Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Predicates, the direct object & indirect object


Published on

Published in: Education
  • can i have this slide?
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Predicates, the direct object & indirect object

  1. 1. Predicates, the Direct Object, and Indirect Object By: Abegail S. Comandao CLAS
  2. 2. Objectives: <ul><li>To distinguish the different forms of the predicate. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify and use the direct object. </li></ul><ul><li>To familiarize students with the indirect object. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Predicates <ul><li>Compound Predicate </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Predicate </li></ul><ul><li>Predicate Adjective </li></ul><ul><li>Predicate Nominative </li></ul>
  4. 4. Predicate <ul><li>predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies). </li></ul><ul><li>must contain a verb, and the verb requires, permits, or precludes other sentence elements to complete the predicate. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Predicate <ul><li>These elements are: objects (direct, indirect, prepositional), predicatives (a.k.a. predicate complements: subject complements and object complements) and adverbials. </li></ul>
  6. 6. In the following examples, the predicate is underlined. <ul><li>She dances . (verb only predicate) </li></ul><ul><li>John reads the book . (direct object) </li></ul><ul><li>John's mother, Felicity, gave me a present . (indirect object without a preposition) </li></ul><ul><li>She listened to the radio . (prepositional object) </li></ul><ul><li>They elected him president . (predicative /object complement) </li></ul><ul><li>She met him in the park . (adverbial) </li></ul><ul><li>She is in the park . (obligatory adverbial / adverbial complement) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Compound Predicate <ul><li>is a predicate with two or more verbs joined by the word and or another conjunction. Compound predicates share the same subject. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Example: <ul><li>Jan jumped on her bike. Jan rode around the block. </li></ul><ul><li>Jan jumped on her bike and rode around the block. </li></ul><ul><li>The compound predicate is 'jumped on her bike and rode around the block.' The subject in both the sentences is Jan. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Complete Predicate <ul><li>The part that tells what is said about the subject is the complete  predicate . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>Edith and Mike are watching the storm from the window . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Predicate Adjective <ul><li>A predicate adjective (also called a subject complement) modifies the subject like other descriptive adjectives, but it must follow a linking verb in a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>These verbs are linking verbs only if they are followed by adjectives, nouns, or pronouns that rename the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>This cake is GOOD. (good cake) </li></ul><ul><li>Her hair looks so SHINY. (shiny hair) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Predicate Adjective <ul><li>Linking Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>is, become, seen, grow, turn, prove, look, feel, sound, smell, taste, appear, remain, keep and stay. </li></ul><ul><li>1. *Sarah looks OLDER with makeup. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The *children remained CALM. </li></ul><ul><li>3. *You are UNREASONABLE. </li></ul><ul><li>4. *You are PATIENT today. </li></ul><ul><li>5. *Babette grew TIRED of waiting. </li></ul><ul><li>6. *I grew WEARY from the complaints. </li></ul><ul><li>7. *Robert seems CHEERFUL today. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The *gumbo tasted GREAT. </li></ul><ul><li>9. That *idea sounds WONDERFUL. </li></ul><ul><li>10. The *roses smelled FRAGRANT. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Predicate Nominative <ul><li>A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun which follows the verb and describes or renames the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>It is another way of naming the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>It follows a linking verb. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Predicate Nominative <ul><li>Defines the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>John is a plumber . Mike is a vet . Richard is a teacher . Cas is a Canadian . </li></ul><ul><li>The predicate nominative cannot change places with the subject. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Direct Object <ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul>
  15. 15. Direct Object
  16. 18. T he direct object is identifiable by its formal and functional properties: form, position, pronouns, and voice. <ul><li>Form . The direct object usually has the form of a noun phrase or clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cat chased the mouse (DO). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I know that she will be here soon (DO). </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Position <ul><li>Direct objects usually occur after the subject and verb, as in the examples above. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Pronouns <ul><li>If the subject and the object of a clause refer to the same entity, then the object will be in the form of a reflexive pronoun. The reflexive pronoun will agree with the subject in number, person, and gender, where relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. You (S) should see yourself (DO). </li></ul><ul><li>We (S) rewarded ourselves (DO) with a treat. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>All other pronouns assuming object function will take the objective form. </li></ul><ul><li>I like her (DO). </li></ul><ul><li>She likes me (DO). </li></ul>
  20. 23. Voice <ul><li>There is also a systematic relationship between the object of an active voice clause and the subject of a passive voice clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The object of the active voice clause corresponds to the subject in the passive voice equivalent. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Emily likes Liz (DO). [active voice] </li></ul><ul><li>Liz (S) is liked by Emily [passive voice] </li></ul>
  21. 24. Indirect Object <ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul>
  22. 25. Indirect Objects <ul><li>are words, phrases, and clauses that follow a ditransitive verb and indicate to or for whom or what the action of the verb is performed. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences with indirect objects must also have direct objects. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Four grammatical forms can perform the grammatical function of indirect object in the English language. <ul><li>Both native speakers and ESL students must learn </li></ul><ul><li>and understand the four grammatical forms that </li></ul><ul><li>can function as the indirect object in order to </li></ul><ul><li>use indirect objects correctly in spoken and written </li></ul><ul><li>English. </li></ul><ul><li>The four grammatical forms that can function </li></ul><ul><li>as the indirect object are: </li></ul><ul><li>Noun phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Verb phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Noun clauses </li></ul>
  24. 27. Noun Phrases as Indirect Objects <ul><li>The first grammatical form that can perform the grammatical function of indirect object is the noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Noun phrases are defined as phrases formed by a noun or pronoun and any modifying words, phrases, and clauses including adjectives, prepositions, and verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. The woman gave the cat a bath. </li></ul><ul><li>My husband bought me flowers. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Prepositional Phrases as Indirect Objects <ul><li>The second grammatical form that can perform the grammatical function of indirect object is the prepositional phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrases are defined as phrases formed by a preposition directly followed by a prepositional complement such as a noun phrase. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Examples: <ul><li>My mom gave under the bed a good scrubbing. </li></ul><ul><li>He has given behind the house some thought. </li></ul><ul><li>The contractor will give in the garage some consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to give above the refrigerator a cleaning. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Verb Phrases as Indirect Objects <ul><li>The third grammatical form that can perform the grammatical function of indirect object is the verb phrase in the form of present participles. </li></ul><ul><li>Verb phrases are defined as phrases formed by a verb plus any modifiers, complements, particles, or infinitive markers. </li></ul>
  28. 31. Examples: <ul><li>The child gave reading the book some consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>I had given preparing dinner some thought. </li></ul><ul><li>You should give showering daily a try. </li></ul><ul><li>My grandmother is giving returning to college serious consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional grammars usually use the term gerund for present participles functioning as indirect objects. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Noun Clauses as Indirect Objects <ul><li>The fourth grammatical form that can perform the grammatical function of indirect object is the noun clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Noun clauses are defined as subordinate clauses formed by an independent clause preceded by a subordinating conjunction. </li></ul><ul><li>A clause is defined as consisting of a subject and a predicate. </li></ul>
  30. 33. For example, the following italicized noun clauses function as indirect objects: <ul><li>My parents gave that I want to go to the party some thought. </li></ul><ul><li>I gave that you wanted me to prepare dinner a little consideration </li></ul><ul><li>You should have given what your parents said both thought and consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher gave that all his students failed the test some serious reflection. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Predicates, the Direct Object, and Indirect Object By: Abegail S. Comandao CLAS