A SEMINAR REPORT Submitted byAbhaya Nanda Shukla Roll- 2007-1026
OBJECTIVE 4G (also known as Beyond 3G), an abbreviation for Fourth Generation, is a term used to describe the next complete evolution in wireless communications. A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than previous generations. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC—Mobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support, integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service.
What is 4G? Fourth Generation Technology Faster and more reliable Lower cost than previous generations Multi-standard wireless system –Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless (802.11x) Ad Hoc Networking IPv6 Core OFDM used instead of CDMA Potentially IEEE standard 802.11n –Most information is proprietary
KEY 4G TECHNOLOGIESCommunications Architecture Broadcast layer: fix access points, (i.e. cell tower) connected by fiber, microwave, or satellite (ISP) Ad-hoc/hot-spot layer: wireless LANs Personal Layer Gateway: devices that connect to upper layers; cell phone, fax, voice, data modem, MP3 players, PDAs Info-Sensor layer: environmental sensors Fiber-optic wire layer: high speed subterranean labyrinth of fiber optic cables and repeaters
Ad Hoc Networks Spontaneous self organization of networks of devices Not necessarily connected to internet 4G will create hybrid wireless networks usingAd Hoc networks Form of mesh networking –Very reliable
Smart Antennas Beam radio signals directly at a user to follow the user as they move Allow the same radio frequency to be used for other users without worry of interference Can’t keep up transmission speeds while device is moving fast (i.e. in a car) –Only 32Mb/s at 62mph (vs100Mb/s) Seamless handoff between towers/access points One transmit antenna, two receive antennas –Allows connection to two access points at once
MULTIPLE-INPUT MULTIPLE –OUTPUT MIMO uses signal multiplexing between multiple transmitting antennas (space multiplex) and time or frequency. It is well suited to OFDM, as it is possible to process independent time symbols as soon as the OFDM waveform is correctly designed for the channel. This aspect of OFDM greatly simplifies processing. The signal transmitted by m antennas is received by n antennas. Processing of the received signals may deliver several performance improvements: range, quality of received signal and spectrum efficiency. In principle, MIMO is more efficient when many multiple path signals are received. The performance in cellular deployments is still subject to research and simulations . However, it is generally admitted that the gain in spectrum efficiency is directly related to the minimum number of antennas in the link.
SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO Software Defined Radio (SDR) benefits from today’s high processing power to develop multi-band, multi-standard base stations and terminals. Although in future the terminals will adapt the air interface to the available radio access technology, at present this is done by the infrastructure. Several infrastructure gains are expected from SDR. For example, to increase network capacity at a specific time (e.g. during a sports event),an operator will reconfigure its network adding several modems at a given Base Transceiver Station (BTS). SDR makes this reconfiguration easy. In the context of 4G systems, SDR will become an enabler for the aggregation of multi-standard pico/micro cells. For a manufacturer, this can be a powerful aid to providing multi- standard, multi-band equipment with reduced development effort and costs through simultaneous multi-channel processing.
Mobile IPv6 More addresses than current version of IP protocol (Version 4) each device can have own IP Keep IP address even if you change access point Presently translate IP with each change because not enough IP addresses to go around IP Core-everything can talk to each other if they speak the same “language” (protocol) IPV6 PACKET
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Allows for transfer of more data than other forms of multiplexing (time, frequency, code, etc) Simplifies the design of the transmitter & receiver Allows for use of almost the entire frequency band –No gaps to prevent interference needed Currently used in WiMax(802.16) and Wi- Fi(802.11a/g)
How OFDM Works Above, binary phase shift keying (BPSK). The phase of the sin wave changes to represent a different bit.
How OFDM works The frequencies are spaced so that the signals do not interfere with each other (no cross talk) Parallel Data Transmission -Allows for the sending of multiple signals simultaneously from the same antenna (or wire) to one device Parallel Data Transmission -Allows for the sending of multiple signals simultaneously from the same antenna (or wire) to one device –Each transmission has a different stream of bits
FUTURE SCOPE OF 4GAs the history of mobile communications shows, attempts have been made to reduce a number of technologies to a single global standard. Projected 4G systems offer this promise of a standard that can be embraced worldwide through its key concept of integration. Future wireless networks will need to support diverse IP multimedia applications to allow sharing of resources among multiple users. There must be a low complexity of implementation and an efficient means of negotiation between the end users and the wireless infrastructure.The fourth generation promises to fulfill the goal of PCC (personal computing and communication)—a vision that affordably provides high data rates everywhere over a wireless network.
APPLICATIONS VIRTUAL PRESENCE: This means that 4G provides user services at all times, even if the user is off-site. VIRTUAL NAVIGATION: 4G provides users with virtual navigation through which a user can access a database of the streets, buildings etc. TELE-GEOPROCESSING APPLICATIONS: This is a combination of GIS(Geographical Information System) and GPS (Global Positioning System) in which a user can get the location by querying. TELE-MEDICINE AND EDUCATION: 4G will support remote health monitoring of patients. For people who are interested in life long education, 4G provides a good opportunity. CRISIS MANAGEMENT: Natural disasters can cause break down in communication systems. In today’s world it might take days or 7 weeks to restore the system. But in 4G it is expected to restore such crisis issues in a few hours. 8.6 MULTIMEDIA – VIDEO SERVICES 4G wireless systems are expected to deliver efficient multimedia services at very high data rates. -Basically there are two types of video services: bursting and streaming video services. -Streaming is performed when a user requires real-time video services, in which the server delivers data continuously at a playback rate. -Bursting is basically file downloading using a buffer and this is done at the highest data rate taking advantage of the whole available bandwidth.
Socio-Economic Impact More affordable communication services One device can communicate with all vs. many devices communicating with some devices TV, internet, phone, radio, home environment sensors all reachable through one device (the cell phone) –Streaming HD video Too connected? –Increase in social networking, invasion of privacy, security concerns –Increase in regulation likely (i.e. no driving and using a cell phone)