U n i_l_e_v_e_r


Published on

summer internship on absenteeism issue in HUL

Published in: Business, Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

U n i_l_e_v_e_r

  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTTo achieve success in any stage of life there needs to b e proper guidance, co-operationand support by many individuals. Many people have contributed towards making thisproject a success.I express my gratitude to the factory manager of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. (KandlaFactory), Mr. K.C.Katoch who has given me the opportunity to conduct my project atHUL. To HR manager, MISS.Ritika for enlightening my knowledge regarding HR. To HRexecutive, Mr. Karan Mistry, for his guiding me all through the project and sharing richknowledge during my project study.I would like to thank Mr. Rajesh prajapati & Mr. Sailesh Acharya for helping me inpreparing my project.I would also like to thank all the staff members of HUL (Kandla Factory) for their co-operation, support and who shared their experiences with me which helped me to achievethe objective of my project.For the sub-staff also I would like to owe my gratitude.I would like to express my gratitude to my mentor Prof. Jayesh Aagjah who is my sourceof inspiration and guided me all along the way of my project. INDEXInstitute of Management, Nirma University 2
  4. 4. • PRIMARY DATA • REASONS OF LEAVE • DATA INTERPREATATION • OBSERVATION • CONCLUSION • SUGGESTIONS • LEARNING 5) BIBLIOGRAPHY“ Our aim is to build and sustain ane fficient work for ce as a major source ofc ompetitive stren gth for our business,a nd in so doing to promote the well beingo f those who work with us” “Without order, planning, predictability, central control, accountancy, instructions to the underlings, obedience, discipline – without these nothing fruitful canInstitute of Management, Nirma University 4
  5. 5. happen, because everything disintegrates. And yet – without the magnanimity of disorder, the happy abandon, the entrepreneurship venturing into the unknown and incalculable, without the risk and the gamble, the creative imagination rushing in where bureaucratic angels fear to tread – without this, life is a mockery and a disgrace.” E.F. Schumacher, as quoted by Nail Fitzgerald, Chairman, Unilever Corporate PurposeOur purpose in Unilever is to meet the everyday needs of people everywhere - toanticipate the aspirations of our consumers and customers and to respond creatively andcompetitively with branded products and services, which raise the quality of life.Our deep roots in local cultures and markets around the world are our unparalleledinheritance and the foundation for our future growth. We will bring our wealth ofknowledge and international expertise to the service of local consumers - truly multi -local multinational Our long term success requires a total commitment to exceptionalstandards of performance and productivity, to working together effectively and to awillingness to embrace new ideas and learn continuously.We believe that to succeed requires the highest standards of corporate behavior towardsInstitute of Management, Nirma University 5
  6. 6. our employees, consumers and the societies and world in which we live.This is Unilever’s road to sustainable, profitable growth for our business and long-termvalue creation for our shareholders and employees.MISSIONUnilevers mission is to add Vitality to life. We meet everyday needs for nutrition,hygiene, and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get moreout of life.VISIONInstitute of Management, Nirma University 6
  7. 7. A truly multi – local multinationalInstitute of Management, Nirma University 7
  8. 8. Unilever is dedicated to meeting the everyday needs of people everywhere. Aroundthe world their food and home and personal care brands are chosen by individualconsumers 150 million times a day. Anticipating their needs and aspirations is thetask of our local companies who bring to the service of their consumers the bestinternational brands and expertise. This is why they describe themselves as a trulymulti – local multinational.BrandsFor more than 60 years Unilever has been providing consumers with quality products andservices. They have a portfolio of global, regional and local brands. Some Such asMagnum ice cream and Lux soap have become world leaders; others are the top choice forconsumers in specific countries.International by design, they have deep roots in many countries. By the very nature of ourbusiness we are an integral part of the societies in which we operate. Local companies arepredominately run by local people in tune with their communities and who understandtheir needs and values - a truly multi-local multinational.Consumers also expect from them to fulfil their needs with brands that have lowenvironmental impact. Living up to this expectation challenges them to continuouslyimprove the environmental performance of their process and help their brands to achievesustainable profitable growth.Institute of Management, Nirma University 8
  9. 9. In 1931, Unilever set up its first Indian subsidiary, Hindustan Vanaspati ManufacturingCompany, followed by Lever Brothers India Limited (1933) and United Traders Limited(1935). These three companies merged to form HUL in November 1956; HUL offered10% of its equity to the Indian public, being the first among the foreign subsidiaries to doso. Unilever now holds 52.10% equity in the company. The rest of the shareholding isdistributed among about 360,675 individual shareholders and financial institutions.Institute of Management, Nirma University 9
  10. 10. From the biggest city to the smallest, most remote village, you will find the brands thathave made us successful. Look in any home and you will find international favourites suchas Dove, Sunsilk and Omo, and Magnum, Lipton and Calve as well as many local brands.Our aim is for our brands to be the first choice for consumers everywhere.Quality is a priority and we dont just mean functional quality. In our foods taste, nutritionand ease of use increase enjoyment The performance, effectiveness and fragrance of ourhome and personal care brands make the daily routine of cleansing our bodies andcleaning our homes a more pleasurable experience. HUL BUSINESS COMPOSITIONJoint Ventures Lakme - Lever  Color Cosmetics and Skin Care Kimberly Clark - Lever  Feminine Hygiene, Baby Care, Incontinence Products Lever - Johnson  Home Care Lever - Gist Brocades  Dry YeastSubsidiary Companies• Hind Lever Chemicals ( 59.63 %)• Yankee Doodle Industries ( 84.5 %)Institute of Management, Nirma University 10
  11. 11. • Industrial Perfumes Ltd. ( 51 %)• Nepal Lever Ltd. ( 80 %) A l l o t h e r s f u l l y o w n e dSTRENGTHS OF UNILEVER• Understanding the needs of customers and consumers.• Product innovation.• Investment in research and development.• Creative and effective marketing.• Expertise in manufacturing technology.• Sharing of expertise.• People.• International in a local way.• Organisational structure.• Short lines of communication.• Strong financial position.• Investing for growth.• Fast growth in emerging markets • Historic presence • Local understanding • Decentralized management • Balanced product portfolio• Strategic Objectives • Focus on priority categories and priority regions • Long term value creationInstitute of Management, Nirma University 11
  12. 12. PRESENT STATURE-Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is Indias largest Fast Moving Consumer Goodscompany, touching the lives of two out of three Indians with over 20 distinct categories inHome & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages. They endow the company with ascale of combined volumes of about 4 million tonnes and sales of nearly Rs.1371crores.HUL is also one of the countrys largest exporters; it has been recognised as a GoldenSuper Star Trading House by the Government of India. HULs brands - like Lifebuoy, Lux,Surf Excel, Rin, Wheel, Fair & Lovely, Ponds, Sunsilk, Clinic, Pepsodent, Close-up,Lakme, Brooke Bond, Kissan, Knorr-Annapurna, Kwality Walls – are household namesacross the country and span many categories - soaps, detergents, personal products, tea,coffee, branded staples, ice cream and culinary products. They are manufactured over 40factories across India. The operations involve over 2,000 suppliers and associates. HULsdistribution network, comprising about 4,000 redistribution stockists, covering 6.3 millionretail outlets reaching the entire urban population, and about 250 million rural consumers•India’s largest fast moving consumer goods company•Touches the lives of 2 out of 3 IndiansInstitute of Management, Nirma University 12
