Hydro turbines(datas)


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Hydro turbines(datas)

  1. 1. A PRATICAL TRAINING REPORT ON HYDRO TURBINES AT ANDRITZ HYDRO LTD. (DURATION-18 JUNE TO 18 JULY) Submitted in partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Technology of Rajasthan Technical University, KOTA (2011-2012) Submitted To: Submitted By :Mr. D.N. NARESH ABHISHEK TANWAR(HEAD) B.TECH MECH ENGG.HEAD OF DEPARTMENT 4TH YEAR [VII SEM.] ME08002 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING JAIPUR ENGINEERING COLLEGE KUKAS, JAIPUR (RAJ.) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT To express my opinion in words is extremely difficult, though the present project apparently speaks out names .The real credit goes to the organization which gave 1
  2. 2. me this lifetime opportunity to work & learn in this much systematic and professional environment. Now I would like to thank Mr. D. N. NARESH (HOD) who provided me constant guidance, inspiration and help whenever and however required. Last but not the least I would like to thank those numerous employees of the company specially Mr. Kuldeep Kumar (D. Manager)whose clarity of concepts and ability to solve problems is proverbial. Their unflinching encouragement shall ever remain as a treasure in my memory. ABHISHEK TANWAR PREFACEEngineer student gain their theoretical knowledge only through their books. Onlytheoretical knowledge is not sufficient for absolute mastery in any field.theoritical given 2
  3. 3. in our books is not much use without knowing its practical implementation, it has beenexperienced that theoretical knowledge is volatile in nature, however practical knowledgemake solid foundation of our mind. To accomplish this aspect, RTU, KOTA has included a SUMMER TRAININGprogramme for the student of B.Tech. in summer vacation. I took training in “ANDRITZ HYDRO” at Faridabad from 18 June to 18 July2011. Successding chapter give detail about what I have learned in this prestigiousorganization. ABHIHEK TANWAR CONTENTSChapter Name Page 1 Company Profile 5 3
  4. 4. 2 History 73 Introduction to hydro 10 Turbines4 Machine shop 165 Fabrication shop 246 Assembly shop 307 Grinding Shop 338 Maintenance 359 Quality control 3610 Stores 3711 Planning 4312 Machines & components 4413 Conclusion 50 CHAPTER-1 4
  5. 5. CompanyProfileGlobal ActivitiesThe ANDRITZ GROUP is a global market leader for customized plant, systems andservices for hydropower, the pulp and paper, steel and other specialized industries(solid/liquid separation, feed and biofuel).The Group is headquartered in Graz, Austria and has a staff of approx. 16,100employees worldwide. It develops and makes its high-tech systems at production,service and sales sites all around the worldFive business areasThe Group focuses on 5
  6. 6. CHAPTER-2History 6
  7. 7. ANDRITZ: From small iron foundryto globally leading machinery and plant engineering companyMilestones in the history of ANDRITZ:all aroundthe world. 7
  9. 9. • What are hydro turbines? ANS: A hydro turbine uses the potential and kinetic energy of water and converts itinto usable mechanical energy. The fluid energy is available in the natural or artificialhigh level water reservoirs, which are created by constructing dam at appropriate placesin the flow path of rivers. When water from the reservoir is taken to the turbine, transferof energy takes place in the blade passages of the unit .the mechanical energy madeavailable at the turbine shaft is used to run an electric generator, which is directly coupleto the turbine shaft. The power generated by utilizing the potential and kinetic energy ofwater has the advantages of high efficiency, operational flexibility, low wear and tear,and ease of maintenance. • Classification of turbine Turbines are of two types: A. Impulse Turbine: Wherein the available hydraulic energy is first converted into kinetic energy by means of an efficient nozzle. The high velocity jet issuing from the nozzle then strikes a series of suitably shaped buckets fixed around the rim of a wheel .The buckets change direction of jet without changing its pressure .The resulting change in momentum sets bucket and wheel into rotary motion and energy. An impulse turbine operator under atmospheric pressure, there is no change of static pressure across turbine runner and the unit is often referred to as free jet turbine. Important impulse turbines are: pelton wheel, turgo-impulse wheel, girad turbine, bunki turbine and jonval turbine etc. B. Reaction Turbine: Wherein the part of the total available hydraulic energy is transformed into kinetic energy before the water is taken to the turbine runner. A substantial part remains in the form pressure energy. Subsequently both the velocity and pressure change simultaneously as water bleeds along the turbine runner. The flow from inlet to outlet of the turbine is under pressure and, therefore, blades of reaction turbine are closed passages sealed from atmospheric conditions. Important reaction turbines are: Fourneyron, Thompson, Francis, Kaplan and propellor turbines.Hydraulic turbines further classified into various kinds according to:I. Direction of water flow through runner: Turbine 9
  10. 10. 1. Tangential flow Axial or parallel flow Mixed: radial and axial (Pelton wheel) (Kapaln turbine) (Modern Francis turbine) Flow path in different types of runner has been illustrated in following figure. STATOR ROTOR BLADE (b)RADIAL FLOW (c)MIXED FLOW (a)AXIAL FLOW  Pelton wheel is the tangential flow turbine; here the centerline of jet is tangential to the path of rotation of the runner.  Propellor and Kaplan turbines are axial flow turbines; here water enters and leaves the runner along a direction parallel to the axis of the shaft.  Mixed flow turbines where water enters the runner at the outer periphery in the radial direction and leaves it at the center in the direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the runner. Modern Francis turbine is a mixed flow machine.II. Available head and discharge  High head turbines, which operate under high head (above 250 m) and require relatively small rates or flow. Pelton wheel is a high head turbine.  Medium head turbines, which operates under medium heads (60 m to 250 m) and require medium flow rates. Modern Francis turbine belongs to this category.  Low head turbines, which operate under heads, up to 30m and require very large volumetric rates of flow. Units of axial flow turbine (Propellor and Kaplan) are examples of low head turbines.III. On the basis of speed  For Pelton wheel: Ns = 9-17 for a slow runner =17-25 for a normal runner =25-30 for fast runner =40 for a double jet  Francis turbine: Ns = 50-100 for a slow runner =100-500 for a normal runner 10
