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SMART ROAD IN
FUTURE
By
Abdul Tayyeb Shabbir
Submitted To
Engr.Muhammad Umer Khan
(Asst.Prof.IBT)
A thesis
Submitted in pa...
Smart road in future
2
About
My name is Abdul Tayyeb Shabbir doing Bachelor of Science BS (Information Technology)
from In...
Smart road in future
3
Acknowledgement
First of all I would like thanks to Almighty Allah who helped and blessed me to com...
Smart road in future
4
Abstract
The study examined the concepts and merits of “smart road in future” are that we shall
uti...
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5
Table of Contents
S.NO. DESCRIPTION PAGE
NO
1. About………………………………………………………… 1
2. Acknowledgements.……...
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6
8. Chapter 3: Research Methods…………………………………..
3.1 Method of Data Collection…………………………………
3.2 Sampli...
7
S.No. TABLE(S) Page
Number
1. 1.1 Level of Headings 2
2. 2.1 Basic Citations Styles 4
3. 1.3.5 System Improvement 12
Smart road in future
8
S.No. FIGURE(S) Page
Number
1 1.3.1 Traffic Congestion 11
2 1.4.1 Lane divider concept 13
3 1.4.5 I...
Smart road in future
9
Chapter 1: Introduction
The study examines smart road in future is that when we look at highways an...
Smart road in future
10
The objective of this study is that we can use maximum technology to make road smart the
following...
Smart road in future
11
like freezing, hydroplaning, fallen objects and to warn drivers about them. Also, they develop
lan...
Smart road in future
12
1.3.3 Energy usability
Innowattech is the company which is use to work on road management accordin...
Smart road in future
13
The related costs — including medical expenses, wage and productivity losses and property
damage —...
Smart road in future
14
1.4.2 Smart energy converter by the usage of Photovoltaic pavement and piezoelectric
generators to...
Smart road in future
15
unimagined control over how we use our roads. This article will discuss some of the potential
feat...
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16
from pressure. It is derived from the Greek piezō or piezein which means to squeeze or press,
and ...
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17
1.6.6 Ecofriendly
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-frien...
Smart road in future
18
which also encompasses technologies such as smart grids, smart homes, intelligent
transportation a...
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Chapter 2: Literature Review
The roads that we have now and the role and function we assign to the...
Smart road in future
20
The highways of the future won’t be fully functional without the ability to interact with vehicles...
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21
being made to build road systems that incorporate IoT networks and data gathering tools to
create ...
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Smart Roads and Weather
When we discuss utilizing the Internet of Things in future roads, we aren’...
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23
One of the key areas that differentiates the deployment of smartweather professional weather
stati...
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24
Future highways and bridges incorporate the “Internet of Things,” including using advanced
sensors...
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25
term measurement campaign along a road stretch in Trentino, Italy, where the problem of deer
road-...
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Authors
Tomasz Kosilo
Institute of Radioelectronics; Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska ...
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College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture Department of Electrical Engineering, Umm Al-
Qura...
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throughout the length of the roads. In this paper, the drawback can be overcome by make use
of VAW...
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Published in: Optoelectronics and Image Processing (ICOIP), 2010 International Conference on
Date ...
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This paper considers the vehicle positioning problem of an automobile on-board navigation
system w...
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Authors
Ramagiri Rushikesh
Department of ECE, JNTUA College of Engineering, Pulivendula, Kadapa, A...
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32
Date of Conference: 18-19 May 2012
Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 04 October 2012
Authors
Sikder Sunbe...
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This work is aimed to describe a cognitive traffic management system (CTMS) based on the
Internet ...
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Chapter 3: Research Methods
This section focuses on three important human factors and their relati...
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3.2 Sampling Technique
3.2.1 Human processing capabilities
This section focusses on three importan...
Smart road in future
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Following the information presented, engineers should design smart road technologies in such a
way...
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options out of which a choice is to be made, engineers come up with a result that adequately
repre...
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3.3.1 A driver’s workload and the trade-offs of smart road
technologies
In choosing a solution tha...
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disciplines has its own theories, its own models of interdependencies, its own criteria of
assessm...
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Because of their luminescent properties, glowing lines have the ability to be properly visible
wit...