  13. 13. •Nationwide distribution with 7000 stockiest•Directly covers entire urban population through 1 million outlets50,000 villages•36,300 employees•1,350 managers•80 company factories•45 C & FA’s•150 outsourcing units TOP MANAGEMENT-MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE-Hindustan Unilever Limited is Indias largest Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)company. It is present in Home & Personal Care and Foods & Beverages categories. HULand Group companies have about 15,000 employees, including 1200 managers.The fundamental principle determining the organisation structure is to infuse speed andflexibility in decision-making and implementation, with empowered managers across thecompany’s nationwide operations. Board Management CommitteeBOARDThe Board of Directors as repositories of the corporate powers act as a guardian to theCompany as also the protectors of shareholder’s interest.Institute of Management, Nirma University 13
  14. 14. This Apex body comprises of a Non- Executive Chairman, four whole time Directors andfive independent Non – Executive Directors. The Board of the Company represents theoptimum mix of professionalism, knowledge and experience.MANAGEMENT COMMITTEEThe day-to-day management of affairs of the Company is vested with the ManagementCommittee which is subjected to the overall superintendence and control of the Board. TheManagement Committee is headed by Mr. Nitin Paranjpe and has functional heads as itsmembers representing various functions of the Company MCKINSEY’S SEVEN S FRAMEWORKMost of us grew up learning about the 4Ps of the marketing mix: product, price, place,promotion. And this model still works when the focus is on product marketing. Howevermost developed economies have moved on, with an ever-increasing focus on servicebusinesses, and therefore service marketing. To better represent the challenges of servicemarketing, McKinsey developed a new framework for analyzing and improvingorganizational effectiveness, the 7S model:The 3Ss across the top of the model are described as Hard Ss:Institute of Management, Nirma University 14
  15. 15. STRATEGY:The direction and scope of the company over the long termThe strategy of HUL has been to introduce new and innovative products at competitiveprice in the market which gives value for money. This is the prime reason that thecompany emphasizes a lot on research and development. This is why it has been termed asthe most reputed FMCG brand in the country.STRUCTURE:The basic organization of the company, its departments, reporting lines, areas of expertise,and responsibility (and how they inter-relate).Hindustan Unilever Limited is Indias largest Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)company. It is present in Home & Personal Care and Foods & Beverages categories. HULand Group companies have about 15,000 employees, including 1200 managers.Institute of Management, Nirma University 15
  16. 16. The fundamental principle determining the organisation structure is to infuse speed andflexibility in decision-making and implementation, with empowered managers across thecompany’s nationwide operations.BOARD :The Board of Directors as repositories of the corporate powers act as a guardian to theCompany as also the protectors of shareholder’s interest.MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE:The day-to-day management of affairs of the Company is vested with the ManagementCommittee which is subjected to the overall superintendence and control of the Board.SYSTEMS:Formal and informal procedures that govern everyday activity, covering everything frommanagement information systems, through to the systems at the point of contact with thecustomer (retail systems, call centre systems, online systems, etc).HUL has one of the best MIS systems in the country to coordinate day to day activitieswith its huge distribution network including depots, wholesalers and retailers as well. Thecompany has come up with the new retailing structure of city stores, family and bazaarstore that are supported by the Adonis software systemThe 4Ss across the bottom of the model are less tangible, more cultural in nature, and weretermed Soft Ss by McKinsey:SKILLS:Institute of Management, Nirma University 16
  17. 17. The capabilities and competencies that exist within the company. What it does best.HUL excels in the following –· The company has maintained an extensive network of distributors that enables it to reachmillions of customers. No other manufacturer in the country has such extensivedistribution channel· HUL’s factories ensures uninterrupted supply of FMCG for captive consumption· HUL is distinguished by its global presence and its access to other global brands.SHARED VALUES:The values and beliefs of the companyHUL believes in the following values-· Equality of opportunity· Conducting operations ethically· Long term partnership with suppliers/ business associates· Training for new skills development· Promotion on merit· HUL believes in being good corporate citizensSTYLE:The leadership approach of top management and the companys overall operatingapproach.Career development program in HUL takes in to consideration the following activities-· Provides training to the employees and reorganized its front end sales force· It has undertaken intensive training program for its employees and managers to ensureexcellence in customer service· It has empowered its workforce by promoting the bestperformers and bringing in new managers with fresh ideas.Institute of Management, Nirma University 17
  18. 18. STAFF:The companys people resources and how they are developed, trained, and motivated.Unilever is committed to diversity in a working environment where there is mutual trustand respect and where everyone feels responsible for the performance and reputation ofour company.It will recruit, employ and promote employees on the sole basis of the qualifications andabilities needed for the work to be performed.They are committed to safe and healthy working conditions for all employees. They willnot use any form of forced, compulsory or child labour.They are committed to working with employees to develop and enhance each individualsskills and capabilities.They respect the dignity of the individual and the right of employees to freedom ofassociation.They will maintain good communications with employees through company basedinformation and consultation procedures.Institute of Management, Nirma University 18
  19. 19. PORTER’S 5 FORCES MODELThe five forces concept is perhaps best explained through example. (sPorters work isnothing short of excellent, but it is a heavy read.) Lets briefly examine the householdconsumer-products industry by considering rival firms Clorox CLX, Kimberly-ClarkKMB, Colgate-Palmolive CL, and Procter & Gamble PG in terms of Porters five forces:Institute of Management, Nirma University 19
  20. 20. BUYER POWER.Consumer-products companies face weak buyer power because customers are fragmentedand have little influence on price or product. But if we consider the buyers of consumerproducts to be retailers rather than individuals, then these firms face very strong buyerpower. Retailers like Wal-Mart WMT and Target TGT are able to negotiate for pricingwith companies like HUL because they purchase and sell so much of HULs products.Verdict: Strong buyer power from retailers.SUPPLIER POWER.More than likely, consumer-products companies face some amount of supplier powersimply because of the costs they incur when switching suppliers. On the other hand,suppliers that do a large amount of business with these companies--supplying HUL withraw materials for its products, for instance--also are somewhat beholden to theircustomers, like HUL. Nevertheless, bargaining power for both the firms and their suppliersis probably limited.Verdict: Limited supplier power.THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS.Given the amount of capital investment needed to enter certain segments in householdconsumer products, such as manufacturing deodorants, we suspect the threat of newentrants is fairly low in the industry. In some segments within the household consumer-products industry, this may not be the case since a small manufacturer could develop asuperior product, such as a detergent, and compete with HUL. The test is whether thesmall manufacturer can get its products on the shelves of the same retailers as its muchlarger rivals. Verdict: High threat of new entrants.Institute of Management, Nirma University 20
