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Potential of drip irrigation in north east india


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Potential of drip irrigation in north east india

  1. 1. Project report on Drip irrigation ABHAY KUMAR MANDAL 2013
  2. 2. IntroductionNorth -East India is one of the wettest regions of the world with an average annual rainfall of2000mm. The region also has a dense network of drainage channels with as many as 7 rivers-basins lying in it. The region as such is very rich in water resource. But this has never beforebeen tapped for agricultural purposes, because the subsistence economy of the region with alimited population and abundant cultivated land did not realise the necessity of growing morecrops than what was actually needed. But with a tremendous growth of population on the onehand and subsistence economy being replaced partially by modern industrial-commercialeconomy on the other, the need for growing more crops has arisen. As such the need ofirrigation in the region is being increasingly felt.A scientific probe into the present agricultural status of the region reveals that there is a greatneed of irrigation to develop agricultural production. The necessity is caused mainly byclimatic factors but there are other factors too. In respect of the climatic factors, it is firstlyseen that although the region has average annual rainfall of more than 2000 mm, about 80%of it comes between late June and late September. From about late September the rainfallbecomes scanty and the months of November, December, January, February, and Marchremain practically dry except an occasional shower. Although a few thunder-showers occurin April and May, the water thus provided is partly absorbed by the thirsty soil lying underthe long dry spell and partly lost in evapo-transpiration. In this long spell of drought the smallrivers, rivulets, streams, ponds, ponds tanks and other shallow water bodies run dry, Even theunderground water level sinks down by 10- 15 metres. Under such circumstances no largescale ravi crop can be carried out during the dry season from October to May without the helpof irrigation.72% of the area of the North -East India is hilly, the water from rainfall run down the hillslopes as sheet flood in these areas leaving little water for crops. In the hill slopes and hilltops the jhum cultivation may not need much water, but for tea and other horticultural cropscultivation on the terraces, irrigational facilities are a must.In plains of the region there are sandy tracts, especially by the side of the present and oldriver courses. As water percolates down in the sandy tracts, no crops can be grown unlessthey are constantly supplied with water. Although such sandy tract are otherwise suitable forthe growth of various vegetables and cash crops, in the absence of water supply productionfrom them becomes very low. Irrigation. Therefore, is necessary in such areas.Realising the need of irrigation for increase in agricultural production, top priority began tobe given on it and during the Fifth Five Year Plan period Irrigation Department was openedin all the states in the region which was entrusted with launching irrigation projects.In spite of such efforts, out of the total agricultural land in the North East India, only 8.1 lachectares (22.50%) have been brought under irrigation. It is less than the national norm of25.55%, Amongst the states of the region. Manipur has the highest percentage (46.4%) of itstotal agricultural area under irrigation followed by Nagaland (40. 5%) Meghalaya (25.9%)Arunachal Pradesh (21.4%), Assam (21.2%) Mizoram (12.3%) and Tripura (11.8%).Potential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  3. 3. Drip Irrigation North East !!!!The region has drip irrigation potential for 1 M ha. As compared to this, the area covered inthe region is negligible.Area coverage under drip State Drip (ha) Arunachal Pradesh 613 Assam 300 Meghalaya 16 Manipur 341 Mizoram 124 Nagaland 816 Sikkim 23,460 West Bengal 247 Total 25517State wise drip potential in different crop in northeast:- State Crop West Bengal Tea, vegetable, orange, beetle-vine Sikkim Orange, vegetable, floriculture Assam Tea, vegetable Nagaland Floriculture, pineapple, vegetable Meghalaya Pineapple, floriculture Tripura Rubber, oil palm, vegetable Arunachal Pradesh Kiwi, orange, vegetable, pear, rubberPotential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  4. 4. Cost Of Drip Irrigation And Govt SupportAll the North Eastern States, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal andDarjeeling district of West Bengal would come under Category „C.