  11. 11. =150-200 for a fast runner  Kaplan turbine: Ns =250-850IV. Disposition of shaft Impulse turbines have usually a horizontal shaft and vertical runner arrangement. Reaction turbine may be either of vertical or horizontal shaft type. • Main assemblies and operation of Pelton turbines  ASSEMBLIES Assemblies mainly classified into three categories:- a) Static 1) Turbine housing 2) Disposition 3) Distribution Pipe 4) Inlet Pipe b) Dynamic 1) Nozzle Assembly 2) Deflection Assembly 3) Runner Assembly 4) Distributor Assembly 5) Oil Head 6) Cooling Water c) Governing 1) Governor 2) Skada  Working Of Pelton turbine Penstock is a large size conduit, which conveys water from the high level reservoir to the turbine. Depending upon head it is made up of mild steel, concrete, or wood .It is provided with control valves like butterfly valve, also screens and trashrack are provided at the inlet of the penstock prevent entries of debris. At its downstream end, penstock fitted with an efficient nozzle that converts the whole of hydraulic energy into a high-speed jet. To regulate water flow a spear is provide which moves backward or forward thereby controlling flow area either by governing mechanism or by hand wheel. The turbine rotor, called the runner is acicular disk carrying a number of cup shaped buckets, which are arranged equidistantly around the periphery of the disk. In case of mini hydro turbine the buckets are the integral part of the runner while in case of the large hydro turbine or large runner size the buckets are bolt mounted to the runner’s disc. The runner is generally mounted on a horizontal shaft support in a small thrust bearing and is casted integrally; they are made up of stainless steel. The inner surface of he buckets is polished to reduce frictional resistance to the water jet. Each 11
  12. 12. bucket has a ridge or splitter, which distributes the striking jet equally into two halves ofthe hemispherical bucket. Again there is a cut (notch) in the outer rim of each bucket thismake the jet face the bucket only when they are at 90° to each other. The angulardeflection of jet in the bucket is limited to about 165-170 degree. The arrangement hasadvantage that bearings supporting the wheel shaft are not subjected to any axial or endthrust. A casing is provided around the runner to prevent splashing of water and toguide the water to the tail race. It has no hydraulic function to perform apart it act as asafeguard against accidents. Speed of turbine runner is maintained so that generator coupled directly to theturbine shaft runs at constant speed under varying load conditions. Governingmechanism by regulating water supply does this above function. With increase in load, the runner speed falls and consequently balls of thecentrifugal governor move inwards. Through suitable linkages, the resulting downwardmovement of the governor sleeve is transmitted to a relay, which admits oil underpressure to servomotor .The oil exerts a force on the piston of the servomotor, and thatpushes the spear to a position, which increases the annular area of the nozzle. Quantumof water striking the buckets is then increased and the normal turbine speed is restored.Conversely happen when we have to reduce the load. • Main assemblies and operation of Francis turbines  ASSEMBLIES Assemblies mainly classified into three categories:- a) Static 1) Turbine housing 2) Disposition 3) Stay Ring 4) Spiral b) Dynamic 1) Distribution 2) Runner 3) Oil Seal 4) Shaft Seal 5) Cooling water 6) Guide Bearing c) Governing 1) Governor 2) Skada  Working Of Francis turbine 12
  13. 13. Penstock is a large size conduit, which conveys water from the highlevel reservoir to the turbine. Depending upon head it is made up of mild steel, concrete,or wood .It is provided with control valves like butterfly valve, also screens and trashrackare provided at the inlet of the penstock prevent entries of debris. At its downstream end,penstock fitted with an efficient nozzle that converts the whole of hydraulic energy into ahigh-speed jet. To regulate water flow a spear is provide which moves backward orforward thereby controlling flow area either by governing mechanism or by hand wheel. Penstock is connected to and feeds water directly into the spiral casing. Casingconstitutes a closed passage whose cross section area gradually decreases along the flowdirection area are maximum at inlet and very less at exit. The casing is made up of mildsteel or concrete. Stay vanes are usually provided to direct the water from the casing toguide vanes. Guide vanes or wicket gates are series of airfoil shaped vanes, which are arrangedinside casing to form a number of flow passages between the casing and the runnerblades. They guide the water onto the runner as per design. They swing around their ownaxes that change the flow area between two consecutive runner blades. The motion isgiven by means of governor. The system consists of a centrifugal governing mechanism, linkages servomotorwith its oil pressure governor and the guide wheel. The water flow and its directionremain same at all the passages between any two consecutive guide vanes. Runner of the Francis turbine is a rotor and has passages formed betweencrown and shroud in one direction and two consecutives blades on the other. There isabout 16 to 24 number of blades in runner. These passages take water in at the outerperiphery it in a direction parallel to the axis of rotor. The driving force is both due to theimpulse and reaction force. The runner blades are usually is made up of stainless steel.The runner is keyed to the shaft, which may be of vertical or horizontal disposition. After passing through the runner, the water is discharged to the tail racethrough a gradually expanding tube called the draft tube .the free end of the tube issubmerged deep into the tail race. • Main assemblies and operation of Kaplan turbines  ASSEMBLIES Assemblies mainly classified into three categories:- d) Static 1) Turbine housing 2) Disposition 3) Stay Ring 4) Spiral e) Dynamic 1) Distribution 2) Runner 3) Oil Seal 4) Shaft Seal 13
  14. 14. 5) Cooling water 6) Guide Bearing f) Governing 1) Governor 2) Skada  Working Of Kaplan turbine Except the runner, all other parts such as spiral casing, stay ringand stay vanes, guide mechanism and the draft tube are similar to those of Francisturbine. Between the guide vanes and the runner water turns through right angle andsubsequently flows parallel to the shaft. The runner is in the form of boss, on theperiphery of the boss are mounted equidistantly 3 to 6 vanes made of stainless steel.Hence it has less friction resistance as runner blades are directly attached to the runnerhub and also there are fewer blades as compared to Francis turbines. The Kaplan has a double regulation, which comprises the movement of guidevanes and runner vanes. The runner employs two servomotors; one control the guidevanes and the second operates on the runner vanes .the governing is done by thegovernor from inside of the hollow shaft of turbine runner and the movement of piston isemployed to the twist blades through suitable linkages. CHAPTER-4 MACHINE SHOP • Vertical Turret Lathe-1 Machine Maker – Froriep Machine No. – VTL 1 Job Undergoing – Discharge ring lower part Project Undergoing – Karcham Wangtoo Operation Undergoing – Boring 14