  21. 21. THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES.Within the consumer-products industry, brands succeed in helping to build a competitiveadvantage, but even the pricing power of brands can be eroded with substitutes such asstore-branded private-label offerings. In fact, some of these same store-brand private-labelproducts are manufactured by the large consumer-products firms. The firms believe that ifthey can manufacture and package a lower-price alternative themselves, they would ratheraccept the marginal revenue from their lower-priced items than risk completely losing thesale to a private-label competitor.Verdict: High threat of substitutes.DEGREE OF RIVALRY.Consumers in this category enjoy a multitude of choices for everything from cleaningproducts to bath washes. While many consumers prefer certain brands, switching costs inthis industry are quite low. It does not cost anything for a consumer to buy one brand ofshampoo instead of another. This, along with a variety of other factors, including theforces weve already examined, makes the industry quite competitive.Verdict: High degree of rivalry.Institute of Management, Nirma University 21
  22. 22. KANDLA FACTORY BACKGROUNDThe factory currently manufactures HPC category products; mainly Skin care, Haircare and Oral care products. In skin care, various creams and lotions aremanufactured. In Oral care, toothpaste is manufactured. In hair care, shampoo andhair creams are manufactured. The factory used to manufacture, VHT oil, whichnow has been transferred to a 3P manufacturer.In the past, the factory used to produce soaps; the unit had been shut subsequently.The factory used to produce liquid detergents for Malaysia. Up to Jan’01 rice wasalso processed here and now it has been shifted to Delhi.Factory also produced VBJ/VPJ (Jelly) till April 06 for UAE, operation of whichhas now been shifted to HLL-Pondicherry unit.• Unit Commissioned - April 1982•Plot Area - 72900 sq m.•Current Built area - 8700 sq m.•Green Cover - 40880 sq m•ETP Capacity - 160TPD•ETP overflow water used in gardening•Kandla Port - 9 km from factory•Mundra Port - 65 km from factory ( P&O Managed Port)Institute of Management, Nirma University 22
  23. 23. PLANT AND AREA IN SQM- Oral plant - 3168- Old skin plant - 864- New skin plant - 1687- LD plant - 2562- Substation - 110- Pump house – 180- VPJ melting - 98SITE LOCATION-Exports Factory of Hindustan Lever Limited at Kandla is situated in an industrialarea inside the Special Economic Zone, ~6 Km southwest of the Gandhidhamtown.Site Name Kandla FactoryStreet Plot Nos. 253-257 Sector-IV, Kandla Special Economic ZoneTown/District Gandhidham, District KutchPostal Code 370 230Country IndiaInstitute of Management, Nirma University 23
  24. 24. Institute of Management, Nirma University 24
  25. 25. MILESTONES- KANDLA FACTORY The main events in the development of the Factory over the years are summarized in the table below. YEAR ACTIVITY1983 Manufacturing operations commenced with Toothpaste, Shampoo, Lipstick and Garments.1984-85 Herbicides, Perfumes and Mascara operations commenced.1986-87 Edible Fats (Dalda), Creams (FAL), Timotei Shampoo started. Herbicide production discontinued.1988 Lux Shampoo and Powder Compacts manufacturing commenced.1990-91 Soaps in a 3rd Party Location (outside the Free Trade Zone) commenced. Colored cosmetics discontinued. Herbicide plant decontaminated and dismantled.1993 Closure of Edible Fats. Commissioning of Rice processing. ISO 9002 certification – PP1994 Closure of garment operation.1996 Re-sitting of the Soap Packing operations from the 3rd Party to inside the Zone. ISO 9002 certification – Rice1997 A year of discontinuity. Production volumes started picking up after being very low in 1996-97. ISO 9002 certification Soaps Unilever Silver Safety Trophy1998 Operation to process Filtered Hair (Coconut) Oil and Aviance range of Products commenced. Gujarat Export Award – LIEL & HLL ( 1997-98 ) Unilever Gold Safety Trophy Institute of Management, Nirma University 25
  26. 26. 1999 Shampoo, VHT and Ponds Skin Product range commenced. Safety (ISRS) Audit was conducted in January. Gujarat Export Award – LIEL & HLL ( 1998-99 )2000 Pears Shower Gel/Face Wash, Dove/Sunsilk Hair Cream, Vaseline Petroleum Jelly operations commenced.2001/200 Rice unit shifted to Delhi. The new Liquid detergent plant commissioned.22003 Achieved “A” rating in UQCSRM audit conducted by Unilever auditor (Ms. Gyani).2004 Certified for ISO 9001:2000 standard, Belle project successful mfg. trials taken Toothpaste plant renovated, comparable to a world class unit Capacity expansion done for Skin care plant2005 Achieved TPM Level 1 Award Plant audited by Unilever Europe SC team Project Garcey trials initiated, Belle mfg. trails completed. New toothpaste for Unica and Australia trails taken successfully with 100% FTR Won Exports Award from KASEZ2006 Cleared XRS audit with 92% Scoring Hygiene audit by Unilever, Europe (Alex G) Project Superbird trials taken in consultation with Germany for supplying to UAE2007 3 new NORDEN lines (Al tubes, Nitrogen flushing) for project Mythos, PAMPAC CP120 installed inline, Factory gets US FDA & CMOH Approval, New skin plant.2008 High speed bottling line, High speed jar line procured, New project Vi A Dios Launch. Institute of Management, Nirma University 26
  27. 27. FACTORY ORGANIZATION STRUCTUREInstitute of Management, Nirma University 27
  28. 28. Policies Undertaken At HUL (Kandla Factory) I. Safety and health policy: Hindustan Unilever Ltd. - Kandla Factory recognises people as its most important assetand is committed to provide a safe and healthy work environment for those working onand visiting its operations. Management at all levels is held accountable for theoccupational safety and health performance of the factory. At the same time it is the dutyof every employee to work in a safe manner so as not to endanger himself and hiscolleagues at the work place and during travel. This is a condition of employment.HUL, Kandla Factory aims to prevent occupational injuries and ill health through thefollowing action: • Integrate safety into all company processes. Proactively evaluate risk of occupational injury/illness and implement actions to mitigate the risk • Design, adapt, operate and maintain technology, plants and other facilities within the designated safety criteria throughout their working life. • Develop, introduce and maintain safety and health management systems across the HUL- Kandla factory to meet HUL standards as well as statutory requirements for safety and health. Verify compliance with these standards through regular auditing. • Set annual improvement objective and targets and review these to ensure that these are being met at the individual unit and corporate levels. • Inculcate safety as a personal value through behavioural intervention at all levels, recognition of positive behaviour and continuous correction of unsafe behaviour. • Involve all the employees in the implementation of this policy and provide appropriate training. • Provide for appropriate dissemination of information on safety and health at workInstitute of Management, Nirma University 28
  29. 29. and travel through suitable communication networks both within the HUL- Kandla factory and with external bodies.II. The environment policy: • Ensure safety of its products and operations for the environment by using standards of environmental safety, which are scientifically sustainable and commonly acceptable. • Develop, introduce and maintain environmental management systems across the factory to meet the company standards as well as statutory requirements for environment. Verify compliance with these standards through regular auditing. • Assess environmental impact of all its activities and set annual improvement objectives and targets and review these to ensure that these are being met at the individual unit and corporate levels. • Reduce wastage, conserve energy and explore opportunities for reuse and recycle • Involve all employees in the implementation of this policy and provide appropriate training. Provide for dissemination of information to employees on environmental objectives and performance through suitable communication networks. • Encourage suppliers and co-packers to develop and employ environmentally superior processes and ingredients and co-operate with other members of the supply chain to improve overall environmental performance. • Work in partnership with external bodies and Government agencies to promote environmental care, increase understanding of environmental issues and disseminate good practice. III . Consumer & Customer safety policy:Institute of Management, Nirma University 29