‟ Category „C‟ States it isestimated to be 25% higher than Category „A‟ States. In Sikkim state govt and center govtgive accumulated sum of 50 % of total total cost of project. Here there is no farmercontribution towards drip irrigation installation in their farm. In same manner Assam willimplement the drip irrigation programme to utilize money for drip irrigation from centralgovt because farmer are not ready to contribute 50% share in drip irrigation project.Cost of drip irrigation system State Category Average Cost, Rs./ha A 40, 000 B 46,000 C 50,000Cost of Sprinkler Irrigation System Coupler diameter Cost (Rs.)/ha (mm) 63 mm 13690 75 mm 14270 90 mm 17280Potential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  5. 5. What changes does drip irrigation bring to farming?In a 2010 study, “Impact of Drip Irrigation on Farming System: Evidence from SouthernIndia” by Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, researchers examined the before-and-aftereffects of 50 farms growing bananas that switched from sprinkler irrigation to drip irrigationbetween 2007 and 2008 in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu. The results are as follows: .Tea PlantationIndia is one of the major tea growing countries of the world, producing about 28% of theworld production annually. The other leading producers are China, Kenya and Sri Lanka.Today the major tea growing states are Assam, West Bengal, Tripura, Tamil Nadu, Keralaand Karnataka. Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal are also traditional tea growing states,albeit to a less significant extent. Besides, tea plantation has come up recently in states likeArunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Sikkim, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Bihar, Orissa, etc. Mizoram hasalso the potential for development of commercial tea plantation. Total area under teacultivation is 5.8 lac hectares and production is 9865 lac kg in India. Potential of dripirrigation in tea is Rs. 10, 000 crore.Distribution of tea in India:- Major States Percentage Assam 52.6 West Bengal 21.6 Tripura 1.3 Others 2.1 North India 77.6 Tamil Nadu 14.8 Kerala 7.2 Karnataka 0.4 South India 22.4 Total All India 100Potential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  6. 6. Drip irrigation in tea:-Areas of StudyAssamAssam is India‟s largest tea producing state with total area under cultivation is 3, 21,000hectare and production of 5118 lac kg of tea. There are 68591 small grower in Assam.Dibrugarh accounts for 30 % of the total tea gardens followed by Tinsukia 22 %, Jorhat 13%, Golaghat 12 %, Sivasagar 11 % and other districts contain 11 %. 1. Upper Assam Tea Plantation(North Bank of Brahmaputra river)Upper Assam tea estate is in the North Bank Of Brahmaputra river here soil is youngAlluvial type and rainfall is very much erratic now days, soil under which tea plantation isunder alluvial soil mixed with small stone and area is not flat but undulated so, it make soilsuch that water percolate downward after rain. Water is not available for tea after few day ofrain. These areas include Lakimpur, Sonitpur, Tezpur e.t.c. which account for 10% of totalarea under tea of Assam. Note:- potential area for drip irrigation in coming time. 2. Lower Assam Tea Plantation(South Bank of Brahmaputra river)Lower Assam tea estate is in the South Bank Of Brahmaputra river soil here is youngAlluvial type, but in some places Alluvial soil has high silt which cause maximum runoff ofrain water and water is not available for tea plant. These areas include Jorhat, Golaghat,Dibrugarah, Tinsukia, Sivsagar e.t.c. of these area Tinsikia, Dibrugarah, Jorhat and Sivsagarhas no irrigation problem but they are very innovative so, we can promote drip irrigation forfertigation. This area account for more than 85 % tea plantation in Assam. Note:-Golaghat Is The Highest Potential Area. 3. Cachar Tea estate.This area is in lower Assam here tea estate is very sparsely distributed 112 tea garden arelocated here of which maximum produce green tea.West BengalTotal area under tea cultivation in west Bengal is 114,525 hectare comprising of 309organised tea estates and 8078 small tea grower. West Bengal contributes 25 % of India‟s teaproduction. Sprinkler is widely used in tea garden for irrigation in Dooars and Terai region.Of about 70 % of garden is irrigated by sprinkler in this region. 1. Dooars Tea PlantationPotential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  7. 7. Dooars is in the north-eastern part of West Bengal in the lap of Himalaya. There are 163 biggardens in Dooars of almost all big tea grower groups. Here maximum tea garden usesprinkler irrigation system for irrigating their tea garden. That area which doesn‟t have anyirrigation facility can be persuaded for installation of drip irrigation. 2. Darjeeling Tea PlantationToday there are 87 tea plantations in and around Darjeeling town, producing superfineDarjeeling tea. The average yield is very low – 400 to 450 kilograms per hectare, comparedwith the national average of 1 800 kilograms per hectare. 