  15. 15. Tool Used – Boring Tool or an Insert tool Maximum Diameter – 7100 mm Maximum Height – 4200 mm Digital Control Panel No. Of RAM – 3 Speed: 0.5 – 56 RPM Feed: 0.05- 10 mm per minute• Vertical Turret Lathe-2 Machine Maker – Dorries Machine No. – VTL 2 Job Undergoing – Runner Hub Project Undergoing – Somanamardi Operation Undergoing – Boring Tool Used – DJNL (name of an single point insert) Maximum Diameter of Job – 1600 mm Maximum Height – 1000 mm No. Of RAM – 2 No. Of Turret or Tool Index – 5 Speed: 180 RPM Feed: 0.044 – 4 mm per minute Digital Control Panel• Vertical Turret lathe-3 Machine Maker – Froriep Machine Number – VTL-3 Max. Diameter – 1200mm Max. Height – 500mm 15
  16. 16. Job undergoing – Servomotor cover Project - Babehalli Tool Used – DNMG (name of an insert) Operation Undergoing: Turning No. of Tool RAM – 2 Tool Index / Turret – 5 Max. Speed – 180 RPM Feed – 0.07 to 5 mm per min Digital Control PanelIn vertical turret lathe while working tool remain fixed and job rotates. Variousoperations carried on VTL are facing, turning, boring, grooving etc. Feed is automatic.Scrap produced are spring like ribbon chips. RPM should always be low while workingon profile. For good finishing the RPM should be high and feed should be low. But finalcut is always small to maintain the desired accuracy and surface finish. Job is set on table. Dial indicator is used to see whether it is uniformly attached to themachine always checks its position.  Errors in VTL 1. Misinterpretation of drawing and getting machined wrong dimensions. 2. Measuring instrument errors. 3. Sometimes machining of hot job causes shrinkage when the job cools. 4. When doing vertical boring more than 100 mm sometimes taper occur at the bottom.  Remedy 1. When shrinkage occurs extra material is welded to it and later on machining is again done. 2. Also job is examined by the design and planning department whether the present dimension will work or not.  Precaution 1. Read the drawing carefully. 2. Check the accuracy of tool and calculate the error if there is any. 3. Use proper coolant like cutting oil. 4. For avoiding taper at the bottom during vertical boring, slide should be straight. • Radial Drilling Machine (RM 65) Machine Maker - HMT Working Range: a. Drilling Radius: 550 – 2350 mm b. Sleeve Diameter: 400 mm c. Distance Sleeve to Spindle: 350 – 2150 mm 16
  17. 17. d. Spindle Traverse Distance, Base to Spindle: 380- 1645 mm e. Working Surface Of Base: Length 2330 mm Width 1000 mm f. Standard Box Table (L*B*H): 600*500*500 mm g. Maximum Feed: 1.25 mm per min h. Minimum Feed: 0.125 mm per min i. Range Of Speeds: Standard: 40 – 1800 RPM Optional: 50 – 2240 RPM j. Machine Weight 4560 kg Project Undergoing – Somanamardi Operation Undergoing – Reaming Job Undergoing – Sealing Support Tool Used – Taper Shunk socket Reamer• Drilling Machine Machine Maker – Csepel Machine No. – 06 RD 1 Maximum Height: 10 – 11 feet Job Undergoing – Rotating Sump Bottom Project Undergoing – Somanamardi Tool Used – Drill Tool (Maximum 100 mm) Operation – Drilling Speed – 1800 RPM Feed range: 0.3 – 2 mm per min Job is fixed and tool moves and rotates. It is used for drilling, reaming and tapping, spot facing etc. Tools are adjusted and fixed by clamp. The waste material produced is continuous long helical spring. Tool used are twist drill, extra long drill, core drill, taper shrunk socket reamer etc. It has both automatic and manual feed.  Error in drilling machine 1. Misinterpretation of drawing and getting machined wrong dimensions. 2. Measuring instrument errors. 3. If tapping tool breaks then it get stuck inside the hole. 4. Improper clamping of job causing slip of job. 5. RPM improper arrangement. 6. Shrinkage in Stainless steel 7. Tool Setting  Precautions 17
  18. 18. 1. Metal plate should be used to prevent bending of both tool and work piece. 2. Coolant should be used. 3. Waste material should be removed bye brush. 4. Measuring instrument should be checked for error. 5. Drawing should be studied properly.  Remedy is similar to that of VTL • Horizontal Boring Machine (Large) Machine Maker – Skoda Machine No. – 14 HB-1 Job Undergoing – Head Cover Project Undergoing – Karcham Wangtoo Process – Boring Tool Used – Boring Tool Maximum Height – 3800 mm Maximum Length – 10,740 mm Spindle Taper – ISO 60 Table Length – 3500 mm * 3500 mm Maximum RPM – 600 Feed two types: 1/1 and 1/10 Maximum and minimum feed: 6.32 – 1250 mm per minute X Direction – Reciprocating Motion. Y Direction – Upward and Downward Motion. Z Direction – Inward and Outward Motion. • Horizontal Boring Machine (Small) Machine Maker – Pama Machine No. – AL 127(15 HB 2) Job Undergoing – Runner Blade Operation Undergoing – Facing Project Undergoing – Karcham Wangtoo Tool Used – Cutter Speed Range: 8 – 950 RPM Maximum Feed – 3 mm per revolution Minimum Feed – 0.025 mm per revolution Maximum Length – 1500 mm * 1500 mm Maximum Height – 1000mm Job is fixed and tool rotates. For cutting purpose tool moves in clockwisedirection and for boring in any direction. It can move in X, Y, Z directions. For hardmaterial the speed of spindle is kept low i.e. in first gear. For soft material we use high 18
  19. 19. spindle speed i.e. fourth gear. It is used for making slots, t- slots, boring, and turning,facing and drilling etc. Tool used are boring tool, radius slot cutter, facing cutter,turning tool and all drilling tool etc. Sometimes a special drilling tool is also useddepending upon the job. This tool automatically uses coolant and has drill diameter of120mm and 150 mm. It has a digital read out (DRO). For holding job we have v block,clamp, strut and nut bolt. Waste materials produced are spiral shaped chips.RPM is decided on following factor 1. Type of material i.e. hard or soft 2. Diameter of the job 3. Tool used  Error in drilling machine 1. Over size of bore, drill and length i.e. crossing the tolerance provided in the drawing. 2. Shrinkage, which generally occurs when job gets heat up and after cooling it contracts.  Precautions 1. Coolant should be used. 2. Measuring instruments should be checked for errors. 3. While working with long drill lubricating oil or cutting oil must be used.  Remedy is similar to that of VTL. • Computerized Numerically Controlled Lathe Machine Machine Maker – Ravens burg Machine No. – 01 L1 Job Undergoing – Dummy Discharge Ring Project Undergoing – Somanamardi Tool Used – Turning Tool i.e. an insert PDJNL Operation Undergoing – Ding turning proof machining Chuck: Swing over bed 2000 mm. Bed Length – 6000 mm Maximum Speed – 125 RPM Feed range: 0.037 – 3.15 RPM Here is job is set in the chuck. Here alignment of the job with respect to chuck ischecked with the help of dial indicator fitted with stand.  Errors are similar to above said machine.  Precautions and remedy are also similar.The selection of tool depends upon following criteria. 19