  30. 30. • Ensure that the products are safe by design. • Design, operate, continuously improve its process/plants, storage and distribution chain and comply with the statutory and internal Unilever standards. • Establish and maintain standards and procedures for the control and monitoring of all Critical Control Points in the operations, protecting its products from potential hazards of presence of foreign bodies, microbiological, chemical contaminants and allergens. • Operate and maintain a toxicological clearance procedure for all its products, ingredients, formulations and packaging. • Seek specialist advice and support from the centre to self and provide specialist advice and support • Ensure that all employees at each level and function are aware of their responsibilities for Consumer Safety and are appropriately trained and motivated to fulfil them. • Establish the procedure to identify “suspect or contaminated products & the raw and packaging materials”, recall it from any point in the manufacturing/distribution chains, and take appropriate corrective & preventive action. • Provide necessary Product information to its Customers & Consumers, including safety handling instructions, where required. • The responsibility for dissemination and implementation of this policy lies with the Business Head. • The Consumer and Customer Safety Policy will be reviewed annually ensuring continual improvement of the Quality & Consumer Safety Management System.Institute of Management, Nirma University 30
  31. 31. IV . Quality Policy: • Hindustan Unilever Ltd. – Kandla Factory considers Quality as one of the principal strategic platforms to Growth and Leadership in the market in which it operates. • Hindustan Unilever Ltd.- Kandla Factory is committed to respond creatively and competitively to the changing needs and aspirations of our consumers through relentless pursuit of technological excellence, innovation, TPM and Quality Management Systems across its business. • HUL- Kandla recognizes that its employees are primary source of success in its operations and is committed to training and providing them the necessary tools and techniques as well as empowering them to ensure broad base compliance of this policy in the organisation at all levels. • HUL- Kandla is committed to fulfil its legal and statutory obligations and international standards of product safety and hygiene and will not knowingly produce and dispatch product that is harmful to consumers or their belongings. It will institute systems and measures to monitor compliance in order to meet its responsibilities to consumers. • The unit will maintain an open communication channel with its consumers and customers and will carefully monitor the feedback to continuously improve its products and services and set quality standards to fulfil them. • The unit is committed to extend its quality standards to its contract manufacturers, supplier and service providers and by entering into alliances with them, to jointly improve the quality of its product and services. • The responsibility for dissemination and implementation of this policy lies with the Business Head. The unit will annually review this quality policy for its effectiveness and consistency with business objectives Institute of Management, Nirma University 31
  32. 32. Total Protective Maintenance (TPM)Total Productive Maintenance is a surprisingly effective approach to achieving WorldClass levels of manufacturing performance.It has delivered spectacular results in every major industry and is seen by manymanufacturers as a cornerstone of their improvement strategy.Here we will describe some of the key features of this approach.i) What is TPM?ii) What are the objectives of TPM?iii) What are the pillars of TPM?iv) What is the role of Management in TPM?i) What is TPM?TPM is a "Corporate Cultural Change Programme", originally developed in Japan by theJapan Institute of Plant Maintenance. It is an approach to radically changing the cultureand performance of manufacturing operations through the application of structured toolkits- called "pillars".It provides comprehensive techniques for changing the behaviour of personnel in order toimprove the design, condition and performance of plant items.ii) What are the objectives of TPM?Institute of Management, Nirma University 32
  33. 33. TPM aims to achieve the 4 Zeros:• Zero Defects• Zero Breakdowns• Zero Wastes• Zero Accidents In short, TPM aims to remove all sources of non-value added.iii) What are the pillars of TPM?TPM consists of a number of discrete toolkits, called the "Pillars of TPM" (Source: www.lossandwaste.co.uk)Institute of Management, Nirma University 33
  34. 34. 1) Kobetsu Kaizan: Focused Improvement: Kobetsu Kaizen or focused improvement includes all activities that maximize the overall effectiveness of equipment, processes and plants through uncompromising elimination of losses and improvement of performance.It’s a rigorous process of continuous improvement based on the scientific method ofunderstanding a system, measuring performance, preparing a hypothesis and investigatinghypothesis, developing a solution and verifying the effectiveness of solution and verifyingthe effectiveness of the solution. The Focused Improvement process is driven by a Loss &Waste system based on Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).This pillar provides themain tools for driving toward Zero Wastes, Zero Breakdowns, Zero Defects and ZeroAccidents2) JISHU HOZEN: Autonomous Maintenance:A seven step process to create Self Directed Work Teams (SDWT) by changing theapproach to equipment care. Particularly effective at improving the underlying trend ofequipment reliability, or where the availability of good quality maintenance personnel islimited. Concentration on good equipment conditions, cleanliness and lubrication duringthe early steps leads to high level of ownership of plant items amongst operating teams.This pillar is a necessary requirement for Zero breakdowns, and has an indirect effect inachieving Zero Waste, Zero Defects and Zero Accidents.Institute of Management, Nirma University 34
  35. 35. 3) Effective Maintenance: A step-by-step process for improving plant maintenance. Effective plant maintenance requires a mix of approaches to maintaining plant items - including breakdown, time based and inspection based maintenance, condition monitoring and corrective maintenance. The Effective Maintenance pillar redresses this by achieving the appropriate balance of maintenance approaches to deliver optimum availability at lowest cost. This pillar is also a necessary requirement for Zero breakdowns, and has an indirect effect in achieving Zero Waste, Zero Defects and Zero Accidents. 4) Training and Education: Progress in the other pillars frequently identifies knowledge gaps amongst the workforce and management. For example, operators often do not understand the operating principles of their equipment; maintenance personnel may be unfamiliar with maintenance techniques such as "syringe lubrication" or condition monitoring approaches. Managers can be unclear of the exact plant performance required, or may need training in coaching techniques. All of these knowledge gaps must be filled if significant improvement is to be achieved. This pillar captures these knowledge gaps as they are identified, develops appropriate solutions for training and education (usually resourced and conducted in-house), and ensures they are delivered through a programme of structured development for the entire workforce.Institute of Management, Nirma University 35
  36. 36.  Training Cycle: (Chart: 9) Skill Skill Skill Training Inventory Requireme Gap Plan nt Evaluate Implemen Impart Effectiven tation ess Training (Source: HUL, Kandla Factory) 4) Early Management (or "Early Equipment Management", or "Initial Flow Control"): Once the first four pillars of TPM have been established, it is usual to find that significant improvements have been made to existing plant to make them more effective, more reliable and easier to maintain. The knowledge which has been developed to achieve these improvements is now directed toward the development, design and implementation of new plant items before they arrive in the factory. It is akin to a process of Simultaneous Engineering, but involves mining the deep, practical, knowledge and understanding of what makes for good production developed during the earlier pillars, rather than purely theoretical engineering knowledge. In this way, new plant and equipment should be capable of vertical start-up, where they achieve their planned performance level immediately, rather than after a period of commissioning and bedding in.6) Quality Maintenance:Institute of Management, Nirma University 36
