A presentation is a formal way of
information and ideas to an audience
which can be adapted to various speaking
situations, such as talking to a group,
addressing a meeting or briefing a team.
A presentation is a bunch of information
that you've put into a form that you are
• It involves more than just transmitting
information orally but to communicate
your points within a clear and logical
structure. In this respect, an oral
presentation is like a good piece of
Good oral presentation skills involve;
• not only what you say,
• but also how you say it
• and what you are doing when you say it.
• What do you think are the skills that good
presenters share (based on your personal
experience as a listener).
• Think of a good lecture or talk that you
have attended and consider how the
presentation was given. What techniques
did the speaker use to convey his or her
Some common practices
• Clear slides with key words and figures in
large, readable print.
• The presenter didn't speak too fast or too
slow, and used varied expression.
• The speaker communicated with the
audience in a friendly way.
• They were enthusiastic about the topic
and wanted to communicate it to us.
• It was planned but delivered naturally,
and not read.
Main parts/elements of a
What do you intend to do?
How do you intend to do it?
Here; Make sure you
• welcome your audience.
• Introduce your subject.
• Outline the structure of your
• Give instructions about questions.
• Should be well structured
• Divided up logically
• Relevant and carefully spaced visuals.
• Sum up
(give recommendations if appropriate)
• Thank your audience
• Invite questions
Presentation of a presentation
“A survey of more than 2,500 Americans
revealed that people feared public speaking
before a group more than death. Amazing
as it may seem, many Americans appear to
consider public speaking a fate worse than
death.” - Stephen E. Lucas, The Art of
• Mention the challenges and fear that you
might have experienced during any
presentation that you have delivered.
• How have
• I've planned my oral presentation for next
week but I don't know to remember it
• I just want to finish it as quickly as
• I always feel awkward when I give a
• I can't sit still and I tend to fidget a lot…
• It makes me nervous being the centre of
attention - I never know where to look…
• How do I make sure I that talk for the
right length of time?
These include, for example;
use of notes (not a complete written
text), use of voice, body language and
eye contact to convey your message,
and visual aids (these help reinforce
and illustrate the points you want to
• Remember your audience and make it
easy for them to follow your talk
• Make sure you slow down for key pieces
of information so that your audience has
time to understand what you are saying.
• Format notes with bullet points and
important words highlighted (so they’re
easy to reference as you speak).
• Check the pronunciation of words you
• Use visuals (pictures, graphs, tables,
props) whenever you can.
• Explain the meaning of difficult or
• Pause and give the audience time to
understand complex information.
• Before you do anything, make sure you
• One point per slide
• Use signposting language
• A word or phrase used in speech or
writing to highlight part of the text for the
reader or audience; e.g. to introduce the
different stages of a talk or lecture e.g.- to
sum up, let's now consider; to clarify the
writer's argument in writing - with regard
to..., in conclusion.
Functions of signposting
• To introduce the main topic of the talk;
• lead into the next point that the presenter
• introduce a detail which is interesting but
not essential to the main topic;
• return to the main topic,
• and conclude or sum up the presentation.
• Identify the signposting language in the
Dealing with Questions
and be sure you understand the
•Include all the audience when answering
•Answer briefly, making sure questionner is
satisfied with response
–If you don’t know the answer say you
will find out
Appear confident and knowledgeable
Speak slowly and clearly
Maintain good eye contact
Stand up straight
Use natural hand motions for emphasis
Be prepared for Q&A
Relax and smile
• Let your nervousness distract the
• Speak too quickly
• Read directly from a script
• Slouch, tap your hands or feet, twirl your
hair, or adjust your clothes
• Chew gum, eat, or drink
• Repeat stalling words like: um, er, uh,
basically, you know, and like
• Forget to proof read your visuals
e.g. Too fast, too slow
Tone: e.g. is it frightening, scary, friendly
too bossy etc.
Volume: Loudness of the sound. One
should be heard without shouting.
• Body language
People not only listen to you, they also
Posture; e.g. Straight, slouching, odd.
Eye contact; convey concern, confidence,
Facial expressions; e.g. smiling shows
Gestures; Lack of appropriate gestures
may convey yourself as boring and stiff.
Effective power point presentation
• Big (not small but big enough to be seen
by the person sitting at the far end)
• Simple (avoid too many colours, fonts
• Clear (All capital letters vs upper and
lower case, Italics vs normal or bold
fonts, light on dark vs dark on light.
• Be consistent (e.g. slide transition)
Planning, Preparation and
• How much time do you have? (length of pre..)
• What is the purpose of the presentation?
• What is the target audience? How much are they
likely to know?
• What does the audience already know about the
• Are you expected to invite or take questions
from the audience?
• Anticipate types of questions
• What equipment will be available?
• Make sure you research and know your
• Use the relevant amount of data for your
presentation but don’t overload with facts
• Devise an outline plan for the
• Do a test run in front of a mirror
• Demonstrate your presentation in front of
• Videotape it
• Don’t forget to:
–Use your notecards!
Factors influencing effective
• Background noise or other distractions,
• an overly warm or cool room,
• or the time of day
• and state of audience alertness
Outline plan for presentation
• 15 minute presentation: Why should we
give you the job?
• Tell them what you are going to tell them:
Introduction (1 minute)
• Tell them: Demonstrate that you
understand the company, their business
and the current market (4 minutes)
• Show that you know what the company is
looking for (2 minutes)
• Demonstrate how you meet their criteria
• Tell them you have told them: Summarise
your main points (1 minute)
• Planning and preparation are key
• Ensure you know your topic thoroughly
• Engage your audience with good eye
contact and body language
• Speak clearly and at a pace that can be
• Practice with friends and family
• Ensure you stick to the time limit
• Don’t let your visual aids (e.g.
PowerPoint) dominate or detract from
what you are saying!
• Do not hurry
• Be enthusiastic
• Allow time for visuals to be effective
Modulate your voice
Keep to your structure
Use your notes
Be neat and well-dressed
• Ideas are ordered logically and clearly
• Signposts are used appropriately
• It is not significantly over or under the
• I have made key word and phrase notes to
• I have written my notes on cue cards (1
card per main point)
• I talk at an appropriate speed (not too fast
and not too slowly)
• I have tried to vary my intonation (it is
not too flat)
• I use my voice to stress key words and
• I pause between the different stages of
• I stand up straight and face my listeners
• I use appropriate body language to
express my ideas
• I maintain eye contact with my listeners
• I have listened to my recording or asked
for someone else's feedback on my talk
• I have rehearsed my talk sufficiently
• I have identified the topic clearly at the
• The main points of the article were
• I explained the meaning of any difficult
or technical words
• It could have been improved further
Some occasions of Presentation
• An organization presents the need for a
capital fund-raising campaign to benefit
the victims of a recent tragedy;
• A school district superintendent presents
a program to parents about the
instruction in the elementary schools;
• An artist demonstrates decorative
painting techniques to a group of interior
• A horticulturist shows garden club
members or homeowners how they might
use native plants in the suburban land.
• A police officer addresses a neighborhood
association about initiating a safety
Each student will deliver a presentation to
a specified audience within a specified
timeframe – anything within 10 minutes