Introduction to CMMi


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Introduction to CMMi

  1. 1. Introduction to CMMI By Ms. Kiran Khot CMC Limited
  2. 2. What is SEI CMMI• SEI CMMI is the successor of SEI CMM• CMM describes about the software engineering alone where as CMM Integrated describes both software and system engineering.• CMMI evolved as a more matured set of guidelines and was built combining the best components of individual disciplines of CMM (Software CMM, People CMM etc).• The goal of the CMMI project is to improve usability of maturity models for software engineering and other disciplines, by integrating many different models into one framework.• There are 3 constellations of CMMI in the new version: CMMI Development (Software Engineering and System Engineering), CMMI Services (Operations and Support) and CMMI Acquisition.• CMMI Model is not a process, it describes the characteristics of effective processes. 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 2
  3. 3. Benefits of CMMI Implementing a disciplined process in an organization helps in achieving:• Improvement in organization’s control over execution of projects• Increase the ability to meet project goals and improve profitability• Improvement in productivity, quality, decrease in project cycle time• Improvement in customer satisfaction, meeting business objectives• Improvement in business and growth The return is also indicated as decrease in Cost of Quality and decrease in Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ). 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 3
  4. 4. Representations in CMMIThere are two types of representations in CMMI• Staged• Continuous 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 4
  5. 5. Staged Representation• It is an approach used in CMM – Software• It uses predefined sets of process areas to define an improvement path for an organization• This improvement path is described by a model component called maturity level• A maturity level is well defined evolutionary plateau towards achieving improved organization processes• Maturity levels, apply to an organization’s process improvement achievement across multiple process areas• There are five maturity levels, numbered 1 through 5 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 5
  6. 6. Staged Representation Maturity LevelsProcess Area 1 Process Area 2 Process Area 3 Specific Generic Goals Goals Specific Generic Practices Practices 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 6
  7. 7. Continuous Representation• It uses capability levels to characterize improvement relative to an individual process area• This approach allows an organization to select a specific process area and improve relative to it• Capability levels, apply to an organization’s process improvement achievement in individual process area• These levels are means for incrementally improving the processes corresponding to a given process area• There are six capability levels, numbered 0 through 5 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 7
  8. 8. Continuous RepresentationProcess Area 1 Process Area 2 Process Area 3 Specific Generic Goals Goals Specific Generic Practices Practices Capability levels 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 8
  9. 9. Components Associated with Representations Process Area: A process area is a cluster of related practices in an area that, when implemented collectively, satisfies a set of goals considered important for making significant improvement in that area. Specific Goals: A specific goal describes the unique characteristics that must be present to satisfy the process area. Specific Practices: The activities expected to result in achievement of specific goals. 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 9
  10. 10. Components Associated with Representations Generic Goals: A generic goal describes the characteristics that must be present to institutionalize the processes that implement a process area. They are termed “generic”, because the same goal statement appears in multiple process areas. There are 5 generic goals Generic Practices: The activities expected to result in achievement of generic goals. 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 10
  11. 11. Generic Goals and Practices Goal 1: Achieve Specific Goals: Practices: Perform base practices to develop work products and provide services to achieve the specific goals of the process area. Goal 2: Institutionalize a Managed Process: Practices:• Establish an organization policy• Plan the process• Provide Resources• Assign Responsibility• Train People• Manage Configurations• Identify and involve relevant stake holders• Monitor and control the process• Objectively evaluate adherence• Review status with high level management 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 11
  12. 12. Generic Goals and Practices Goal 3: Institutionalize a Defined Process: Practices:• Establish a defined process• Collect improvement information Goal 4: Institutionalize a Quantitatively managed Process: Practices:• Establish quantitative objectives for the process• Stabilize sub process performance Goal 5: Institutionalize an Optimizing Process: Practices:• Ensure continuous process improvement• Correct Root Cause of Problems 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 12
  13. 13. Capability Levels Capability 0: Incomplete:• An incomplete process is a process that is either partially performed or not performed at all.• One or more SG of the PA are not satisfied• No GG exist for this level Capability 1: Performed:• A performed process satisfies the SG of the respective PA.• Supports some GG (typically the work needed to produce work products) Capability 2: Managed:• A managed process has a basic infrastructure in place to support the process• It is planned and executed in accordance with policy• Employs people who have adequate resources to produce controlled outputs• Is monitored, controlled, reviewed and evaluated for adherence to its process description 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 13