  37. 37. The Quality Maintenance pillar aims to achieve a production system which is incapable ofproducing quality defects. It builds on the work done during the first four pillars, andbrings in additional techniques such as “Poke Yoke”. This pillar is the final step in thedrive toward Zero Defects.7) TPM in Administration:As the other pillars deliver a constantly improving performance in the equipment, moreand more of the problems which occur will be as a result of the administration of theoperation. This could be in the planning process, resourcing, documentation or procedures,etc. This pillar takes the approaches used on the manufacturing processes and applies themto the administration processes.8) Safety, Health & the Environment:This pillar ensures that all the improvements developed by the other pillars do not reducethe Safety, Health or Environmental performance of the organisation. It also ensures thatthe approaches used to achieve manufacturing performance improvement are equallyapplied to Safety, Health and Environmental issues. ABSENTEEISMInstitute of Management, Nirma University 37
  38. 38. Absenteeism; is the failure to report to work1. its obviously difficult for an organization to operate smoothly and to attain its objectives if employees fail to report to their jobs. The workflow is disrupted, and often-important decisions are delayed. The organizations (like our Unilever) rely heavily upon assembly line production; absenteeism is considerably more than a disruption. It can result in:-• A drastic reduction in quality of output.• sometimes can bring a complete shutdown of the production facility.2. Absenteeism has a direct impact on the organizations:-• Effectiveness• Efficiency3. Although most absences have a negative impact on the organization. we can conceive of situations in which the organization may benefit by an employees voluntarily choosing not to come to work e.g. in jobs in which an employee needs t0 be alert surgeons, pilots). If the employee is ill or is under stress its better not to report to work but should take rest. Even in management jobs where mistake are less spectacular, performance may be improved when managers absent themselves from work rather than make a poor decision under stress.4. Absenteeism is one of the most widespread obstacles to productivity, profitability and competitiveness. It causes overtime, late deliveries, dissatisfied customers and a decline in morale among workers who are expected to cover for absent colleagues.5. Well the production of the company in a way depends upon the presence of the workers.Institute of Management, Nirma University 38
  39. 39. Absenteeism effects adversely in smooth production. Though absenteeism is related to efforts to reduce absenteeism in a planned manner.6 It is not unusual for managers to find themselves shutting down lines, Scaling back services, or scheduling weekend work because they struggle to fill positions left open by absent employees Employee absences• Predictable• Unpredictable• Scheduled• Unscheduled• Controllable• UncountableMAGNITUDE OF ABSENTEEISMIt is observed that the phenomenon of absenteeism does not exist only in Indian industry, itInstitute of Management, Nirma University 39
  40. 40. is a universal fact. The difference is only in terms of magnitude. The rate of absenteeismvaries from 7% to nearly 30%. In some occupations, it has risen to abnormal level of 40%.The extant of absenteeism may differ from industry to industry, place to place andoccupation to occupation. It may also differ according to the make-up of the work force.Absenteeism may be extensive in a particular department of an industry or a concern.Absenteeism in Indian industry is not a new phenomenon. The Royal Commission onLabour reported, "High absenteeism prevails among industrial Labour mainly due to theirRural orientation".Absenteeism means practice of being absent from the duty by the employees. It disturbsthe smooth functioning of the company and effects on production/productivity of the plant.The problem of absenteeism is being given a serious view and a comprehensive study onabsenteeism of the plant was carried out in 1997. From the analysis and study thefollowing facts revealed that plant absenteeism is being affected by following types ofabsenteeism:• Authorized leaves• Unauthorized leaves• Compensatory leave REASONS FOR ABSENTEEISMAbsenteeism is due to lack of "commitment" on the part of the workInstitute of Management, Nirma University 40
  41. 41. force. The worker in the process of the early stages of industrialization is more prone toabsenteeism, prolonged and sporadic withdrawal from the industrial work, wildcatstoppages. Naked violence and destruction of machines and property. Absenteeism is dueto the factors that influence workers commitment.According to Hone "Absenteeism is related to new values & norms which are developingamong the workforce as a result of technological developments. Work and leisure are nowcherished by worker and these he want to enjoy along with the monetary benefits he getsfor his service. The economic consideration, therefore, decides whether one would like tobe absent from work."The attitude and practice of the management also contribute to absenteeism. A traditionalmanagement treats workers as hirelings, while an enlighten management treats them ashuman beings. This difference in behavior leads in the former situation to highabsenteeism & in the latter situation to a close affinity with the organization, the resultbeing lower absenteeism.The general causes of absenteeism may be:•BETTER QUALIFICATIONA worker who is educated has done 10th or 12th or ITI generally remain absent becausethey can use their education in some other work also. If they are having some technicalknowledge also then they after being permanent in the company either starts workingsomewhere also or they start business of their own. Whereas the workers who areuneducated are more regular in their work as there is no other way opened for them exceptto work here for his earnings.MAL-ADJUSTMENT WITH FACTORY CONDITIONSWorkers usually with rural background finds himself caught within great factory walls. heInstitute of Management, Nirma University 41
  42. 42. is bewildered by heavy traffic. by jostling by strangers speaking different languages and heis weary of the misery of slums & of failing for long hours. He is subject, to strictdiscipline. He is under constant strain.Sick & old type remains absent from work by reason of ill health, weak constitution,chronic disease or old age. The family oriented become chronic absentees because of theirover identification & family affairs. The lack of balance between family involvement &job responsibility is another cause of their deviant work behavior.UNSATISFACTORY HOUSING CONDITIONS:-The workers who come to towns usually find they are not wanted & they swell the numberof unemployed & casual worker. They also experience housing difficulties. Not less than95% of the houses occupied by industrial workers in India are unsatisfactory for healthfulhabitations. Health conditions are naturally bad, leading to high morbidity and consequentill health. They, therefore, make frequent visits to their village home to get relief fromsuch unsanitary and unhealthy surroundingsINDUSTRIAL FATIGUE:-Low wage compel a worker to seek some part time job to earn some side income. But thisoften results in constant fatigue, which compels him to remain absent for the next day, andif fatigue affects his seriously, his absence may continue for quite some time.ABSENCE OF ADEQUATEWELFARE FACILITIES:-Absenteeism is also due to inadequate welfare facilities available to workers for a vastmajority of industrialist in India still look upon welfare work as a barren liability than awise investment.Institute of Management, Nirma University 42