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last, drivers experience a greater externality when using automated systems rather than being
subj...
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Smart road in future

  1. 1. SMART ROAD IN FUTURE By Abdul Tayyeb Shabbir Submitted To Engr.Muhammad Umer Khan (Asst.Prof.IBT) A thesis Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration to Office of Research, Innovation & Commercialization (ORIC), Institute of Business & Technology, Karachi Karachi, Pakistan JANUARY, 2017
  2. 2. Smart road in future 2 About My name is Abdul Tayyeb Shabbir doing Bachelor of Science BS (Information Technology) from Institute of Business and Technology, working as a programmer as a freelancer, developed management based projects. Best skills in programming, habit of reading and writing code to develop useful applications.
  3. 3. Smart road in future 3 Acknowledgement First of all I would like thanks to Almighty Allah who helped and blessed me to complete my research. This research was supported by” Institute of Business And Technology”. I’ll thank our Instructor” Engr. Mohammad Umer Khan” (Asst. Prof. IBT) who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research, although they may not agree with all of the interpretations of methodology and conclusions of this paper. I’ll thank my brother “Engr. Huzaifa Shabbir” student of PhD Computation Physics from University of Vienna, Austria for assistance with particular technique, methodology and deciding the topic of research. For comments that greatly improved the manuscript. I would also like to show my gratitude to the Munira Ibrahim, Sakina Huzaifa, Yousuf Fakhruddin and Ibrahim Burhanuddin for sharing their pearls of wisdom with me during the course of this research, and I would thank 3 “anonymous” reviewers for their so-called insights. We are also immensely grateful to (List names and positions) for their comments on an earlier version of the manuscript, although any errors are our own and should not tarnish the reputations of these esteemed persons.
  4. 4. Smart road in future 4 Abstract The study examined the concepts and merits of “smart road in future” are that we shall utilize every single resource to become road smart. The concept of smart road is the fusion of technology it includes Information Technology (IT), Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) include sensor base and detecting system, Health Monitoring System to caution accident in the road, Electronic Digital Media to transfer information to road user, Smart energy converter such as photovoltaic pavements to build road which convert solar energy to electrical, radioactive elements for road marking which display in night, road divider concept which increase the road usability, water proof roads for those area where monsoon season is present whole year, use of Global Positioning System(GPS) to allocate road driver where they are currently and where there go through Digital boards and Liquid Electronic Display LED, use of Internet of Things (IoT) technology to build road smart, wireless vehicle charging, use of friction to produce energy and frost protection and melting snow if we use these technology to build road we can minimize all the problems related economy, energy, time saving and health and road become smart.
  5. 5. Smart road in future 5 Table of Contents S.NO. DESCRIPTION PAGE NO 1. About………………………………………………………… 1 2. Acknowledgements.……………………………………………. 2 3. Abstract…………………………………………………………. 3 4. List of Tables…………………………………………………… 5 5. List of Figures.…………………………………………………. 6 6. Chapter 1: Introduction………………………………………… 1.1 Objective…….………………………….......................... 1.2 Overview………………………………………………….. 1.2.1 Structure of Smart Road…………………………… 1.3 Problem statement……………………………………….. 1.3.1Traffic congestion……………………………………. 1.3.2 Road material……………………………………….. 1.3.3 Energy usability……………………………………... 1.3.4 Road lightening……………………………………… 1.3.5 System improvement……………………………….. 1.4 Hypothesis……………………………………………..….. 1.4.1…………………………………………………………. 1.4.2…………………………………………………………. 1.4.3…………………………………………………………. 1.4.4…………………………………………………………. 1.4.5…………………………………………………………. 1.4.6…………………………………………………………. 1.4.7…………………………………………………………. 1.4.8…………………………………………………………. 1.5 Outline of the Study………………………………………. 1.6 Definitions…..……………………………………………... 1.6.1 Intelligent transportation systems (ITS)…………… 1.6.2 Photovoltaic pavements…………………………….. 1.6.3 Piezoelectric………………………………………….. 1.6.4 Structural Health monitoring………………………... 1.6.5 Dynamic Paints……………………………………..... 1.6.6 Ecofriendly……………………………………………. 1.6.7 Frost protection System……………………………... 1.6.8 Internet of Things…………………………………….. 1.6.9 Electronic billboards…………………………………. 7-18 7 8 9 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 7. Chapter 2: Literature Review…………………………………… (Note: Hypothesis(es) of the study should be developed and formulated after the extensive literature review in the Chapter 2) 19-33