100 % of tea estate is on hill so, theland topography is much undulated which make it unfit for flood and sprinkler method ofirrigation. In coming time drip will be best method of irrigation in Darjeeling tea because ofincreasing day by day water scarcity in the hill. Unproductive four months of winter fromNovember to February is due to low temperature and not availability of water for irrigation. 3. Terai Tea plantationThis tea garden is in the foot hill of West Bengal, these gardens get heavy rains duringmonsoon. There are 59 big tea garden and many small tea growers in this region. We cantarget small grower here because these group have money and they are ready to use newtechnology.For this project i have divided tea garden into three different types depending upon theirPotential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  8. 8. behaviour towards adopting innovative technology. Small Growers Holding Less Than 4 HaConstitute 74% Of The Total Growers, Accounting For 15% Area 1. Small tea garden(1-10 hectare land holding) 2. Medium tea garden(10-100 hectare land holding) 3. Large tea garden(more than 100 hectare land holding) 4. Group tea garden(big business group )Behaviour of different grower towards drip irrigation!!!Small tea growerThey are grower with 1-10 hectare of tea plantation, they are owner and labour to theirgarden, they sell their tea leaf to other big group who has their own tea factory, they arenot financially strong to invest huge amount of money for their garden. These gardensare not our target garden now.Medium tea growerThese are the grower who take care their own garden, they are manager as well as ownerof their garden. They have money for further investment but they are highlyknowledgeable so, this group can be targeted now.Large tea growerThese tea grower have well controlled management system, owner is MD and is soledecision maker of their garden. Manager has very little role to play, these garden owner areleader in adopting innovative technology. They are financially sound.Group tea gardenThese group garden having thousands and thousands hectare of area under tea cultivation.Many groups are cash rich but all decision is made in their head quarter where there aremany members in board panel with different mind set-up. Decision maker are not awareabout Real field situation and they are dependent on manager of garden.Potential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  9. 9. Group Garden selected for survey 1. Duncan group. 2. Jayshree group. 3. Goodricke group. 4. Tata tea group. 5. Dhanshree group. 6. McLeod Russel group. 7. Apjeey tea. 8. Rossel tea. 9. Assam tea company. 10. Sona tea. e.t.cCase study of Tea in Assam • Client Name: M K Shah Exports Limited • Estate Name: Koilmari Tea Estate • Division: Joyhing • Total Garden area: 850 Ha • Drip area: 120 HaPotential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  10. 10. • Year of Completion: Jan-2012 • Location: Lakimpur, AssamResult of drip on yield of Tea Month Drip area yield(k.g/Ha) Non Drip area yield(k.g/ha) March 98 45 April 260 206 May 531 429 June-15 670.56 552.30Why drip irrigation in tea?Tea productivity is day by day decreasing due to following reason:- 1. Adverse climatic condition i.e. Erratic rain, long dry spell 2. Traditional cultural operation. i.e. Fertilizer application, irrigation 3. Decreasing fertility of soil due to soil erosion & leaching of nutrients. 4. Reduced water-holding capacity of soil due to decrease in organic matter in soil. 5. Lower cation exchange of soil. 6. Increasing soil salinity due to flood irrigation & acidification (pH down to 3.8) 7. Unavailability of labour for culture operation. 8. Loss in important soil biota (reduced up to 70%) 9. Compaction of the soil surface due to heavy irrigation. 10. High drought sensitivity of new high yield clonal tea varieties 11. Older tea bushDrip, sprinkler and flood method are the two way to irrigation in tea estate. Due to low costof sprinkler system it is the important method of irrigation in garden, in Assam about 15 % oftotal cultivable land are under sprinkler of which 99 % is under tea cultivation. Samesituation is in Dooars and Terai of West Bengal where maximum garden has sprinklerirrigation facility.Sprinkler irrigation is the most widely accepted method in tea gardens of North East India.Drip irrigation is confined to seed bed i.e. nursery. In horticultural crops flood irrigation iswidely adopted.Distribution of rainfall in North East India is highly uneven. During the period from October-Potential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  11. 