  43. 43. IMPROPER AND UNREALISTIC PERSONEL POLICIES:-In most case unskilled, untrained, illiterate and inexperienced are recruited who fail tocope with and adopt themselves to their jobs and to their industrial environment.Favourism and nepotism are rampant.We can cover the absence in the following way:-• Use a shift schedule system that allows employees sufficient scheduled time off. This allow them to deal with personal needs such all doctors appointment, meeting and reduces problems associated with many uncontrollable source of absences.• Provide incentives to the workforce to use their vacation time when the workload is low e.g. give employee an extra day of vacation for every week of vacation taken during your low production season. From a financial perspective, there are many situation where this the best way to cover vacation.• Staff your operation above the minimum requirements. When absences occur, the opening are automatically filled with the extra personnel may be ideal during seasons when absenteeism is low .• Use overtime to cover vacancies as they occur. While this is a very good use of overtime. it works best in an environment that does not experience large fluctuation in workload from week to week. In these organization overtime is a scare resource that can be easily absurd resulting in fatigue lower productivity and increased cost.• Cross training between work area so that personnel from one department can be used in other departments in their id a crisis. This is a good practice as long as the cost for cross training is not excessive.Institute of Management, Nirma University 43
  44. 44. • Use temporary personnel in company that have some position requiring little training to perform, this can be the least expensive source of absence coverage. This works best when full time employees cover all full time positions. Some of the full time employees must have the ability to "Step-up" to the nest job if needed when an absence occurs, it is covered by a trained person in the next lower position creating a chain of set-ups until the actual vacancy is at the lowest skill level position. A temporary employee can then cover the vacancy.• Reschedule work to be performed when resources are available. This strategy usually requires the operation to carry additional product inventory demand.• Smooth out the variability of controllable absence using predetermined limits. This places some of the burden on the workforce to spread out their absence and is easier to cover absence with fewer resourcesInstitute of Management, Nirma University 44
  45. 45. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objective of the study undertaken by me at Export Division of Unileverwas:ABSENTEEISM1.To find the various reasons of erratic absenteeism among employees.2.To prepare a platform to look over the problems of the employees.3.To find out ways in order to reduce, if not able to completely remove, the problems ofthe employees.To find out ways in order to reduce, if not able to completely remove, the problems SCOPEThe scope of the study was limited to the category of the workers only because inmanagement cadre absenteeism is almost nil as people of this cadre are punctual incoming to the organization and therefore conducting this study in this cadre would hadbeen useless. Absenteeism of workman is a matter of concern before shop managers, asit effects adversely in smooth production. Though, Absenteeism is related to personalreasons of workman, but it becomes necessary on the part of the management to putefforts to reduce absenteeism in a planned manner. So I also talked to the supervisors toknow their suggestions for the management.The study will be conducted at HR Department in UNILEVER LTD., (KANDLA). All theemployees working at New Skin plant will be considered under the scope of the survey workInstitute of Management, Nirma University 45
  46. 46. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYTHE SIZE OF THE REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLEThe size of the sample is 50.THE METHOD OF SELECTING THE SAMPLERandom sampling is the method usedSAMPLING TECHNIQUE:STAGE 1- Choosing the employees for interviewSTAGE II - Calling for interviewMETHODS OF DATA COLLECTIONThe data for the survey will be collected from primary as well as secondary data source.THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION:-• By administering the questionnaire to manager.• By interview of manager.THE SECONDARY SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION:-• The policy towards employees.• Job satisfaction policies.RESEARCH METHODOLOGYTo meet though the objectives of the project and to know the very basic reasons that lead tohabitual absenteeism the method adopted was structured and undisguised personal interview.The interview was structured because the main reasons of absenteeism were already sortedout and along that line only I wished to conduct the interview. It was undisguised so as toextract the best possible behavior from the respondent. This feature was mainly incorporatedto land some sort of flexibility to the questionnaire. The list of the habitual absentees of thelast 2 quarter was sorted out. The list contained 60 workers. Before going for the interviewprocess a study was made about rate of absenteeism in Export division of Unilever of past 5years and the reasons for it were tried to be found out. Out of various reasons 9 basic andInstitute of Management, Nirma University 46
  47. 47. important reasons were selected out on which the interview was based.Before calling the workers for the interview their past history of absenteeism was studied, thereasons given by them for absence, disciplinary action taken against them.I personally went to the heads of various departments and requested them to send theconcerned workers. The workers were called in the personnel Department and interviewed.While talking to the workers care was taken to make them feel comfortable and to create afriendly environment so that the talk could be a friendly one. When I first contacted thepeople they were suspicious but once they were told that I am not from the management andwas doing this study as an independent person they became very open and helpful. They werealso assured of secrecy, which made them very approachable. They were told the purpose ofstudy that it was for academic purpose and was for the benefit also for if the report is read byManagement they may get a chance to peep into the root cause of absenteeism, mayunderstand the problems of workers and thereby necessary steps may be taken to improve thecondition. The sample size taken was 50.After the interview an exhaustive study was done and observations and suggestions therebymade finally led to the completion of the project.PRIMARY DATAExcessive absenteeism means the workers who have more than 25% of leave without pay in ayear i.e. in a year they have taken more than 90 days of leave without pay.This habitual absence is generally defined in the standing orders. According to standing orderHabitual means an act of omission or commission which is repeated three times within aperiod of 12 months. The word habitual absences do not mean a number of times absencespread over a reasonable period.According to the rules of the company an employee can be sanctioned without pay leave onlyupto a maximum of 30 days during a calendar year, which also depends on the full discretionof the management.• Inspite of the many measures taken limeInstitute of Management, Nirma University 47
  48. 48. • Home inquiries (counseling and monitoring)• Warnings by the managementThe problem has not been really taken care of but it does not mean that the Export divisionmanagement has not been able to do anything they have been able to reduce the quantity.Below is the data given:In 2005 the problem was with 87 workers. The management decides to curtail the problemwith counseling and monitoring followed by home inquiries and warnings. The managementwas able to reduce it to quite an extent.In 2009 the problem was 74 employees which were further to 60 in 2011. The list of2011contains only 60 such workers which were the target of study.TARGET: 60 peoplePERSON INTERVIEWED: 50 peopleReasons taken for study -DOMESTIC PROBLEMSickness self/familyLack of proper transportation Habitual intoxicationAny side businessSeasonal farmingInvolvement in social activitiesInvolvement in politicsFatigueLoanJOB RELATED PROBLEMSBad working conditionsDifference with superiorInstitute of Management, Nirma University 48
  49. 49. DATA INTERPRETATION-LEAVES AND ATTENDANCESGENERAL RULES:1. There are three types of leaves which are given in a calendar year:• Earned Leave (EL)• Casual leave (CL)• Sick Leave (SL)2. More than one type of leave (SL,CL, EL) cannot be combined in one day.3. Employees joining during the course of the year can avail CL and SL on pro-rata basis. EL accrues only in January of the next year to the extent of prorate calculation of number of ELs in the year of joining4. Application/availment of any leave more than due will result in leave without pay.5. Leave entitlement, extent of accumulation and Encashment for M2 and above is as follows:Type of Leave No in calendar Permissible Permissible Year accumulation encashmentCasual Leave 7 working days Nil Not allowed(CL) SICK LEAVE 7 Calendar days 90 days Not allowed EARNED LEAVE 30 Calendar days 240 days Minimum 10 days and maximum 60 days, subject to balance of 30 days after encashment6. Wherever a holiday/ off day fails between two days of leave, which is, calculated on calendar days basis, the holiday/off days will also he counted as leave. This will however not apply to CLs as it is calculated on the basis of working days.7 Sanction of EL at least 15 days before availing it is necessary. CL should Nominally he pre-sanctioned.8. Leaves can be combined in the following manner subject to approval by the head of the Department:Institute of Management, Nirma University 49