  6. 6. Smart road in future 6 8. Chapter 3: Research Methods………………………………….. 3.1 Method of Data Collection………………………………… 3.2 Sampling Technique……………………………………….. 3.2.1 Human processing capabilities……………………….. 3.2.1.1 A methodological issue in design choice……….. 3.2.1.2 A smart methodological design decisions……… 3.3 Sample size………………………………………………. 3.3.1 A driver’s workload and the trade-offs technology…. 3.4 Instrument of Data Collection (if applicable)…………….. 3.4.1 Ergonomic principles of drivers………………….. 3.4.2 Validity and Reliability test………………………. 3.5 Research Model developed……………………………….. 3.6 Statistical Technique………………………………………. 34-41 34 35 35 35 35 36 37 38 38 39 40 41 9. Chapter 4: Results……………………………………………… 4.1 Findings and Interpretation of the results……………………… 4.2 Hypotheses Assessment Summary……………………………. 4.2.1 Optimal environmental integration and energy efficiency.. 4.2.2 Optimal service quality…………………………................... 4.2.3 Economic sustainability……………………………………… 4.2.4 Improved safety………………………………………………. 4.2.5 Coverage of externalities……………………………………. 4.2.6 Assurance of regional cohesion……………………………. 4.2.7 Focus on co-modality………………………………………... 4.2.8 Adaptability of services offered…………………………….. 4.2.9 Social commitment………………………………………….. 4.2.10 Economic contribution……………………………………… 4.2.11 Technology and innovation……………………………...... 42-45 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 10 . Chapter 5: Discussions, Conclusion, Policy Implications and Future Research......................................................... 5.1 Discussions.……………………………………………………. 5.1.1 Reliability.……………………………………………………. 5.1.2 Safety.……………………………………………………. 5.1.3 Security.……………………………………………………. 5.1.4 Comfort.……………………………………………………. 5.1.5 Modernity.……………………………………………………. 5.1.6 Freedom.……………………………………………………. 5.2 Conclusion …………………………...………………………… 5.3 Policy Implications……………..………….…………………… 5.4 Future Research…………………………..…………………… 45-49 46 46 46 46 47 47 47 47 47 48 48 49 11. References……………………………………………………….. 50 12. Appendix…………………………………………………………
  7. 7. 7 S.No. TABLE(S) Page Number 1. 1.1 Level of Headings 2 2. 2.1 Basic Citations Styles 4 3. 1.3.5 System Improvement 12
  8. 8. Smart road in future 8 S.No. FIGURE(S) Page Number 1 1.3.1 Traffic Congestion 11 2 1.4.1 Lane divider concept 13 3 1.4.5 Intelligent lightning system 14 4 1.6.2 Photovoltaic pavement 15 5 1.6.3 Piezoelectric device 16 6 1.6.5 Dynamic paints 17 7 1.6.9 Digital billboards 18 8 5.1 Discussion 49
  9. 9. Smart road in future 9 Chapter 1: Introduction The study examines smart road in future is that when we look at highways and roads, why it is so much time, money and energy spent on cars and traffic management system. But the actual roads themselves are still stuck in the middle ages. We are in 20th century where all things have capabilities to become smart for e.g. phones become smart phones, vehicle becomes smart vehicle. We work out on vehicle to become smart vehicle but it is not necessary that every vehicle is smart. If we make road smart every vehicle became smart by itself. The energy will also be consumed and economically we will save a lot of money. Smart highway and smart road are terms for a number of different proposals to incorporate technologies into roads for generating solar energy, for improving the operation of autonomous cars, for lighting, uses of digital media to transfer information’s, use of Global Positioning System (GPS) for allocate driver where they are by digital media, Road Dividing concept and for monitoring the condition of the road. The smart road concepts not only works on particular conditions it purpose is to utilize every single resource and give maximum output. This concept also reduces these outcomes by using of technologies. The potential of connecting, smart roads is huge. Not only will they keep us safe by regulating the speed of our vehicles and implementing warning systems but also transmit real time data and share information across the network, making it simpler and quicker to get around, to find destination as well as location, reusability of road maximum by road dividing concept, to commute effectively and communicate with each other. New developments in road construction use different technologies in a myriad of ways. Technologies like water-absorbing and silent asphalt, or intelligent traffic light systems, improve a road’s ability to fulfill its current function, namely: enabling transportation in the most secure and comfortable way. But next to these improvements, another branch of innovative technology has been created - technologies that not only enhance the current functionality of a road, but add a new aspect or even a whole new function to it. These ‘smart-road technologies’ make use of principles and materials that are not a necessity to construct a road (like asphalt is), but are used in many settings, (like solar panels). The road becomes smart by integrating technologies, previously used in other contexts, in order to add a new function or enhance the driving experience. Three examples of these smart road technologies are solar roads, paint-related technologies and charging lanes. They will be the object of investigation in this magazine, because they are currently in the furthest state of development and can have an enormous impact on society in several different ways. In order to have a solid base for further analysis, the smart-road technologies will be now introduced in regard to their function and then explained in detail in subsequent chapters. 1.1 Objective