  20. 20. 1. Operation to be performed. 2. Size of the job e.g. how large is the diameter of the hole to be made. 3. Vibrations in the job. 4. Finishing required. 5. Thickness of the job. 6. Type of material.Similarly the feed depends upon 1. Proof cut or finish cut. 2. Type of material. LIGHT MACHINE SHOP • Lathe Machine Machine Maker- HMT Machine no. – NH-26 (No. 6) Bed Length – 6 feet/ 3000 mm Gap Bed – 290 mm Holding Capacity of Chuck – 480 mm diameter Swing Over Centroid – 300 mm diameter RPM: 40 – 240 Project Undergoing – Baglihar Job Undergoing – Centering Bushing Operation – Boring Tool Used – CNMP 4000 (an insert) Coolant Used – Soluble Oil • Lathe Machine – L2 Machine Maker – HMT Machine no. – NH-32 Bed Length – 3000 mm Holding Capacity Of Chuck – 480 mm diameter RPM – 40- 230 Swing over Bed – 640 mm Job Undergoing - Guide Vanes Project Undergoing – Somanamardi Operation – Run Out Check Tool Used – TNMP (an insert) 20
  21. 21. • Shaper Machine No. 1Machine Maker – SagarMachine no. - SH-1Stroke – 26-inch/550 mmRPM – 72Job Undergoing – PointerProject Undergoing – SomanamardiOperation – TaperTool Used – High Speed Steel cutting tool• Milling MachineMainly used to make boresMachine Maker – HMTMachine no. - UM-1RPM – 35-1800Coolant Used – Cutting OilVertical Height – 400 mmOperation Undergoing – BoringInstructions – Ensure proper clamping of the cutter, work piece and fixture beforestarting the machine.• Universal Tool & Cutter GrinderMachine Maker – HMTMachine no. - TCG –1 Length Of Magnetic chuck size – 200 mm * 375 mm Table can rotate at 45 Deg. Tool Head 25 Deg. Both ways The chuck can be attached to it to hold the job of bigger diameter. Universal vise is used for holding job. Common lifting machines• Fork lifter Capacity – 3 tones Make – Godrej Cylinder – 4 Fuel – Diesel Fuel tank – 40 liter 21
  22. 22. Automatic transmission i.e. only two gears reverse and forward. Jaws can go up to a height of 3m. Power steering is also provided. • Cranes Make – WMI Cranes ltd. and Grip. Capacity : 1- 40 tones. There are 4 such cranes in the workshop. Mainly nylon sling and wire slingare used to carry load with the help of attachments like S clamp, C clamp, Eye bolt,Swivel Threads, manual hoist and D circle. Even this nylon sling and wire sling varies from 1 tone capacity to 40 tones capacity. CHAPTER -5 FABRICATION DEPARTMENT • Welding Equipments  TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) Machine Make: Frronius and Triodyn. 22
  23. 23. It is a semiautomatic welding process. Here arc is struck between electrode and job. Electrode is non-consumable. There is ceramic coating over tungsten electrode tip. Ceramic coating is used because it has a very high melting point of 3500° C. Inert environment is provided by argon gas. Hands supply filler metal manually. TIG has better penetration as comparison to other welding operations. It has no backfire. It is specially used for giving a coating of stainless steel over a job when it is over machined or over grinded. Also some times for balancing purpose metal are added through TIG. The filler metal comes in various range of thickness from 1.2 mm, 1.6 mm, 2 mm and 2.4 mm (Make is ESAB, kobelco and bohler). Copper cable is used to connect Electrode holder and D.C. Flow meter are generally attached to the argon cylinder.  MIG (Metal Inert Gas) Machine Make: Frronius and Triodyn. It is also semi automatic welding process. Here arc is also struck between electrode and job. But here electrode is filler metal wire. Electrode is consumable. Here filler metal wire speed is 5 mm per revolution. Argon and carbon-di-oxide gases provide the inner environment. Color code for argon and carbon-di-oxide cylinder is green. The Mild steel wire diameter ranges are 1.2 mm, 2 mm, and 4 mm (Make is ESAB). Sometimes S.S coating is provided over M.S for water resistant coating. In MIG welding, spatter is prevented by applying spatter gel is applied on the torch so that spatter doesn’t stick to the torch. Spatter core is the area where spatter can reach. Welding fixture for M.S comes along with wire but for a S.S a separate fixture is used.  SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) Machine Make: Frronius and Triodyn. It is an automatic welding process. Electrode is consumable. Herearc is struck between the electrode i.e. filler metal wire and the job. Filler metal wire actas an electrode. Here shielding is done by flux. Flux is kept inside a cylinder at apressure of 6kg/cm^2. Flux come and covers the welded zone. Grain size of flux variesfrom 0.2 mm to 1.6 mm. Its basicity index is 1.4. Before filling cylinder with flux, flux hasto be heated at a temperature of 300°C for 2 hours .The make of flux is either ESAB orAdor. It is generally used for heavy thickness.  SMAW (Shield Metal Arc Welding) Machine Make: Frronius and Triodyn. 23
  24. 24. It is used for welding pipe section like spiral. Butt joint can be weld up to thickness 15 –20 mm. Here arc is struck between electrode and the job. Electrode can be of varioustypes depending upon job material and the thickness of the job. Always the positiveterminal of the dc source is connected to the electrode i.e. 1/3 to the electrode and 2/3 tothe job. The distance between the job and the electrode depends upon thickness of theelectrode at most it could be 3 mm. Electrodes are generally heated in the electronicfurnace at a temperature about 100°c to 120°c before use so that it has no moisture and itgives you a continuous weld. Hoses are made us of rubber. Reverse polarity is applied inSMAW. According to American Standards, E 6013 means ‘E’ stands for Electrode.60 stand for “tensile strength”. 1 stands for “Welding Position”. 3 stand for “fluxcoating or covering”. Welding job: Spiral CasingVarious electrodes used are: - 1. Electrode: 7018 Used for MS (Mild Steel). Heavy coated low hydrogen iron powder electrode for high quality welds in restrained joints in MS. Radiographic Quality Weld. Metal recovery minimum 110%. Ready electrode at 300 Deg. Celsius per hour. Manufacturer: D & H Use AC 70 or DC + Diameter in mm Current (Amperes) 2.0 50 – 70 2.5 70 - 100 3.15 100 - 150 4.0 150 - 190 5.0 200 - 256 6.30 270 - 320 2. Electrode: 309L Used for stainless steel. Electrode deposits a stainless steel weld metal of 25%Cr – 12%Ni with extra low carbon. The weld deposit displays excellent resistance to cracking even in restrained joints. The electrode is highly suitable for welding mild steel to stainless steel. The electrode possesses pleasing performance characteristics. Manufacturer: D&H Use AC or DC (+) Diameter (mm) Current (ampere) 2 40-50 2.5 60-80 3.15 80-100 4 110-140 24