  50. 50. TYPE OF LEAVE CAN BE PREFIXED WITH CAN BE SUFIXED WITH CL SL --- SL EL EL & CL I EL SL SLCASUAL LEAVE 1. Casual leave is intended for urgent work or unforeseen circumstances. 2 Maximum casual leave that can be availed at a stretch at any time is three Days. 3. CL is credited to the employees leave account at the beginning of the year.SICK LEAVE1. A medical certificate issued by a Registered Doctor must support application of sick leave for more than 2 days.2. Sick leave is credited to the employees leave account at the beginning of the year.EARNED LEAVE1. ELs can be availed subject to a minimum of three days at a time and can be availed up to a maximum of three times in a year.2. EL can be taken for less than three days if SL & CL have exhausted.3. For any period when you are on leave without pay, leave in not earned, and hence proportionate deduction in the number of ELs to be credited will be made.4 Minimum of 10 days EL. has to he availed by an employees every year, Otherwise the same shall lapse at the end of the year.5. EL is credited at the beginning of the Following year. Once the accumulated EL is or is in excess of 30 days, the credit for further EL in a calendar year will be restricted to 20 days (and not for 30 days) in case the 10 days EL is not actually availed in thatInstitute of Management, Nirma University 50
  51. 51. calendar year. OBSERVATIONS• It was observed that the rate of absenteeism was quite high in case of workmen who have come from rural areas. They have agricultural land at their native places and have to go to look after the cultivation, particularly in harvesting season, many of such workers come from joint families having other members to look after their agricultural land and other property. Such workman often visit their native places to attend various types of ceremonies and work of their joint families .• The second category of the workmen who often remain from duty, is of those persons who take up industrial employment to uphold their dignity in the society from which they hail.•. The third category is of such skilled workmen who can earn more in a day by doing a job outside the establishment then getting one day wages by attending their duties in the establishment. These workmen are generally those people who are having a better qualification and have some technical skills due to which they get the job easily outside the premises.• The fourth category involves those workmen who are trade union leaders or social workers n their time there due to which they remain absent from their duty. As April is the season of marriages so large no of marriages occur in this month and employees go on leaves to attend these ceremonies.• Further the employees still have strong bonds of attachment with their villages and they avail leaves during harvesting seasons.• Sickness in the family was the common excuses.• The rate of absenteeism is the lowest on the payday. It increases considerably on the days following the wages and bonus, when workersInstitute of Management, Nirma University 51
  52. 52. Out of the workers interviewed, hardly any worker was really worried about being absent justfor fun, in their words.either feels like having a good time or in some cases return home to their villages to makepurchases for the family.• The incidence of absenteeism both before and after a holiday, has found to be higher than that on normal days• The percentage of absenteeism is generally higher in the night shifts than in the day shifts.• Another major reason for absenteeism was the side business, which many of the workers were having. Though only few accepted this directly but many others accepted it by pointing indirectly• Further the employees remained absent because of their habit of intoxication. Some of the workers agreed of their being involved in bad habit of intoxication. They drink at night, which causes them to sleep late in morning and thus keeping them away from work.• One case was very peculiar in which both father and son were working in Export division of Unilever and both were habitual absentees main reason being th2t they both were involved in drinking habit and neither of them was sorry for their attitude .• Besides that this habit also caused several health problems due to which they had to take rest and thus have to be absent from their duty. Some workers were really given proper treatment by the Unilever doctors / management which is a praise worthy point. The Unilever management needs to be congratulated for this effort, but many workers had complaint of insufficient medical facilities available and so they prefer their treatment from an outside doctor due to which they have to take the leaves.• Yet another reason was bad working conditions like high temperature inside, lack of proper ventilation etc.Institute of Management, Nirma University 52
  53. 53. • Availability of compensatory leave facility was rather misused. Workers work day to night at a stretch for a week or two and they avail the facility of compensatory leaveOBSERVATIONS...CONTDPERSONNEL FUNCTIONS IN THE COMPANYExport Division takes pride in people who strive for excellence-people who are not merelysatisfied with what they have but are looking for "more" and better - for betterment of theirproducts, their organization and themselves. Its endeavor therefore is to provide with anenvironment where one can learn and grow.Export Division has its own objectives and strives to reach there. And for this is required co-ordination among employees, their healthy spirit, mind, good working environment, soundindustrial relations etc. and here comes the role of Personnel Department which is to hire theright people for various jobs, equip them to handle the job and keep them motivated.The key success. it is said, is not just the state of the art of the technology; it is the- state ofthe art of the people. The company recognizes that human resources are its most importantassets. While recruitment is done very carefully to ensure that only the best get selected, thevarious systems operating within the company be it the compensation and benefit package,the evaluation systems or the reward systems are all geared to attract the best talent available.The company attaches utmost importance to human resources development for it realizes thathuman resources need to be shaped to respond to business needs and the imperatives ofchange. The endeavor is to constantly underline the talent base with two basic objectives;clarity of purpose and motivation for individual Career growth through self improvement.Programmes are instituted at all levels to improve productivity and to check individualpotential for growth.To keep managers in touch with the latest in management techniques, UNILEVER has tiedup with premier management institutes for programmes at all levels. At the worker and stafflevels, the company has also successfully implemented the concept of incentive linked payscales, to achieve greater efficiency. Every blue collar worker at UNILEVER is pension able,a feat not many companies can boast of.Institute of Management, Nirma University 53
  54. 54. Thus the personnel department is responsible for many functions. Some of these are :-• Manpower planning, recruitment & induction• Training & Development of employees• Union negotiations• Appraisal, increments & promotions• Employee health, safety & welfare• Maintaining personnel needs• Industrial relations• Grievance handling• Employee Benefits & Services• Workers education and tours• Industrial safety• Fire prevention and fighting• Suggestion scheme• Health awareness and guidance• First aid facilitiesInstitute of Management, Nirma University 54
