What is social media?
Social media refers to interaction among people in
which they create, share, and/or exchange
information and ideas in virtual communities and
Purpose of social media
Finding information relevant to research
Sending and receiving e-mail
Downloading music and other things
Listening to music
Some statistics related to social media
Consumers continue to spend more time on social
networks than on any other category of sites—roughly 20
percent of their total time online via personal computer
(PC), and 30 percent of total time online via mobile.
Facebook remains the most-visited social network in the
U.S. via PC (152.2 million visitors), mobile apps (78.4
million users) and mobile web (74.3 million visitors), and
is multiple times the size of the next largest social site
across each platform.
51% of people aged 25–34 used social networking in the
office, more than any other age group.
One out of eight couples married in the U.S. last year
met via social media according to statistics released
One in six higher education students are enrolled in
an online curriculum.
In November 2011, it was reported Indians spend
more time on social media than on any other activity
on the Internet.
1 in 5 divorces have been blamed on Facebook.
Use/ Consumption of Social Media
93% of teens are active users of the internet (60‐70%
75% of teens own a cellphone
Teens average over 3000 texts per month (100/day)
Text messaging has increased most dramatically,
along with media multi‐tasking
What Teens do Online
The percentage of U.S. Internet users, ages 12‐17, who do the
89% send or read email
84% go to websites about movies, TV shows, music groups, or
81% play online games
76% go online to get news or information about current events
75% send or receive instant messages
57% go online to get information about college
43% buy online merchandise
22% look for information about a health topic that’s hard to
Teen Social‐Networking by the
51% of teens check their sites more than once a day.
22% of teens check their site more than 10 times a day.
39% of teens have posted something they later regretted.
37% of teens have used sites to make fun of other
25% of teens have created a profile with a false identity.
24%of teens have hacked into someone else’s
13% of teens have posted nude or seminude pictures or
videos of themselves or others, online.
Impact of media types
Induced fear and phobias
Media multi‐tasking affects attention
Reality vs. fantasy
Aggression and violence
Tendency to be alone
Over exposure to unwanted content
Impact of high exposure on
behaviour and mental health
Middle schoolers use more media than any other age
group (8 hrs., 40 min per day)
Lower academic achievement, grades
Lower attachment to school
Shorter attention spans
Among youth who report internet harassment
victimization and unwanted sexual encounters
(sexting), 25% report extreme upset
Exposure and violence
Visiting hate and satanic sites are associated with
significantly elevated odds of violent behaviour
Exposure to media violence does not affect all
children in the same way.
Studies show exposure to TV violence activates brain
regions that regulate emotion, arousal and attention,
and episodic memory.
Extensive viewing may lead to a large number of
aggressive scripts stored in long‐term memory that
end up influencing behaviour
“When the Internet, cell
phones or other devices are
used to send or post text or
images intended to hurt or
embarrass another person.“
65% of their students between 8-14 have been
involved directly or indirectly in a cyber bullying
incident as the cyber bully, victim or friend
Direct Bullying: (more typical of boys)
– Open physical attacks on victim
– Verbal (threats, emotional harm)
Indirect (Relational) Bullying: (more typical of girls)
– Social isolation
– Peer rejection
Cyber bullying/ electronic aggression
– Social network sites, facebook, twitter, email
– Blow down pages→ fake sites created to spread
The problem with technology…
Provides anonymity / it feels like a “safe world”
Indirect form of bullying
Information spreads much faster and is put into the
hands of masses
How common is it?
Over 30% of middle and HS students identify as
victims or perpetrators (some studies up to 50%)
15‐22% admit cyberbullying others
About 75% of youth recently witnessed bullying
From ½ to ¾ youth admit bullying others
About 1 in 3 youth report they have been a victim of
Media Effects and Youth
Sexually Explicit Content
Drug & Alcohol Use
Ways to Combat Negative Media Effects Without
Educating Youth in Media Literacy
Moderation of media consumption
Spending offline time more than online time
Spending more time with family
Choosing to meet people in person rather than online
Keeping a check on internet activity and avoiding