  10. 10. Smart road in future 10 The objective of this study is that we can use maximum technology to make road smart the following technology enhance the feature of road.  To increase the road usability.  Smart energy converter to produce energy by law of conservation of energy principle.  Improvement of lighting in road which saves a lot of energy and money.  To make road smart by the usage of technology.  To develop eco-friendly road.  To build safety precaution system.  Use of digital media to transfer information. 1.2 Overview The purpose of Smart Highway Road and Development (R&D) research is to develop safer and more convenient highways by means of converging the highly advanced road technologies, IT communication technologies and automobile technologies for the next generation. For 7 years from October 2007 to July 2014, approximately 400 researchers from 68 institutes have been participating in the project with the total budget of 80 million USD under the slogan: "World Best Smart Highway". The highways of the future won’t be fully functional without the ability to interact with vehicles (and drivers) and the capability to adapt to environmental conditions. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) technologies are currently being tested by the U.S DOT’s Intelligent Transportation Systems program, as well as by some firms in Europe. 1.2.1 Structure of Smart Road Smart Highway project is composed with the road technology part in the hardware field, the intellectual technology parts, such as communicational traffic management technologies and automotive technologies, and the verification part for commercialization. The road technology part is to realize the core values of Smart Highway so they develop eco- friendly technologies like innovative sound absorbing wall, water proof roads, wind powered and solar powered facilities. Also, it includes the R&D projects to minimize traffic accidents by means of enhancing visible distance in foggy weather and preventing or melting freezing loads. The communicational traffic management part develops smart communication system and traffic management system that enables two-way communication. Thus, it includes Smart-I that detects unexpected incidents in roads and notify the drivers on the roads. Furthermore, they develop multi-used base station and terminals that accept various protocols like WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments). The Smart Tolling system is being developed for non-stop and multi-lane based electronic toll collection, which will be able to replace the current Hi-Pass system. It include lane divider concept which increase the road usability while using highway roller barrier system with the fusion of lane divider it will increase usability as well as safety hazard. The automotive R&D part is to realize safe driving environment by connecting roads and vehicles so the researchers develop the radar technologies to detect road conditions
  11. 11. Smart road in future 11 like freezing, hydroplaning, fallen objects and to warn drivers about them. Also, they develop lane departure warning system that uses highly precise GPS (DGPS: Differential Global Positioning System) and they develop the automatic vehicle control system for emergencies. It includes digital media such as electronic board to transfer information to road user. Lastly, in the verification part, they establish and maintain the test site in order to verify the results of studies and to promote them to the public. Therefore, they can adopt the outputs of R&D to the existing roads and verify the performance. Also they are inspecting system checks for development technology as well as conducting technology demonstration aimed at specialist in related institutions, societies and media organizations. 1.3 Problem Statement The issues which we are facing now a day on road is that; 1.3.1 Traffic congestion As the daily traffic on a bridge increases over time, bridge authorities must find a way to increase the capacity of the bridge to match the traffic flow. New construction is extremely expensive, and often times it is not even an option. The cost-effective and expedited method of increasing bridge capacity is to create a managed lanes facility where the lane configuration of the bridge is flexible and additional lanes are made available to the peak traffic direction. This can be done with cones and overhead lights, but crossover accidents will occur, causing serious injuries and fatalities. 1.3.2 Road Material We have mile after mile of asphalt pavement around the country, and in the summer it absorbs a great deal of heat, warming the roads up to 140 degrees [Fahrenheit] or more," said K. Wayne Lee, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Rhode Island (URI) and the leader of the joint project. "If we can harvest that heat, we can use it for our daily use, save on fossil fuels, and reduce global warming. Figure 1.3.1 according to traffic congestion.
