitation, and<br />parameter negotiation. <br />2. Real-Time Transport Protocol(RTP): It is set of conventions that provides end-to-end network transport functions suitable for applications transmitting real-time data such as audio, video over multicast or unicast network services.<br />3. Real-time Control Protocol (RTCP): RTCP is the control protocol that works in conjunction with RTP. RTCP is used to control performance and for diagnostic purposes.<br />
4. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. <br />It is a generic, stateless, object-oriented protocol that can be used for many tasks, such as name servers and distributed object management systems.<br />5. Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP): An application-level protocol for control over the delivery of data with real-time properties. <br />
Methods<br />Streaming Media Delivery Methods:<br />1. On-demand: Prerecorded clips are delivered, or streamed, to users upon request. <br />2. Live:<br /><ul><li> Unicasting: This is the simplest and most popular method of live broadcasting.
Splitting: Splitting is the term used to describe how one Media Server can share its live media streams with other Media Servers.
Multicasting: Multicasting is a standardized method for delivering presentations to large numbers of users over a network or the Internet.</li></li></ul><li>3. Simulated live: Just as television broadcasts sometimes record live events and then broadcast them later, such as Olympic sports that wouldn't be seen live everywhere because of time-zone differences, simulated live broadcasts take prerecorded events and broadcast them as live ones. <br />
Applications<br />1. Live Web-casts: More and more events are being web-cast live.<br />2. Digital Music: More and more music companies are promoting their albums and artistes by streaming technology. Streaming technology is also used for secure and legal distribution of high-quality music through "pay-per-download" and "pay-per-stream" capabilities<br />3. E-Learning Solutions: Many of the world's training specialists are using streaming technology in a big way to replace conventional training methods.<br />
4. Multimedia Product /Online Sales Brochure: static product catalogs and sales brochures and are being streamed to potential clients who visit the site.<br />5. Advertising: Streaming media advertising has dramatically increased customer rates and brand recognition by delivering an enthralling viewing experience to potential clients.<br />6. Cost-effective Information Distribution: Organization can communicate with the entire company simply by creating and streaming digital video. Instead of video tapes and DVDs and ship copies to each branch office, or send technical trainers half-way around the world<br />
Conclusion<br />Media file begins playing soon after the stream begins.<br />The user doesn't have to download the whole file in order to listen music or watch video with very good sound quality.<br />Streaming Media allows users to view media almost in REAL TIME<br />