  25. 25. 5 150-180 3. Electrode: Bohler Fox (CN 13/4 Supra) Maker – Bohler Thyssen Type – C 0.03, Si 0.3, Mn 0.6, Cr 12.5, Mo 0.5, Ni 4.5 4. A basic coated alloyed core wire electrode design for both joint and build up welding of similar stainless Cr steels and cast steels. Especially suited for water turbine, compressor and pumps. The Maker: D&H It yields a weld deposit of 25 % Cr, 12 % Ni austenitic deposit gives high resistance against cavitations. Both AC and DC (+) can be applied to it. Electrode: Cranitherne 25/12stainless steel suitable for welding. Its uses are as follows:- a) Welding stainless steel of similar composition. b) Joining 18% Cr, 8% Ni from stainless steel to mild steel. c) Applying sheet linings of12% Cr steel to mild steel. Both AC and DC (+) can be use Diameter (mm) Current (ampere) 2 40-50 2.5 60-80 3.15 80-100 4 110-140 5 150-180 5. Electrode: Eutectic CPS 006 Maker: L&T It is an all position electrode, design to yield low carbon weldmetal with superior corrosion resistance properties. Use for welding S.S.Welding may produce fumes and gases, which are hazardous to health. Avoid breathingthis. Use adequate ventilations.  Safety Equipments used are 1) Welding curtain 2) Leather Hand gloves 3) Welding Respirator 4) Leg Guard 5) Fire Retardant Cap 6) Welding glasses with side safety 7) Welding head screen 8) Helmet 25
  26. 26. NOTE: In other to prevent the bending while doing welding spiders are generallyattached to the large hollow job. These spiders are removed by gas cutting equipments. Defects in Welding: 1. External I. Blow Holes II. Slag Trap III. Impurity IV. Surface Crack V. Under Cuts VI. Spatter 2. Internal I. Blow HolesPin Holes II. Porosity III. Insufficient Fusion IV. Internal Cracks Types of Test 1. Dye Penetration Test: In this test firstly the surface to be tested is cleaned by thinner & then red penetrant is applied on it & then again it is cleaned. After this developer is applied on it. After drying all surface impurities like crack are visible to eye & this can be removed by the use of gauging. It is used for examining external cracks. The developer stays there for about a minute so examiner had to note the entire surface defects very quickly. 2. Magnetic Penetration Test: In this test magnetic powder is spread on the welded part & thenthrough magnetic jaws the magnetic field is applied & where the crack exist this powderstarts to jump-up or starts to attract towards the crack that depends on the developmentof south-north pole i.e. on the polarity. It is used for examining the internal cracks. 3. Ultrasonic Test In these test ultrasonic sound waves comes. The device used in UT test is known as transducer or search unit .It contains piezoelectric material which transmits desired frequency of sound .For normal casting defects zero degree angles is used & for bevel weld joint angled transducer is used like 60 degree, 45 degree. The defects are shown on the cathode ray oscilloscope. Before testing 26
  27. 27. coupling should be applied. More the smoothness of the job more clearly the transducer detects the defect & more clear the graph is plotted. 4. Radiography Test In these test x-rays are made to fall on the job piece and deflections arenoted in the form of graph and by studying them we can find out internal defects. It is avery dangerous test as these rays are very harmful to human beings. So when these testare carried nobody should be around a radius of 50 meter. These are a very accurate testas compared to other test. For X-ray test cobalt-92 and Ra-162 are used. After these if cracks are found there then these cracks are removed bygauging rod then grinding is done and after that it is again checked for cracks. For bestresults in gauging following steps need to be followed: 1) Air pressure should be between 5 kg/ sq. cm and 8 kg/ sq. cm 2) The angle of rod should 45° to the work piece. 3) Air jet should be switched on before striking of an arc. 4) Always use reverse polarity. Sometimes dousing is also done. It is done generally during heavy thickness and internal crack. Carbon electrode and rectifier sets with heavy current do dousing. After welding jobs are generally given a heat treatment in furnace. There are two furnaces: a) Electric Furnace: 2800 mm * 2000 mm * 2000 mm, 440 volts. b) Diesel Furnace: 9400 mm * 4400 mm * 2000 mm, With 6 burners.IN S.R furnace first there is mild steel then there is a coating of brick, then glass wool orasbestos wool and lastly mild steel grill. In Stress relieving furnace gloves made ofasbestos are used. • Gas Cutting Equipments  Computerized Numerically Controlled Gas Cutting Machine Machine maker: Sato Table length: 8400 mm * 3200 mm. Oxygen/Acetylene & Oxygen/LPG is used for cutting. Mainly LPG is used becauseit is cheap. Piercing pressure comes from Oxygen. Job is not heated to the melting pointbut to the temperature where it can be plastically deformed. Gas cutting equipment usesair pressure to produce arc. Cutting pressure ranges from 9-kg/sq. cm to 16-kgf/sq.cm upto thickness of 50 mm of Mild Steel. Nozzle cutting speed or piercing pressure depends onthe thickness of the plate. Working pressure for oxygen and acetylene is 9-10 kg/sq. cm.The pressure in cylinder for oxygen and acetylene is 15-kg/sq. cm. While ratio betweenoxygen/acetylene and is Oxygen/LPG 1:2.In CNC gas cutting machine first it checkwhether the required shape is possible or not. Nozzle, cutting speed, pressure, Pre-heating time, pre-heating pressure, piercing pressure and curf are all according tothickness of plate. Line in and out also causes changes in piercing time for differentshape.  Manual Gas cutting machine 27
  28. 28. In these machines there are two cylinders each of oxygen and acetylene or oxygen and LPG connected two torches through hoses. The torch is made up of gunmetal. Generally single regulator is used for LPG, acetylene and oxygen. In winter season electronic pre-heater is used when to temperature falls very low. It is fitted between the regulator and the cylinder. Plasma Cutting MachineMachine maker: Hypertherm powermax (1100 watts) In these machines air pressure is used to produce arc and also used for cutting with pressure ranging from 9-kg/ sq. cm to 16-kg/ sq. cm up to thickness of 50 mm of stainless steel. Here the arc produced is plasma arc .The electrode is made up of brass. Also carbon electrode can be attached to the SMAW for cutting purpose for stainless steel for more than 50 mm thickness. CHAPTER-6 ASSEMBLY SECTION Project Undergoing – Somanamardi Job Undergoing Assembly – Wicket Gate Assembly or Distributor Assembly • Dummy discharge ring is placed at the bottom and is known as bottom head. On this ring we place the 24 guide vanes and on these guide vanes we place bushes along with the top head. On this top head we place levers whose one end is attached to the guide vane and other to the link. This link is attached to the regulating wheel. With the help of servomotor we get reciprocating motion, which is of guide vanes. • In upper head there are 24 bores and in these bores 24 bushes are placed. In these bushes similar number of guide vanes is also placed. 28