  14. 14. Capability Levels Capability 3: Defined:• A defined process is a managed process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes according to the tailoring guidelines• Contributes work products, measures, and other process improvement information to the organizational process assets Capability 4: Quantitatively Managed:• A quantitatively managed uses statistical and quantitative techniques• Quantitative objectives for quality and process performance are established Capability 5: Optimizing:• An optimizing process is quantitatively managed process that is improved based on an understanding of the common causes of variation in the process• The focus is on continually improving the range of process performance through both incremental and innovative improvements 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 14
  15. 15. Maturity Levels Maturity 1: Initial:• Processes are usually ad hoc and chaotic• No stable environment in the organization to support the processes• Success depends on competence and heroics of the people in the organization and not on the use of processes• Frequently, schedules are not met and projects exceed budgets Maturity 2: Managed:• Processes have ensured that requirements are managed and that processes are planned, performed, measured and controlled• Ensures that existing practices are retained during times of stress• Work products and delivery of services are visible to management at defined points• Work products are appropriately controlled Maturity 3: Defined:• Processes are well characterized and understood and are described in standards, procedures, tools and methods• Processes are used to establish consistency across the organization 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 15
  16. 16. Maturity Levels Maturity 4: Quantitatively Managed:• Organization and projects establish quantitative objectives for quality and process• Special causes of variation are identified and appropriately are corrected to prevent future occurrences• Quality and process performance measures are incorporated into the organization’s measurement repository to support fact based decision making Maturity 5: Optimizing:• Organization continuously improves its processes, based on quantitative understanding of common causes of variation inherent in the processes• Both the defined processes and organization’s set of standard processes are targets of measurable improvement activities 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 16
  17. 17. Discipline: Support Process AreasCovers the activities that support product development and maintenance and addressprocesses that are used in performing other PA’s. CMMI Level Process Areas 2 Configuration Management 2 Measurement and Analysis 2 Process and Product Quality Assurance 3 Decision Analysis and Resolution 3 Organizational environment for Integration 5 Causal Analysis and Resolution 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 17
  18. 18. Discipline: Engineering Process AreasThese PA’s apply to the development of any product or service in the engineeringdevelopment domain (e.g. s/w products, h/w products, services or processes) CMMI Level Process Areas 2 Requirements Management 3 Verification 3 Product Integration 3 Requirements Development 3 Technical Solution 3 Validation 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 18
  19. 19. Discipline: Project Management Process AreasCovers the project management activities related to planning, monitoring, andcontrolling the project. CMMI Level Process Areas 2 Project Monitoring and Control 2 Project Planning 2 Supplier Agreement Management 3 Integrated Project Management 3 Integrated Supplier Management 3 Integrated Teaming 3 Risk Management 4 Quantitative Project Management 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 19
  20. 20. Discipline: Process Management Process AreasThe PA’s contain the cross project activities related to defining, planning, deploying,implementing, monitoring, controlling, appraising, measuring, and improvingprocesses. CMMI Level Process Areas 3 Organizational Process Definition 3 Organizational Process Focus 3 Organizational Training 4 Organizational Process Performance 5 Organizational Innovation and Deployment 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 20
  21. 21. Configuration Management (ML 2) Purpose: To establish and maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification. Configuration control, configuration status accounting and configuration audits. SG 1: Establish Baselines: Practices:• Identify CIs• Establish a configuration management system and change management system• Create or release baselines SG 2: Track and Control Changes: Practices:• Track change requests• Control configuration items SG 3: Establish integrity: Practices:• Establish Configuration Management Records• Perform Configuration Audits 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 21
  22. 22. Causal Analysis and Resolution (ML 5) Purpose: To identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to prevent them for occurring in the future. SG 1: Determine causes of defects: Practices:• Select defect data for analysis• Analyze causes SG 2: Address causes of defects: Practices:• Implement action proposals• Evaluate the effect of changes• Record data 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 22
  23. 23. Decision Analysis and Resolution (ML 3) Purpose: To analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. SG 1: Evaluate Alternatives: Practices:• Establish guidelines for decision analysis• Establish Evaluation Criteria• Identify Alternative Solutions• Select methods to evaluate alternative solutions against established criteria• Evaluate Alternatives• Select Solutions 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 23
  24. 24. Integrated Project Management (ML 3) Purpose: To establish and manage the project and the involvement of relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes. SG 1: Use the Project’s Defined Process: Practices:• Establish the project’s defined process• Use organizational process assets for planning project activities• Integrate Plans• Manage the project using the integrated plans• Contribute to the Organizational Process Areas SG 2: Coordinate and collaborate with relevant stakeholders: Practices:• Manage stakeholder involvement• Manage dependencies• Resolve coordination issues SG 3: Use the Project’s shared vision for IPPD: Practices:• Define project’s shared vision context• Establish the project’s shared vision SG 4: Operate Integrated Teams for IPPD: Practices:• Determine Integrated team structure for the project• Develop a preliminary distribution of requirements to integrated teams• Establish Integrated teams 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 24