  12. 12. Smart road in future 12 1.3.3 Energy usability Innowattech is the company which is use to work on road management according to that; According to Innowattech (in fact, it should be common knowledge) massive amounts of mechanical energy go waste when millions of vehicles move on the roads. The piezoelectric generators harvest that energy and save them in roadside batteries that can be used by people. This process is also known as Parasitic Energy harvesting. 1.3.4 Road Lighting The lighting requirements on main roads are very high. Light should make traffic safer for everyone. In addition, road luminaires improve orientation, make the course of the road visible from far away and emphasize hazardous areas. 1.3.5 System improvement The transportation industry is associated with high maintenance costs, disasters, accidents, injuries and loss of life. Hundreds of thousands of people across the world are losing their lives to car accidents and road disasters every year. According to the National Safety Council, 38,300 people were killed and 4.4 million injured on U.S. roads alone in 2015. Table 1.3.5 Systemimprovement
  13. 13. Smart road in future 13 The related costs — including medical expenses, wage and productivity losses and property damage — were estimated at $152 billion. And this doesn’t account for general maintenance and repairs costs of the road and highway systems, which earmark billions of dollars of public funds every year — and are still underfunded. 1.3.5 Environmental Hazard For many years, because of disparate missions, it was thought that the environmental and transportation communities could not coexist and that their relationships were destined to always be adversarial. In the planning, design and construction of highways, Departments of Transportation have to address hundreds of local, state and federal environmental regulations. Likewise, protecting and restoring environmental quality, such as water quality, and environmental services, can be affected by the construction of transportation and other public infrastructure. These competing missions can result in the delay of both construction of needed public infrastructure and the protection and restoration of essential environmental resources. However, the increasing demand and expectations from the public for both improved transportation systems and protection of our natural environment set the stage for a shift in the adversarial paradigm. As this demand increased, the players also found increasingly complex environmental problems. Increasing cost of doing business and ever shrinking resources drove the formation of this partnership to encourage the recognition of common goals and the need to leverage not only resources but also the knowledge and experience found in government, non- governmental organizations and the private sector. 1.4 Hypothesis According to the problem which we are facing now a days on roads can be reduce and resolve by particular hypothesis. 1.4.1 Traffic congestion and Road usability can be increase by dynamic lane divider concept as well as if we combine Roller Barrier System with lane divider concept. The technology increase road usability, traffic congestion as well as resolve safety hazard which will save a lot of life which we lose in accident. Figure 1.4.1 lane dividerconcept
  14. 14. Smart road in future 14 1.4.2 Smart energy converter by the usage of Photovoltaic pavement and piezoelectric generators to building road can be producing a lot of electrical energy by solar energy. 1.4.3 Use of wind power by Wind Turbines we can also generate electrical energy which we use in road light. 1.4.4 Safety precaution system while using Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) combining Structural Health Monitoring System we can built safety precaution system through which we can improved road safety. 1.4.5 Improving in road lights by Dynamics paints as well as sensor base lightning system through which we can use energy of street lights while we needed. 1.4.6 Eco Friendly road can be built by water proof concrete in road material to build road which can soak a lot of water in road which can reduce water pollution which is producing by road. Eco Friendly road has a unique feature which has sound proof material to build road. This can reduce sound pollution. 1.4.7 The frost protection and melting snow technology to make road eco-friendly. 1.4.8 The navigation and GPS would be used by electronic media such as electronic billboards on roads. 1.5 Outline of Study These changes, and more, are what people are referring to when they discuss “smart roads.” This term is used to describe a future road that will be increasingly common in the years to come. Current efforts are underway to incorporate roadways into the Internet of Things. By doing so, we will have unprecedented knowledge about real-time conditions on the road, as well as the physical state of the road itself. Combined, these will provide us with heretofore Figure 1.4.5 intelligentlightning system