  29. 29. • Inner head or inner distributor is fit into the center of wicket gate assembly and through it the shaft is passed.• Through guide bearing housing shaft is passed.• Guide Vanes – It consists of two side’s i.e. thick end and thin side. The thick side is called flat side and the thin side is called chamfer side. The water strikes at the thick side and passes away from the thin side. The distance between the thick ends of the guide vein is called facial gap.• Ceiling Gap – The distance between two corresponding faces of guide vanes. If ceiling gap is more than we have to file to make it less.• Filler gauge – It is used to check the gap between two mating parts given as per drawing.• Axial play is done through dial indicator and dial stand.• After the fitting of head cover dew surface washers having the property of self-lubrication are placed on the upper surface of the guide veins. Their main use is to reduce friction & provide lubrication. Without their application the working of shaft will be affected.• After fitting of dew surface washers we place the track ring which remain fixed on the guide vanes.• In Francis and Kaplan turbine regulating wheel is used to provide clockwise and anticlockwise rotation to guide vanes.• Tripping Relay Device – It is a safety device used in turbines. It consists of arrangement of lever, spring and cam. An electronic speed- measuring device is placed on the shaft to calculate its speed. As the speed of shaft increases tension in the spring increases and it begin to move and a stage comes when it outer face collides with the trip of tripping device because of which the trip cuts off and the supply of oil to the shaft stops which causes shaft to switch off. It is mainly due to the cut off of servomotor. Maximum pressure in servomotor is 60kg/cm square& maximum stroke of servomotor is 172.• Water attacks on the pressure side of the guide vanes and flow away from the suction side.• Shot blasting is done before painting so that paints stick hard on the surface. The pressure in shot blasting is 6-kg/sq. cm. In shot blasting chips of either S.S or M.S are used of size varying from 0.2 mm to 0.5 mm diameter. Shot blasting is carried out in a closed room having 2 mm thick rubber walls. The operator operating shot blasting has to wear a special dress, which covers all his body.• Firstly Red oxide (epoxy-71) is used for coating the surface. Afterwards the epoxy paint coatings are done at the end of the job. These paints are of Epoxy 72 and are high quality abrasion resistant and water resistant. Sometimes synthetic paint is also used over S.S just to give a good look to the turbine and to hide the scratches.• Red oxide coating ensures good surface texture and smoothening. It also avoids scratching to the job made by applying the blue and black color directly to the job. 29
  30. 30. • In hydro turbines black paint is used to coat that part of the job, which is placed inside the water. Single red coating is applied at that place which comes in direct contact with oil. Yellow and blue are mainly used for outer surfaces, which come in contact with the air.• In spiral casing water is mainly given the view to flow and also a force is exerting on it. The water enters the spiral casing gets divided by the help of internal fixed blades. This water then strikes the pressure side of the guide vanes, which is thick and then goes to suction side, which is thin. After passing from the guide vanes water strikes the runner placed inside the spiral casing and then it starts to rotate the shaft. Due to this rotation the hydro energy is converted into mechanical energy of the rotation of shaft and this mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy by use of generator.• There are two types of balancing – static & dynamic. Static balancing is mainly done in Pelton turbine. It is mainly done to check weight irregularity. In the runner of Pelton turbine we always place weight during static balancing for the balancing of job. But in case of Francis weight removal is done from Francis runner.• Jobs accuracy is measured or checked by means of templates. The templates drawings are sending by the designer to the assembly department where the help of these drawings makes the required templates of brass. For making this we use flat files, half round files, needle files, rounded files and tools.• In runner hub we use the inner bush of brass (non-ferrous) because if the ferrous part is made in contact with the ferrous part for the rotation purpose then both these SS parts produce friction between them and cause scratching of each other and our purpose of rotation is not fulfilled. Therefore we use ferrous and non-ferrous combination to avoid friction. Also in these brass bushes small slots are made for the purpose of lubrication.• Tungsten carbide is used for the coating of the turbine face because due to high pressure water consisting of sand particles the turbine face is affected very much and their exists some holes in it. Due to this reason turbines life is reduced. To increase its life we use tungsten carbide.• SILT Tanks is used for cleaning purpose to prevent sand coming into the turbine. Although trash racks are provided in the penstock but they can’t stop sand. They can control only stop big wood blocks sought of thing. 30
  31. 31. CHAPTER-7 GRINDING SECTION • Different Types Of Grinders  Single-phase 50hz angle grinder  Three-phase 300hz angle grinder Three-phase high frequency angle grinder can be used for longer time & does not get heat up as compare to single-phase grinder. It requires less maintenance than other grinder.  Pneumatic air grinder Maker: Chicago. Pressure in pneumatic air grinder is 6.2 bars. RPM in pneumatic airgrinder is 13000.  Sendor 31