11. February, rainfall is scanty and the quantity varies from 5 to 10% of the annual rainfall. Inthis period average evaporation exceeds average precipitation by 8 to 357 mm. Therefore,conservation and supplementation of soil moisture by irrigation becomes necessary duringthis period of moisture stress.Tea plantation irrigation & NutrigationIntroductionTea growing is an increasingly competitive business all over the world. Instability in teaprices and in profit margins affects growers, tea estate owners and investors. In addition, awide spectrum of concerns needs to be addressed, including; Global warming and growingthreats of drought Decreasing yields from non-irrigated tea fields High drought sensitivitynew high yield clonal tea varieties Large fluctuations in annual tea production Inefficient andoutdated irrigation system As a conclusion new tea growing strategies will have to beimplemented to address most of these concerns.The drip irrigation solutionNutrigation™ ensures optimal delivery of water and nutrients directly to the plants activeroot zone. Lower evaporation rate saves water, prevents run off, deep percolation andleaching of nutrient reserves All farm practices (plucking, mechanical harvesting, weeding,etc.) can continue uninterrupted while Nutrigation™ scheduling is optimally operated.Drought threats are eliminated. New high-yield clonal tea varieties which are more sensitiveto drought than the seedling varieties, thrive thanks to high-precision Nutrigation™. Theresult is a significant increase of the tea yield and an improvement in the annual productioncurve. Cost savings in labor due to minimal hand-on involvement in irrigation andfertilization and in the processing plant. Better economical results: Reduced costs per kgproduction of "Made Tea", improved Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return(IRR). Focusing on Tea Production and Research Drip irrigation systems for specific teaproduction environments are successfully operating in Tanzania and Kenya.Netafim is also involved in drip irrigation experiments to ascertain the most profitable waterand fertilizer levels for Asian and East African tea clones. Among the research partners arethe Tea Research Institute of Tanzania and the Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka.Drip irrigation systemsPump unit and mainline pipe, head control comprising valves, filtration and fertilizerinjection unit, sub-main pipes and valves for each irrigation block. Double row spacedlaterals with integral pressure compensated dripper featuring highest irrigation uniformity andclogging resistance. Drip irrigation system can operate in any topography, field layout, andsoil type and water quality. Optional: Remote control Nutrigation™ systemMethod of determination of Irrigation RequirementPlant water use may be measured or estimated. Direct measurement requires sophisticatedapparatus. Therefore it is usual to rely on indirect measurements like monitoring of soilPotential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  12. 12. moisture status, or on estimates based on meteorological observations. Less sophisticatedequipment like tensiometer can be used to monitor soil moisture status. However, themeteorological observations seem to be the only practical approach for large tracts under tea.The environmental factors determine the potential evapotranspiration, the plant factorsdetermine the water requirement for growth, and the soil factors determine the water holdingcapacity and moisture release characteristics. There are several models available for indirectmeasurement of evapotranspiration (ET).Estimates of Penman‟s ET based on meteorological data have been worked out for differenttea growing regions of North East India: Regions Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr South Bank 127 89 68 64 86 135 158 North Bank 128 89 66 64 87 139 153 Cachar 144 111 83 82 108 157 174 Dooars 138 100 76 75 95 150 164The irrigation requirement should also take into account the rainfall during the period ofmoisture stress. In North East India high intensity rainfall causing surface runoff occursduring monsoon. The intensity, duration and rainfall-runoff analysis during November toApril shows that almost the entire rain received during this period can be taken as effectiverainfall (ER) from irrigation point of view. Regional analysis of effective rainfall for differentreturn periods during droughty months was carried out at Tocklai from long-term rainfalldata. The difference of ET and ER for the period October to April can be considered as thetotal irrigation requirement.Estimates of irrigation requirement Regions of North East Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr India South Bank ET, mm 122 66 42 35 43 65 84 ER, mm (1 in 5 yrs) 39 2 0 5 17 18 84 Net irrigation 83 64 42 30 26 47 - requirement, mm North Bank ET, mm 117 65 37 30 42 86 144 ER, mm (1 in 5 yrs) 34 0 1 1 2 12 58 Net irrigation 83 65 36 29 40 74 86 requirement, mm Cachar ET, mm 137 83 48 38 53 97 137 ER mm (1 in 5 yrs) 68 3 0 0 2 19 117 Net irrigation 69 80 48 38 51 78 20 requirement, mmPotential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  13. 