  55. 55. CONCLUSIONEMPLOYEES ABSENTEEISM mean employee who is not available for duty is counted asabsent from duty. If he is on sanctioned leave it will be counted as "authorized Absenteeism."I case he is not available to work without any leave or pre-sanction it would be counted"Unauthorized Absenteeism."There are many conclusions:-• The study of Unilever Ltd. enables us to conclude that overall attitude of the system is quite promising but still there are certain drawback present in the system in which need to be corrected in order to make the system more acceptable & beneficial for ever employees of the organization.• Responses highlight that the employees are not fully satisfy with facilities provide to them especially the long procedures followed for sanctions the travel and bank loans.• There are various issues on which absenteeism levels of employees are very high.• Company provides health facilities to the employees.• The various guidelines are properly state and followed in the relation to the accidental prone areas.• There is due emphasis on cleanliness both in the plant and in township.Institute of Management, Nirma University 55
  56. 56. SUGGESTIONSAfter undergoing the study by taking personal interviews of the workers, few drawbacks didcame up. Few is steps can be taken to do away with the drawbacks, though some of thedrawbacks are the limitations, which are nearly impossible to done away with though theycan be toned down.Proper orientation of the induction program is very necessary. A case was seen in which aworker met with an accident inside the factory premises and got his left arm fractured. Acc.To the rules of the company any accident should be reported within 24 hrs. But the aboveperson did not know about it and so could not get the desired facilities. He was absent for 2days thinking that it would be called leave. But because there was no registration it wascounted as absenteeism. Further he could not avail the facilities provided by Export divisionof UNILEVER. He then had to go out for treatment causing him again to be absent.There is an urgent need to review the practice of overstay through which employees earncompensatory leaves and in turn cause absenteeism which further necessitates overstay ofother employees thus triggering a vicious cycle of overstay and absenteeism.Counseling has always been the best way to any Solutions. Past study also shows thatcounseling is an effective measure. Counseling should be done at least once in two monthsMost of the workers given reasons of sickness; this may be because of unhealthy workingconditions. Therefore management should take measures to provide proper workingconditions,Proper fringe benefits and financial incentives should be given to regular employees, This canmotivate other workers to be regular if they come to know about the extra benefits, whichthey could avail. Another basic reason found out for absenteeism was in sufficient welfareschemes and housing facilities and frequent visit to hometowns, to improve this followingInstitute of Management, Nirma University 56
  57. 57. measures can be taken:REINCARNATION CENTERS FOR ENTERTAINMENTAlthough it is a costly project bearing large expenses but result will be decreased absenteeismand increased production, Most of the good organizations have their own townships, which islacking in UNILEVER.A reason found out for absenteeism was side business of workers. Why do workers go for it?It means lack of proper wages, allowances and job security, Measures should be taken tomaintain a sufficient reasonable level of wagesWorkers in need should be granted leaves liberally so that they are at work when needed,Habitual absentees should be made aware of their absenteeism, The more the employees arekept informed about there absence the greater is the chances of reduction in the rate ofabsenteeism. Absentee is to be made aware of his absence to make him feel that he is notonly important but he is greatly needed.As absenteeism of workman is a matter of concern before shop managers, as it effectsadversely in smooth production. Though, absenteeism is related to personal reasons ofworkman. but it becomes necessary on the part of the management to put efforts to reduceabsenteeism in a planned manner.Thus I also talked to the junior managers in order to assess their perception about workersabsenteeism. The junior managers gave the following suggestions :-• In order to control the high rate of absenteeism, the management should do home visits of the habitual absentee.• The management should do counseling of family members.Institute of Management, Nirma University 57
  58. 58. • The management should introduce some social recognition programmes.• The management should give them awards for being punctual. Management can motivate them in this way. Also it can inspire other to be punctual.• The management should not be scared of the Union, and should take disciplinary action against the absentees. Managements position is very pathetic because of the dominance of Union.• Inter personal relations should be improved, because of a worker has good relation with his boss than only he will! Frankly tell his problems or the reasons for taking leave, and the management can try to work upon those reasons.• List if absentees should be displayed on the notice board Management should issue the show cause notice t~ the absentee.Institute of Management, Nirma University 58
  59. 59. LEARNINGSThe summer project offers the first exposure to the industry in trems of real time experience.In a way, it provides a dress rehearsel of actual corporate carrer to begin in a year’s time. It isan opportunity to identify the key areas of improvement and work upon them. Additionally,the summer internship experience puts the whole learning process into a new perspective.APPLICATION OF CONCEPTSThe project offered scope to apply some of the concepts related to job description and jobanalysis elaborated in the Human Resources Management course undertaken at IM, NU. Thisincluded preliminary knowledge about the various concepts elaborated at IMNU.The lesson of culling out important information from superfluous flab was also learnt at IM,NU. The process of analyzing information to arrive at logical conclusions and basing rationalrecommendations on them was all part of the learning process at IMNU. These came in to usewhile preparing and analyzing the various data and details of HUL.NEW KNOWLEDGE, TOOLS, TECHNIQUES AND SKILLS PICKED UPAlthough the theoretical framework and knowledge about how to do research study wasimparted at the institute yet the practical use of these frame work was fulfilled at HUL. Here Ihad the first hand experience of actually studying and analyzing the responses of theemployees. Having the right man at the right job and doing the right thing at the right time isof utmost importance for any organisation. Here I could understand various employee issueslike lack of exciting responsibilities which is difficult to express in theory. While working onInstitute of Management, Nirma University 59
  60. 60. the project and receiving inputs from the employees who were interviewed, I could broadenmy interpersonal skills of questioning.AUGMENTATION OF SOFT SKILLSSoft skills are of paramount importance in all the aspects of management but more so in thefield of Human Resource Management. It was very nice working with HULas I got to interactwith actual people on field. The opportunity to interact with HR personals and conductinginterviews along with them proved to be great worth as it contributed to development ofability to think on one’s toes.However the most significant inference that came out in the entire process is that there existsa difference of opinion about role of an employee between the employer and employee andthere is a continuous need on part of employers to understand the need and situation ofemployees in order to reduce absenteeism. Doing the research helped me in enhancing myinterpersonal skills.CORPORATE CULTUREOne thing which sounds intangible but proves to be very useful was learning of the corporateculture. Every organization has its unique culture which it follows. This culture is notmentioned in the company’s guidelines but it has to be felt and appreciated by being a part ofit. At HUL, the culture was formal when it was work and informal when it was leisure. Thiswas a great experience and chance to learn how is work done in a factory.In all, these two months have helped me get an insight to my theoretical learning. It taughtme how could I use my knowledge in the practical world.Institute of Management, Nirma University 60
  61. 61. Institute of Management, Nirma University 61
  62. 62. BIBLIOGRAPHY Internet: a. www.trainiganddevelopment.naukrihub.com b. www.hrvillage.com c. www.hul.in d. www.equitymaster.com e. www.wikiinvest.com f. www.prdomain.com g. www.jobstreet.com h. www.lossandwaste.co.ukInstitute of Management, Nirma University 62
  63. 63. Institute of Management, Nirma University 63