  15. 15. Smart road in future 15 unimagined control over how we use our roads. This article will discuss some of the potential features of smart roads, in particular focusing on how we will use technology to make roads safer, more intelligent, and more connected than ever before. Perhaps most surprising is that smart roads have the potential to be a very real phenomenon in the near future. Several European countries have already begun to build smart roads. Additionally, as we will discuss in more depth, in the United States we have begun retrofitting existing road infrastructure with IoT technology, through the placement of intelligent fixed and mobile weather and road sensors. As the technology and demand for future roads grow, so too will the presence of smart road systems. The road of the future pavement technology roadway technology recycled plastic road eco-pave dynamic paint road glow in the dark road markings antique electric car wind powered lights wireless electric vehicle charging inductive power transfer solar roads solar panel roads solar powered car piezoelectric energy roads intelligent highways. 1.6 Definition 1.6.1 Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are advanced applications which, without embodying intelligence as such, aim to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks. 1.6.2 Photovoltaic pavements Photovoltaic pavement is a form of pavement that generates electricity by collecting solar power with photovoltaic. Parking lots, foot paths, driveways, streets and highways are all candidate locations where this material could be used. 1.6.3 Piezoelectric Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting Figure 1.6.2 Photovoltaicpavements
  16. 16. Smart road in future 16 from pressure. It is derived from the Greek piezō or piezein which means to squeeze or press, and electron, which means amber, an ancient source of electric charge.[2] Piezoelectricity was discovered in 1880 by French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie. 1.6.4 Structural Health monitoring: The process of implementing a damage detection and characterization strategy for engineering structures is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). Here damage is defined as changes to the material and/or geometric properties of a structural system, including changes to the boundary conditions and system connectivity, which adversely affect the system's performance. The SHM process involves the observation of a system over time using periodically sampled dynamic response measurements from an array of sensors, the extraction of damage-sensitive features from these measurements, and the statistical analysis of these features to determine the current state of system health. For long term SHM, the output of this process is periodically updated information regarding the ability of the structure to perform its intended function in light of the inevitable aging and degradation resulting from operational environments. After extreme events, such as earthquakes or blast loading, SHM is used for rapid condition screening and aims to provide, in near real time, reliable information regarding the integrity of the structure. 1.6.5 Dynamic Paints The Dynamic Paint program explores using paint that is sensitive to temperature. This could create markings that become visible when road conditions are slick, such as during rain or ice, then become transparent when road conditions are safe. Figure1.6.3Piezoelectricdevice
  17. 17. Smart road in future 17 1.6.6 Ecofriendly Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature- friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment. Companies use these ambiguous terms to promote goods and services, sometimes with additional, more specific certifications, such as ecolabels. Their overuse can be referred to as green washing. 1.6.7 Frost protection System A Snowmelt system(frost protection system) prevents the build-up of snow and ice on walkways, patios and roadways, or more economically, only a portion of the area such as a pair of 2-foot (0.61 m)-wide tire tracks on a driveway or a 3-foot (0.91 m) center portion of a sidewalk, etc. They function even during a storm thus improve safety and eliminate winter maintenance labor including shoveling or plowing snow and spreading de-icing salt or traction grit (sand). A snowmelt system may extend the life of the concrete, asphalt or under pavers by eliminating the use salts or other de-icing chemicals, and physical damage from winter service vehicles. 1.6.8 Internet of Things The Internet of things (stylised Internet of Things or IoT) is the internetworking of physical devices, vehicles (also referred to as "connected devices" and "smart devices"), buildings, and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data.] In 2013 the Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things (IoT-GSI) defined the IoT as "the infrastructure of the information society." The IoT allows objects to be sensed and/or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit in addition to reduced human intervention. When IoT is augmented with sensors and actuators, the technology becomes an instance of the more general class of cyber-physical systems, Figure 1.6.5 dynamicpaints
  18. 18. Smart road in future 18 which also encompasses technologies such as smart grids, smart homes, intelligent transportation and smart cities. Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to interoperate within the existing Internet infrastructure. Experts estimate that the IoT will consist of almost 50 billion objects by 2020. 1.6.9 Electronic billboards A digital billboard is a billboard that displays digital images that are changed by a computer every few seconds. Digital billboards are primarily used for advertising, but they can also serve public service purposes. There have been concerns regarding road safety when digital billboards are present. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) conducted a study in 2001 to review the effects of electronic billboards (EBBs) on crash rates. According to the FHWA, it appeared that there was no effective technique or method appropriate for evaluating the safety effects of EBBs on driver attention or distraction at that time. More recent and extensive studies have affirmed the negative impact of digital billboards on driver attention. Figure 1.6.9 digital billboards on roads