  32. 32. It is also single-phase 50hz. Support pad is used in sender for supporting amri disc. Generally two-amri disc are also used for support.  Swing Grinder It is used for rough grinding. It is very helpful in removing material in large scale. BOSCH manufactures all die grinders stated above. • TOOLS USED  Grinding Wheel Maker: NORTON It is used for rough or proof machining or material removing. Its diameter ranges from 7 inch, 9 inch and 125 mm. They all have different RPM.  Stone Wheel Maker: NORTON Stone wheel 50 mm in diameter. is used for removing carbon.  Flat wheel or Amri Wheel: Maker: Split Fire It is used for polishing and finishing e.g. Pelton wheel runner etc. Its diameterranges from 25 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm. Its grit size ranges from 36, 60, 80 and 120.  Mounting Wheel or Mounted Tip: Maker: NORTON Mounted tip is used in pneumatic air tool. It is used for finishing & polishing. It is of following two types: - 1) Conical T3: It is used for sharp edges and is conical in shape. It is made up of tungsten. 2) Round B4: It is used for round edges or making cylindrical radius. It is also made up of tungsten.  Amri Disc: Maker: Alkon Gold It is used for surface finishing & mainly for light work. Grit size varies from 20,36, 60, 80 and 80. Its compositions are diamond dust, zirconium and silicon carbide.General order for finishing in grit size is 20, 36, 60, and 80 and 120 depending upon thesurface finishes required.  Swing Grinder wheel Make: Norton. Its size is 300*40*38.1. In grinding section manufacturing of runner, stay vanes, runner blades,and guide vanes is done. Sometimes job comes for step merging also. Manual Grinding isdone to obtain special hydraulic contours. Grinding is done according to therequirements mention in the drawing using various templates for various contours orprofiles. Some places need rough grinding and some need finish grinding depending uponthe part. Safety Equipments Used is goggles, earplug, and gloves. When mounting job inthe fixture it should be covered by tape so that no scratches occur. 32
  33. 33. Punching is done to have proper thickness and proper hydro dynamicallycontour. It is done from both sides i.e. x and y direction. Grinding is done in Z direction. Tolerances for Pelton wheel are +0.5 or –0.5, for runner profile in Francisturbine is +1 or –1; for thickness of runner is +0.3 and – 0.3 and for guide vanes andrunner blades is +0.5 to –0.5. Moving trolley has trips the meter when earthing doesn’t work then it get trip.Templates are made through CNC wire cutting machine. These are made up off SS, MS,spring steels and gunmetal. 33
  34. 34. CHAPTER-8 MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT Maintenance is of two types: 1. Planned I. Autonomous: 3M 3S (Japanese Method) 3M 3S stands for 3 minute 3 services that mean daily to daily checking of machine cleanliness, hydraulic pressure and oiling or lubrication. II. Preventive: In these MTBF (mean time between failures) and MTTR (mean time to repair) should be same. III. Predictive Maintenance It is like you can predict the time to failure. It requires control over frequency of checking. IV. Conditioning Maintenance: It is monitory very close before sometime of predictable failure date i.e. 10 days before so that if it fails first we can replace it or if it works for some more days then it prevents some money for organization. Different tests carried on condition monitoring like vibration test and hydraulic check etc. 2. Unplanned I. Breakdown Maintenance II. Corrective Maintenance Maintenance mainly involves infrastructure details along with the machine profile and all computer related things.Here in VA Tech total production management is followed. Maintenance department alsohandles computer network wiring and generators. For computer networking VA TECHuse Cat-7 technology in which 20,000 meters long wires are laid down. ProportionalLogic Controller Synchronization is used in generators which synchronies voltage,frequency and phase angle. Maintenance involves external power generation, internalpower generation in case of power cut off, synchronization thru PLC. Maintenance alsoassembled new machinery. 34
  35. 35. CHAPTER –9 QUALITY CONTROLThere are four stages of quality control: 1. Incoming Stage 2. Process 3. Final Machining 4. Assembly a) Standard of quality is achieved in accordance to customer needs. b) QAP stands for Quality Assurance Plan c) Casting test is done at the foundry shop witnessed by VA TECH Officials. d) NCR means Non Confirmation Report is made for the faulty product. e) Various test conducted under quality control are Hardness Test, Elongation Test, Tensile Strength Test, Dimensioning and heat treatment. f) In process test Penetration Test, Ultrasonic Test, Magnetic Test and Accuracy Test, Radiography test is done. g) In final machining dimensioning and penetration test are conducted. h) In assembly dimensioning test are conducted. 35
  36. 36. CHAPTER-10 STORES DEPARTMENT In two ways the material is given:• Consumables (electrodes, grinding wheel) These tools once you give don’t return back. Consumables are always enter the SAP.• Non-Consumables (instrument, tools) These tools are return back to the customer after there use. Non- consumables aremanually maintained in the register.• How to maintain the stock levels? 1. Identify all major regular items with monthly average consumption. 2. Fix the maximum, minimum and ordering level of these items in SAP. 3. Review the stock levels and raise MPR when stock reaches ordering level (material purchase requisition). 4. Consider the current lead-time while raising MPR. 5. Purchase MPR if the level is going down. 6. Review the consumption trend periodically. 7. Based on the consumption trend review the list of stock items and their stock levels with the users and update the same. MRV stands for material receive voucher. Store is divided into following sections: • Special Erection Tools Used when machines are plotted or fixed. • Welding Equipments • Grinding Equipments • Safety Equipments • Heavy Sections  Hydraulic jacks are used to uplift the heavy loads. Using a cycle chain like arrangement uses roller spadder to move heavy jobs from one place to another. Its ranges from 1 tons to 20 tons.  Oil pump pumps the oil to the hydraulic machine. It has a dial showing how much weight lifted. 36
  37. 37.  Special purpose drilling machine both magnetic and vaccum used specially for foundation purpose or packing purpose. It is a portable machine.  Pipe bending hydraulic machine fitted with oil seal is used to bend pipe. Pumping is done by hand. Oil seal doesn’t allow it to flow back. It ha various dies of different shape. Also pipe holder can hold pipes of different shape. • Electrical Instruments BS-60 electric paint spray gun mainly used for painting, disinfecting, corrosion-removal & cleaning. It has .5 mm round spray nozzle. Specifications: Power supply: 230V, 50 HZ Power: 60 Watts Maximum pressure (app.): 140 bars HILTI PD-10 mainly used to measure the distance during erection. These include torches, Meqquer, Electronic Label maker, C.R.O, and Switchboard. In these devices some are current measuring devices & some are used for the purpose of amplification • General Instruments Center head (dead center) revolving whole. Revolving head only tip port. Drill chuck • General Tools BOX SPANNER: They are used for tightening purposes. Handle, which is fitted inside the box spanner & is working like lever & rotates to produce tightening. (6 mm to 110 mm diameter) Vice are used to hold the job. Letter punch, Number punch are used to print numbers & letters on the job. Hammer spanner (30 mm to 125 mm diameter) Hammer ring spanner (50 mm, 55 mm, 125 mm) Die spanner 37