13. Dooars ET, mm 105 65 43 36 45 90 118 ER mm (1 in 5 yrs) 44 0 0 1 5 5 48 Net irrigation 61 65 43 35 40 85 70 requirement, mmIrrigation in Young TeaIn planning irrigation first priority should be given to the newly planted young tea. Amongtea areas those having coarse texture soil and in the hills especially the south facing slopesshould also get priority. Now days maximum newly planted tea is clone type which is verysensitive to drought. Assured irrigation is required during drought for proper development ofbush of tea.Mature TeaMaximum response of irrigation is generally obtained in the best sections of existing maturetea areas. For this it will be also essential to identify and remove other limiting factors. Thebest results are expected to come from irrigating unprune or early light skiffed teas. Ingeneral, depending upon rainfall received in October irrigation should commence fromNovember and continue till March/April. The first application in November can be a littlemore than the estimated field irrigation requirement followed by five more applications, eachat an interval of three weeks. In severely drought prone years, irrigation in April may benecessary but after the rainfall in April exceeds 75-125 mm, irrigation can be discontinued.As in the case of young tea, irrigation schedule should not be interrupted except after heavyrainfall exceeding 38 mm and then for not longer than 2-3 days. The quality of the water usedfor irrigation should be checked prior to use.Reasons for slow growth of area under drip irrigation 1. High capital cost required for the system 2. Subsidy is not available for tea and rubber which is main commercial crop of this area. 3. Result of drip in tea will be different from south India or other tea growing area of world because tea productivity depends on combination of all factors like climate and cultural practice. In north east India from month of November to February there is cold climate in this period tea plant go under dormant stage so, even drip can‟t induce leaf production but drip will help in inducing early leaf production with full potential 4. Benefit-cost ratio has not been adequately demonstrated to farmers. 5. Poor awareness about the importance of drip irrigation. 6. After sale service is not satisfactory. 7. Free electricity and low price of canal water. 8. Fear about system clogging among the farmers. 9. Promotional schemes are not available in many states. 10. Poor extension and training facilities to farmers.Potential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  14. 14. Recommendation!!! 1. It is understood from our field study that capital cost required to install drip irrigation is relatively high. Because of this reason, considerable percentage of farmers have expressed that they are unable to adopt this technology. If drip system is made available with low cost, area under drip irrigation can be increased at a faster rate. Example drip line in alternate row reduces cost upto 45 % in tea. 2. Drip in tea is very complex method because of much undulated topography of tea estate and very old age tea bush. So, people should be trained specially for making design of tea garden for drip. 3. Farmers have inadequate knowledge regarding the usefulness of liquid fertilisers. Though a few farmers in our field study have used liquid fertilisers along with water, most of the farmers are afraid to use liquid fertilisers through drip pipe network. 4. First manual drip irrigation should be installed then automation should be done because people are not able to understand the properly how system operate and they do mistake. Example Koilamari Tea Estate. 5. Drip in tea is very new concept in North East so; promoting drip irrigation by introducing frequent demonstration will develop confidence among the farmers about the usefulness of this new technology. 6. A special package scheme can be introduced. Some time people ask for finding best possible water source from available water source. Example Samsing Tea Estate. 7. Netafim should tie-up with TRA and other organisation doing research in tea because maximum Tea grower believes in the research work done by them. 8. Detailed research work should be done in drip on tea so, that we will be able to give various question answer by potential customer. What will be the payback period? Whether investment will be viable? How much will be the water saving? And what will be the productivity gains?Tea Statistic of North-East IndiaProductivityIn general, the productivity in North is less than in South. It is primarily due to thecomparatively coarser standard of plucking resorted to in South India. It is reflected in thequality and price realisation factors also. The overall productivity has remained almost staticduring the last three yearsProductivity kg/hectare:-Potential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  15. 