  19. 19. Smart road in future 19 Chapter 2: Literature Review The roads that we have now and the role and function we assign to them, have not changed too drastically over time - mostly, the road surface material has improved, while more progress was made with the vehicles and not the roads. However, the road system’s change has not stopped completely either. The newest branch of improvements for asphalt or traffic strategies is called ‘smart roads’. With innovative smart-road technologies, not only the current functions of roads can be enhanced, but also entirely new functions can be added to roads and road systems. For instance, solar road technology enables a road to become a space of energy production, in addition to its traditional use. Typically, the concept of a road is determined by its use - roads are used for driving on them, and so its function is to provide safe and comfortable transportation. Roads are thus defined by their characteristics and function of enabling transportation. Accordingly, engineers have tried to improve safety and comfort by constructing roads in a way that would take into account human factors. But this narrow way of thinking forecloses ideas about new functions. Why should the use of a road be already predetermined by its definition? If we start thinking about roads as ‘spaces’, we will be able to creatively engage with these spaces and expand the horizon of possible uses of roads. Smart-road technologies offer a first step in this direction. While they can be applied within the current concept of a road, they also have the potential to change it. They are not just compatible with a new road concept, their characteristics create new possibilities: Even if a smart road technology does not already entail a complete new function, it will already trigger this new way of thinking. Therefore, thinking about roads as spaces creates infinite possibilities to combine technology with roads, leading to new uses. Since roads are not consumer products, their existence, let alone any alterations done to them will affect everybody. Once the changes are decided by the government, the road user cannot decide to have them or not, rather they are there and will affect anyone who uses the road. Furthermore, the environment and animal life are not left unaffected by roads either. If we think back to the importance our road systems actually have in our lives, we can imagine the impact if we enhance our road systems further. To be ready for future markets, we started to put more time into our innovation processes. Heijmans was already innovating a lot in the field of asphalt, but this was done for our own projects and markets. Now, we started innovating more towards other markets. It is a strange thing to see that mobile phones and cars become smarter, whereas the road stays the same. We are constantly talking about ‘an internet of things’ but infrastructure is not part of that. We do not think that this is a smart approach and that was the reason for us to initiate the smart highway innovation programed. Smart road design ideas examine lighting, energy and self-diagnosis solutions for roads and bridges
  20. 20. Smart road in future 20 The highways of the future won’t be fully functional without the ability to interact with vehicles (and drivers) and the capability to adapt to environmental conditions. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) technologies are currently being tested by the U.S DOT’s Intelligent Transportation Systems program, as well as by some firms in Europe. Smart Highways Developers in the Netherlands are testing out various intelligent roadway technologies through the Smart Highways project, a collaboration between construction firm Heijmans and designer Daan Roosegaarde. In 2014, Smart Highways launched the Van Gogh-Roosegaarde bike path, in the municipality of Eindhoven, that features embedded glowing tiles. These phosphorescent tiles, which soak up energy during the day and then provide hours of light for cyclists at night along the 656-yard stretch, are patterned after Van Gogh’s iconic “Starry Night” painting. This project is part of the program’s Glowing Lines initiative, which is one of five areas of focus for the Smart Highways project. The group tested another Glowing Lines pilot project on the N329 highway in Oss, which has been labeled the “N329 Road of the Future.” This project performed so successfully, that the Dutch Minister of Infrastructure asked for a similar design on additional highways. The features of smart highways are: 2.1.1 Movable barrier Moveable barrier creates managed lanes for bridges while providing positive barrier protection. The barrier wall is lifted from the road surface and moved laterally one or more lanes at speeds up to 10 mph (16 km/h) to meet peak traffic demand, while eliminating crossover accidents. Bridge work projects face multiple challenges. Limited space for vehicles, equipment, and workers results in an increase in the number of construction