  38. 38.  Allen key Ring spanner • Lifting Tools Manual hoist is lifting equipment. • CALIBRATED & MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Electronic Surface finish tester is used to measure the surface finish. It gives you RA um. A conversion sheet is provided to convert finishing N6, N7 etc to corresponding RA um Vernier bevel protector is used to measure angles from 5’-360°. Radius gauge is used to measure radius of a section. You can measure both outside and inside radius. Its range is from 1mm to 25 mm. Combination set is used to find center of round shape objects from o°-180°. It has two main parts center head and 45° head. Pistol caliper is used to measure thickness of a job where micrometer can’t reach. Its least count is 0 .1 mm. Its range is from 0.1 to 100mm. Depth micrometer is used to measure depth. Its least count is 0.1 mm. Its range is from 0 to 300 mm. Filler gauge use to find out facial gap .It has a standard thickness plate. Its range is from 0.5 to 1mm. Dial gauge indicator is used to measure run outs, finding center and parallel also used to check whether job is aligned with machine or not its least count is 0.01 mm. Its range is from 0.01mm to 10 mm. Bore gauge is used to measure diameter of a bore. Its least count is according to dial gauge. But generally is 0.01 mm. Its range is from 6 to 450. Its main parts are dial indicator, holder (grip), outer sleeve, measuring, contact point, guide, interchangeable rod, limited hand, and bezel. 38
  39. 39. Bore gauge Flange type micrometer is used to measure small gap like parting area. Its least count is 0.01 mm. Its range is from 1 to 25 mm. Height gauge is used to find height of a job. It has carbide, which can be use for marking. Its main parts are base, vernier scale, and scriber locking screw, adjusting screw. Its least count is 0.02 mm. Its range is from 0.1 mm to 600 mm. Its main part are base, reference surface of base, column, slider, main beam, main scale, vernier scale, clamp screw, fine feed screw, scriber and magnifying glass.  Lever type dial gauge or Puppy dial is used to find center of a bore or hole. Its main part are as follows:a) Stylishb) Dovetail Spigot Assemblyc) Height Gauged) Adaptor Assemblye) Universal clamp Assemblyf) Spannerg) Calibration Slip gauge is small blocks which stick to each other when they are rub against each other due to better surface finish hence they create a vacuum. It is use to measure Height .It is made up of high carbon steel. Its range is from 0.5 mm to 100 mm. Inside micrometer is used to measure inside diameter. It has micrometer in which you can add rod of required length to measure the diameter. Its range is from 50 mm to 5 m. Outside micrometer used to measure the outside diameter of the job in the range of 0 mm to 1100 mm. It has a masterpiece, which is used to 39
  40. 40. check error. Each division is of 10 microns or 0.01 mm. Spindle, frame, anvil, inner sleeve, outer sleeve, adjustment nut, ratchet stop, ratchet screw, clamp, frame cover, carbide tip and thimble are its important part. Inside dial caliper is used to measure inside diameter. It has least count of 0.025 mm. Its range is from 10 – 70 mm. Ring gauge are of two types thread ring gauge (male threads) and thread plug gauge (female gauge). These are of go and no go types. Thread ring gauge is used to measure the thread accuracy on nut while plug gauge is used to measure the accuracy of thread in holes. Its range starts from M6. Digital Vernier micrometer gives the readings digitally .It is very accurate machine. It gives readings up to microns. Its range is from 1 micron to 25 mm. 40
  41. 41.  Digital height gauge is also a very accurate measuring instrument. It has a digital display. It gives readings up to microns and can measure up to 600 mm.  Master level or spirit level is used to check the level of machine during foundation.  Laser range meter is use to measure the distances with the help of laser light. It has a very wide range and is very accurate instrument. • Cutting tool  Twist drill is made up of HSS. Its range is from 3 mm to 80 mm.  Extra long twist drill is made up of HSS.  Core drill is made up of HSS.  Taper shank socket reamer made up of HSS. Its range is from 5 mm to 60 mm.  Cutter is also made up of HSS.  Brazing tool is made of carbide tip.  Flat drill is also made up of HSS.  Taps are available from M1 to M 80.• Stationary 41
  42. 42. CHAPTER-11 PLANNINGAfter release of drawing from design department it comes to planning department. It hasfollowing three parts: a) Action planning b) Technology c) Subcontracting d) Loading and scheduling Basically it handles the manufacturing process in workshop and subcontracting. First it prepares a job card, which has all the operation to be performed. Every time each process is over the supervisor has to enter the time taken by each operation in SAP, so that planning can monitor over the progress over job. It has an important part called subcontracting which look after the jobs which have to be machined from outside. Planning you can say is completely done and controlled with the help of SAP (system application product). Various important functions of planning are: a) Raising sub contracting purchase requisition b) Preparation of purchase requisition c) Handling proof machined items d) Amending purchase requisition e) Booking material and hours f) Booking hours for PPC (production planning control). g) Ordering and inspection of hardware h) External processing of customer supplied goods i) Control of plate material j) Regularization of materials lying in project stock k) Closing subcontracting orders l) Closing of projects m) Closing of P.O n) Making checklist for P.O o) Preparation of MIS reports p) Logging of man hours 42
  43. 43. CHAPTER-12 Machines & ComponentsFRANCIS STAY RINGSKODA HB-1 43
  49. 49. CHAPTER-13 CONCLUSIONANDRITZ HYDRO LTD is one of the global leading company in HYDROPOWER PLANT, which manufacture , design & overhaul of a variety ofhydro products from small to large hydro projects.Since its inception in 1852, the company has grown into a giant hrdrocomplex spread worldwide, the advancement of new technology usingSCADA(supervisory control & data acquisition) for automation.Thedivisions competence is based on more than 225,000 MW of installed hydrocapacity worldwide with turbine of all type.Thus increasing the business on commercial lines in a climate of growingprofessional competence.And finally training has proved to be quite fruitful. 49