15. State 2000 2001 2002Assam 1,688 1,675 1,611West Bengal 1,648 1,732 1,726Tripura 971 952 896Total North India 1,629 1,643 1,596Tamil Nadu 1,745 1,741 1,709Kerala 1,887 1,796 1,630Karnataka 2,596 2,577 2,358Total South India 1,807 1,774 1,696Total All India 1,669 1,672 1,618Compares ion of no of garden, area, production and average yield of Assam to India Year No. of Tea Area under Tea Total Tea Average yield Gardens (in 000 hectare) Production (kg / hectare) (in 000 kg.) Assam India Assam India Assam India Assam India 2001 40795 116659 269 510 453587 853923 1685 1675 2002 43272 127801 271 516 433327 838474 1601 1625 2003 43293 129027 272 520 434759 878129 1601 1690 2004 43293 129027 272 521 435649 892965 1603 1713 2005 49102 140712 301 556 487487 945974 1622 1703 2006 NA NA 312 567 502041 981805 1610 1732 2007 NA NA 321 578 511885 986427 1593 1705Source: Economic Survey Assam 2009-10District wise Area under Tea in Assam:(Figures in hectares) District 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007Darrang 41037 41367 41693 41158 41300 41388 41677 41710Goalpara 3460 3471 3523 3635 3643 4215 4451 4451Kamrup 3442 3436 3454 3466 3460 3787 3782 3953Lakhimpur 4815 4763 4793 4839 4873 6301 6724 6756Dibrugarh 93076 93484 93698 95118 95118 114435 120489 122514Nowgong 7994 8004 8041 8114 8135 8605 8709 8758Sibsagar 74807 76113 76762 77135 77135 83971 88008 94611Cachar 32008 32703 32775 32137 32149 31894 31805 32312Karbi 1869 1748 1873 1923 1923 1885 2201 2185AnlongNorth 4004 4065 4071 4064 4032 4021 3976 4069CacharTotal 266512 269154 270683 271589 271768 300502 311822 321319AssamPotential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  16. 16. Source: Tea Board, GuwahatiDistrict-wise Average Yield Rate of Tea:(Figures in Kg/Hectares) District 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007Darrang 1877 1891 1817 1951 1949 1988 2001 2037Goalpara 1820 1826 1712 1688 1555 1251 1421 1538Kamrup 1250 1335 1284 1250 1244 1062 984 1007Lakhimpur 1883 1905 1894 1757 1699 1331 1337 1357Dibrugarh 1756 1787 1697 1843 1875 1847 1858 1839Nowgaon 1475 1479 1455 1428 1350 1374 1233 1419Sibsagarh 1604 1572 1501 1305 1325 1350 1332 1254Cachar 1537 1523 1390 1289 1206 1406 1315 1366Karbi 1041 1113 1167 1055 1046 882 764 768AnglongNorth 1543 1258 1066 1092 1149 1098 1065 1164CacharTotal 1686 1685 1601 1601 1603 1622 1610 1593AssamSource: Tea Board, GuwahatiMonth-wise Production of Tea in Assam, (2007-2008 and 2008-2009): (in Tonne) Month 2007-2008 2008-2009April 33929 37711May 49278 30852June 50530 55666July 61908 71969August 52167 77555September 85999 56991October 67544 74139November 53843 38643December 19073 17976January 4961 5919February 1714 112March 4738 16448 Total 485684 483981Source : Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Govt. of Assam.Rubber cultivation in North-EastTripuraIndia ranks third in terms of production of Natural Rubber in the World after Thailand andMalayasia. Kerala is the largest and Tripura is the second largest producer of natural rubberin the country. In Tripura rubber plants (Hevea brasiliensis) were introduced for soil andmoisture conservation by Forest Department in 1963. Rubber is a tropical crop and growsPotential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  17. 17. well in Tripura. The species has proved excellent for permanent settlement of tribal jhumias.Till 2009-10, about 11,622.37 hectors area is brought under by the State agencies and 39,66982 hectors by the Rubber Board of India and therefore, totalling to 51,292.19 hectors area isactually brought under the rubber plantation The total production of rubber in the State is26,191 MT in 2009-10.Year wise extension in area of rubber plantation in Tripura till during 1976-77 to 2009-10: Year Area (in Ha.) 1976-1977 574 1981-1982 3,590 1986-1987 10,085 1991-1992 17,860 1996-1997 23,936 2001-2002 30,575 2006-2007 35,760 2007-2008 39,670 2008-2009 46,588 2009-2010 51,292.19Source: Economic Survey of Tripura 2009-10The study conducted by the National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, as a partof exploratory study for the World Bank Assistance revealed that approximately 1 lakhhectares of land is suitable for rubber plantation in the State. This offers tremendousscope drip irrigation in rubber. Apex Bodies of Industries and Commerce like CII etc. havealso realized the importance and the potential of rubber cultivation in the State. It is alsoproposed to engage an external agency to study the feasibility to extend rubber cultivation inan are not exceeding 10 