Shelley's slideshow presentation


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Shelley's slideshow presentation

  1. 1. Teaching English in Japan Two Contexts
  2. 2. Teaching in a Japanese Senior High School <ul><li>A large number of students </li></ul><ul><li>in each class. </li></ul><ul><li>Small rural area. </li></ul><ul><li>Students have limited exposure </li></ul><ul><li>to English. </li></ul><ul><li>English is not used outside the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally classes are teacher centred. Grammar translation method in use. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Language and Power issues <ul><li>Some negative views among students, towards learning English. Lack of motivation. Feeling that English is forced upon them. </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge of making lessons more motivating and communicative. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivating and Empowering Learners <ul><li>Take an interest in the language and </li></ul><ul><li>culture of the learners. This shows the </li></ul><ul><li>learners that you too are making an effort to </li></ul><ul><li>learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform learners about the places where </li></ul><ul><li>English is spoken. Expose learners to a </li></ul><ul><li>variety of English language. ( Students making pavlova) </li></ul><ul><li>“… learning about several countries from each circle will help them understand the wide diversity and variation that exist among English speaking countries today.” Matsuda (2006, p.162). </li></ul><ul><li>“… learners’ own culture can be and perhaps should be used as part of the cultural content of the EIL course.” Matsuda (2006, p.162). </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Incorporate both traditional and communicative teaching methods into the lessons. Find a good balance. </li></ul><ul><li>“… some accommodation needs to be reached between what the two parties want and expect. It means, perhaps, initiating gradual rather than immediate change. If students are not used to giving instant opinions in class, for example, teachers can introduce the procedure gradually.” Harmer (2001, p.95). </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide learners with opportunities to use English inside and outside the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Help students to set achievable goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow learners to make decisions about lessons. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Awareness of Loan Words <ul><li>If learners are aware that English has borrowed words from Japanese and vice versa. This may stimulate their interest in language learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of English use in Japanese: ‘pen’, ‘hotto chokoretto’ (hot chocolate), ‘basukettobouru’ (basketball). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Japanese use in English: ‘karate’, ‘karaoke’, ‘tsunami’. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Teaching Adults at a Local Community Centre <ul><li>Learners older than teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Different reasons for learning English. For example, work, travel. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning English by choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive views towards </li></ul><ul><li>English. </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Open to different teaching methods. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Power in the Classroom <ul><li>Good power balance between teacher </li></ul><ul><li>and learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners very clear on their goals and what they want from the lessons. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Maintaining the Balance <ul><li>Explore language </li></ul><ul><li>together. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage interdependence. </li></ul><ul><li> “… interdependence: the </li></ul><ul><li>ability of learners to work </li></ul><ul><li>together for mutual benefit, </li></ul><ul><li>and to take shared </li></ul><ul><li>responsibility for their </li></ul><ul><li>learning.” </li></ul><ul><li>Palfreyman (2003, p.4). </li></ul><ul><li>Expose learners to a variety of English. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a variety of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve learners in the planning of lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise. Be flexible and open minded. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Context is Important <ul><li>When teaching English as a Foreign language, culture needs to be considered, not only the culture of the nation but also of the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Even in the same country, the age and motivations, as well as the attitudes of learners will affect teaching methods. Power issues will also differ. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Many researchers seem to agree that both curriculum and methodology should only be determined after consideration of local conditions.” Tomlinson (2005, p.138). </li></ul><ul><li>“… EFL teachers, wherever they are, should teach in ways that suit their beliefs and personality while being sensitive to the needs and wants of their learners and to the prevailing norms of the cultures in which they are teaching.” Tomlinson (2005, p.150). </li></ul>
  11. 11. References <ul><li>Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English language teaching. 3 rd edition: Harlow, Essex: Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Matsuda. A. (2006). Negotiating assumptions in EIL classrooms. In J. Edge (Ed.), Re-locating TESOL in an age of empire. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillian. </li></ul><ul><li>Palfreyman, D. (2003). Learner autonomy across cultures. Houdmills, Basingstoke, Hamps., UK: Palgrave Macmillian. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomlinson, B. (2005). English as a foreign language: Matching procedures to the context of learning. In E. HInkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. </li></ul>