  25. 25. Integrated Supplier Management (ML 3) Purpose: To proactively identify sources of products that may be used to satisfy the project’s requirements and to manage selected suppliers while maintaining a cooperative project supplier relationship. SG 1: Analyze and select sources of products: Practices:• Analyze potential sources of products• Evaluate and Determine sources of products SG 2: Coordinate work with suppliers: Practices:• Monitor selected supplier processes• Evaluate selected supplier work products• Revise the supplier agreement or relationship 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 25
  26. 26. Integrated Teaming (ML 3) Purpose: To form and sustain an integrated team for the development of work products. SG 1: Establish Team Composition: Practices:• Identify Team Tasks• Identify needed knowledge and skills• Assign appropriate team members SG 2: Govern Team Operation: Practices:• Establish a shared vision• Establish a team charter• Define roles and responsibilities• Establish operating procedures• Collaborate among interfacingteams 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 26
  27. 27. Measurement and Analysis (ML 2) Purpose: To develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs. SG 1: Align Measurement and Analysis Activities: Practices:• Establish Measurement objectives• Specify Measures• Specify Data Collection and storage procedures• Specify analysis procedures SG 2: Provide Measurement Results: Practices:• Collect Measurement Data• Analyze measurement data• Store data and results• Communicate results 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 27
  28. 28. Organizational Environment for Integration (ML 3) Purpose: To provide an Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) infrastructure and manage people for integration. SG 1: Provide IPPD Infrastructure: Practices: • Establish the organization’s shared vision • Establish an integrated wok environment • Identify IPPD-Unique Skill Requirements SG 2: Manage People for Integration: Practices: • Establish Leadership Mechanisms • Establish incentives for integration • Establish Mechanisms to Balance Team and Home Organization Responsibilities 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 28
  29. 29. Organizational Innovation and Deployment (ML 5) Purpose: To select and deploy incremental and innovative improvements that measurably improve the organization’s processes and technologies. The improvements support the organization’s quality and process performance objectives as derived from the organization’s business objectives. SG 1: Select Improvements: Practices:• Collect and Analyze improvement proposals• Identify and analyze innovations• Pilot improvements• Select Improvements for Deployment SG 2: Deploy Improvements: Practices:• Plan the Deployment• Manage the Deployment• Measure improvement effects 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 29
  30. 30. Organizational Process Definition (ML 3) Purpose: To establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets. SG 1: Establish Organizational Process Assets: Practices:• Establish Standard Processes• Establish Life cycle model descriptions• Establish Tailoring Criteria and guidelines• Establish the Organization’s Measurement Repository• Establish the Organization’s Process Asset Library 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 30
  31. 31. Organizational Process Focus (ML 3) Purpose: To plan and implement organizational process improvement based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s processes and process assets. SG 1: Determine Process Improvement Opportunities: Practices:• Establish Organizational Process needs• Appraise the organization’s processes• Identify the organization’s process improvements SG 2: Plan and implement process improvement activities: Practices:• Establish process action plans• Implement process action plans• Deploy organizational process assets• Incorporate process related experiences into the organizational process assets 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 31
  32. 32. Organizational Process Performance (ML 4) Purpose: To establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization’s set of standard processes in support of quality and process performance objectives, and to provide the process performance data, baselines and models to quantitatively manage the organization’s projects. SG 1: Establish Performance baselines and models: Practices:• Select processes• Establish Process performance measures• Establish quality and process performance objectives• Establish process performance baselines• Establish process performance models 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 32
  33. 33. Organizational Training (ML 3) Purpose: To develop skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently. SG 1: Establish an organizational training capability: Practices:• Establish the strategic training needs• Determine which training needs are the responsibility of the organization• Establish an organizational training tactical plan• Establish training capability SG 2: Provide necessary training: Practices:• Deliver training• Establish Training Records• Assess training effectiveness 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 33
  34. 34. Product Integration (ML 3) Purpose: To assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the product. SG 1: Prepare for product integration: Practices:• Determine integration sequence• Establish the product integration environment• Establish product integration procedures and criteria SG 2: Ensure Interface Compatibility: Practices:• Review interface descriptions for completeness• Manage interfaces SG 3: Assemble product components and deliver the product: Practices:• Confirm readiness of product components for integration• Assemble product components• Evaluate Assembled Product Components• Package and Deliver the Product or Product Component 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 34