percent of the total geographical area of the State.Oil PalmOil palm is cultivated in about more than 1000 hectare in Mizoram and 120 hectare inTripura. There is drip irrigation project of govt from few years, this year there is tender of 2crore for drip in oil palm this year in future also there will be many tender for drip. Manyprivate companies also started large scale cultivation of oil palm in Mizoram and Tripura.There will be huge potential of drip irrigation in coming days in oil palm nursery and oilpalm plantation.Water Requirements in oil palmOil palm requires adequate irrigation, as it is a fast growing crop with high productivity andbiomass production. Annual water requirement is in the range of 1300mmMature plantations,during peak summer, the daily requirement may go up to 300-350 liters/tree.Yield related irrigation management.Potential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  18. 18. The climate changes around the globe causing longer periods of time without rain. Althoughoil palm is growing naturally in tropical climate productivity is affected. Oil palm yieldpotential is reduced when trees are exposed to stressful conditions. Low moisture is the mostcommon stressful condition oil palm faces. The most critical periods for oil palm are 24months, 18 months, and 6 months prior to maturation of the fruit bunches. 24 months beforefruit maturity is when sex selection of the flowers occurs. If oil palm trees are subjected tostress at this critical time, a higher proportion of the flowers become male flowers, which donot become fruit. 18 months before fruit maturity is the time of floral abortion.If oil palm trees are subjected to stress at this critical time, fewer flowers develop so a smallernumber of fruit is produced. 6 months before fruit maturity is the time of pollination. If oilpalm is subjected to stress at this critical time, less pollination occurs and a smaller number offruit is produced Potential benefit of irrigationHorticultural cropIn North-Eastern state horticultural crop is the main crop. The total area under horticulturalcrops is around 822.5 thousand hectare which is around 3.14% of the total geographical areaof the region (Agril Research Data Book, ICAR-2002) and it gives total production of 6818.4thousand tonnes. The region is characterized by difficult terrain, wide variability in slope andaltitude, land tenure system and cultivation practices. The diverse agroclimatic conditions,varied soil type and abundance of rainfall offer immense scope for cultivation of differenttypes of horticultural crops, including fruits, vegetables, flowers, plantation crops, tuber andrhizomatous crops and crops of medicinal and other economic values. But due to high slopewater runoff from the field is very high; water available for plant is very less. So, dripirrigation will be the important method of irrigation in coming future because of unevendistribution of rain. Fruits grown in this region range from tropical and sub-tropical fruitslike banana, papaya, pineapple and citrus to temperate fruits like apple, pear, peach,plum and even certain nut fruits. The region has rich diversity of different vegetable cropsand both indigenous tropical vegetables and temperate vegetables are grown to a considerableextent. The major vegetables grown in the regions are brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower,okra, onion, pea, potato, tomato, knol-khol, radish, carrot, French bean and differentcucurbitaceous crops.Note: - potential horticultural crop for drip will be citrus, banana, kiwi, pineapple.Crop wise area and production of fruit crops in NE region Crop NE states India Area Production Productivity Area Production Productivity (,000 (,000 tonnes) (t/ha) (,000 (t/ha) ha) ha) (,000 tonnes) Pineapple 47.4 519.8 11.0 74.2 1006 13.6 Papaya 11.4 133.9 11.8 67.7 1582 23.4 Mango 3.7 21.8 5.9 1402.0 9782 7.0 Litchi 9.9 46.5 4.7 56.2 428.9 7.6 Guava 6.4 59.7 9.3 151.3 1801.0 11.9Potential Of Drip Irrigation In North East India
  19. 19. Citrus 57.2 300.7 5.3 488.1 4575.0 9.4 Banana 60.6 744.6 12.3 464.3 15073.0 32.5 Apple 6.7 16.3 2.4 231.4 1380.0 6.0 Other 45.7 434.9 9.5 699.0 6664.0 9.5Source: Agril. Research Data Book ICARReferences  Darjeeling tea, India,by,Tarit Kumar Datta (Indian Institute of Management Calcutta)  Efficiency of irrigation: a case of drip irrigation by:- A. Narayanamoorthy (nbard)  The influence of climatic factor on the yield of tea in Assam valley By:- A. R. Sen, A. K. Biswas.  Socio-economic-techno-environmental assessment of IDEI products By: Teri  Micro Irrigation Guideline  The Tea Industry In India :A Survey By:- Dr. K.G. Karmakar (Executive Director), Nabard, Mumbai  Potential For Drip And Sprinkler Irrigation In India Abstract By:-A. Narayanamoorthy              Of Drip Irrigation In North East India