  35. 35. Project Monitoring and Control (ML 2) Purpose: To provide an understanding of the project’s progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project’s performance deviates significantly from the plan. SG 1: Monitor Project Against Plan: Practices:• Monitor project planning parameters• Monitor commitments• Monitor project risks• Monitor data management• Monitor Stakeholder involvement• Conduct progress reviews• Conduct milestone reviews SG 2: Manage Corrective Action to Closure: Practices:• Analyze issues• Take corrective action• Manage corrective action 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 35
  36. 36. Project Planning (ML 2) Purpose: To establish and maintain plans that define project activities. SG 1: Establish Estimates: Practices:• Estimate the scope of the project• Establish estimates of work product and task attributes• Define project life cycle• Determine estimates of effort and cost SG 2: Develop a Project Plan: Practices:• Establish the budget and schedule• Identify project risks• Plan for data management• Plan for project resources• Plan for needed knowledge and skills• Plan stakeholder involvement• Establish the Project Plan SG 3: Obtain Commitment to the Plan: Practices:• Review plan that affects the project• Reconcile work and resource levels• Obtain Plan commitment 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 36
  37. 37. Process and Product Quality Assurance (ML 2) Purpose: To provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products. SG 1: Objectively evaluate Processes and Work Products: Practices:• Objectively evaluate processes• Objectively evaluate work products and services SG 2: Provide Objective Insight: Practices:• Communicate and ensure resolution of noncompliance issues• Establish Records 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 37
  38. 38. Quantitative Project Management (ML 4) Purpose: To quantitatively manage the project’s defined process to achieve the project’s established quality and process performance objectives. SG 1: Quantitatively Manage the Project: Practices:• Establish the project’s objectives• Compose the defined process• Select the subprocesses that will be statistically managed• Manage Project Performance SG 2: Statistically Manage Subprocess Performance: Practices:• Select measures and analytic techniques• Apply statistical methods to understand variation• Monitor performance of the selected subprocesses• Record statistical management data 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 38
  39. 39. Requirements Development (ML 3) Purpose: To produce and analyze customer, product, and product-component requirements. SG 1: Develop Customer Requirements: Practices:• Collect stakeholders needs• Elicit needs• Develop the customer requirements SG 2: Develop Product Requirements: Practices:• Establish Product and Product-Component requirements• Allocate Product-Component requirements• Identify interface requirements SG 3: Analyze and Validate Requirements: Practices:• Establish operational concepts and scenarios• Establish a definition of required functionality• Analyze requirements• Analyze requirements to achieve balance• Validate requirements 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 39
  40. 40. Requirements Management (ML 2) Purpose: To manage the requirements of the project’s products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the project’s plans and work products. SG 1: Manage Requirements: Practices:• Obtain an understanding of requirements• Obtain commitment to requirements• Manage requirements changes• Maintain bidirectional traceability of requirements• Identify inconsistencies between project work and requirements 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 40
  41. 41. Risk Management (ML 3) Purpose: To identify potential problems before they occur so that risk handling activities can be planned and invoked as needed across the life of the product or project to mitigate adverse impacts on achieving objectives. SG 1: Prepare for Risk Management: Practices:• Determine risk sources and categories• Define risk parameters• Establish a risk management strategy SG 2: Identify and Analyze Risks: Practices:• Identify risks• Evaluate, categorize and prioritize risks SG 3: Mitigate Risks: Practices:• Develop mitigation plans• Implement risk mitigation plans 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 41
  42. 42. Supplier Agreement Management (ML 2) Purpose: To manage the acquisition of products from suppliers for which there exists a formal agreement. SG 1: Establish Supplier Agreements: Practices:• Determine acquisition type• Select suppliers• Establish Supplier Agreements SG 2: Satisfy Supplier Agreements: Practices:• Review COTS products• Execute the supplier agreement• Accept the acquired product• Transition products 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 42
  43. 43. Validation (ML 3) Purpose: To demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment . SG 1: Prepare for Validation: Practices:• Select products for validation• Establish the validation environment• Establish validation procedures and criteria SG 2: Validate Product or Product Components: Practices:• Perform validation• Analyze validation results 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 43
  44. 44. Verification (ML 3) Purpose: To ensure that selected work products meet their specifications. SG 1: Prepare for Verification: Practices:• Select work products for verification• Establish the verification environment• Establish verification procedures and criteria SG 2: Perform Peer Reviews: Practices:• Prepare for peer reviews• Conduct Peer Review• Analyze peer review data SG 3: Verify Selected Work Products: Practices:• Perform Verification• Analyze Verification Results and Identify Corrective Action 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 44
  45. 45. References••• CMMI (Pearson Education) by Mary Beth Chrissis, Mike Konrad and Sandy Shrum 6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 45
  46. 46. Thank You!!6th July 2007 Introduction to CMMI, CMC Ltd 46