stages, prolonging the job and raising the cost of construction. Safety is also compromised if all work must be performed in a confined work zone, and bridge work zones that create a flexible work space by utilizing cones and barrels are inherently dangerous to workers and motorists. Moveable Barrier creates a safe, flexible work zone for bridges that allows contractors to expand the work zone during off peak traffic hours, and reduce or even close the work zone during peak traffic hours to maximize traffic flow. Larger, more efficient construction equipment can be used in the expanded work zone, combining or eliminating stages and allowing many redecking projects to be completed in one construction season rather than two. 2.1.2 The Internet of Things and Roadways Incorporating roadways into the IoT network may be one of the most difficult aspects for many people to imagine when they begin to think of smart roads. This is because current roadways have little connection to how we use the internet today. Roadways are inherently “dumb” systems that have little to no connection to networked devices. Up until recently, roadways were built solely with safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness in mind. However, new efforts are
  21. 21. Smart road in future 21 being made to build road systems that incorporate IoT networks and data gathering tools to create road networks where drivers can be smart on the road. Many roads have begun to be retrofitted with sensors that enable them to gather the critical information needed to keep our road infrastructure up and running. State and local Department of Transportation agencies now rely on sensors to monitor changing road conditions and traffic patterns. Future roads would take this a step further, by incorporating interconnectivity into their design parameters. More robust and intelligent data sensors, and the analytics to support them, will enable future roads to be constantly monitored for changes. This information could then be acted upon in an efficient and rapid manner. These target levels of interconnectivity will give transportation managers the information they need most, in real-time. This will allow them to make more informed and intelligent decisions when it comes to road maintenance, usage, and features. While retrofitting is allowing us to incorporate beneficial aspects of IoT technology into current road systems, future roads are being designed from the ground up around complete interconnectivity with IoT networks. For example, future roads are anticipated to be constructed from solar-friendly material, meaning they will be able to capture and harness solar energy in order to power various devices and features. One notable feature you can expect to see coming from this change is charging stations for electric cars, particularly as we move away from vehicles that burn fossil fuels. A second feature powered by future road surfaces would be electric roadway heating. This would be of particular importance in areas that experience heavy snow or particularly brutal winters. Department of Transportation agencies in these locations spend billions of dollars a year working to keep their roads free of ice and snow. Future roads would be capable of keeping roads dry more efficiently than traditional methods of road clearing and de-icing, saving money while also creating safer driving conditions. Solar surfaces for future roads would also be a necessity to power the many devices needed to ensure smart roads stay efficient and safe. Integrated automated weather stations and traffic pattern sensors would be foremost among these devices. Currently these devices, whether vehicle or roadside mounted, often utilize solar capture technology to power themselves. Future roads would further incorporate powering these devices into the roadway itself, while connecting them to a larger network of connected sensors and devices. These two devices, automated weather stations and traffic sensors, and their unique applications to future roads, combined would account for a significant increase in the safety and usability of our roadways. These devices are the backbone supporting integration of roadways into the Internet of Things. Although solar powered roadways are still far from becoming a commonplace reality in the United States, there are a number of smaller, yet still crucial, changes that are gaining momentum in connecting roadways to the Internet of Things. Efforts to overhaul roadways to increase both safety and efficiency are a top priority of Department of Transportation agencies around the country. Foremost among these is an effort to more accurately capture and convey real-time road conditions and weather data.
  22. 22. Smart road in future 22 Smart Roads and Weather When we discuss utilizing the Internet of Things in future roads, we aren’t talking about a few sensors on light poles or guardrails. Many current road systems across the country have fixed weather or traffic sensors located at points along them. Rather, future roads will have thousands of nodes from which they will collect data. Currently, one of the most popular initiatives to incorporate IoT technology into roadway systems is occurring in weather mapping and prediction. Local, regional, and even national transportation agencies have been relying on Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS) up until this point. RWIS are broad networks that consist of stationary collection points used to gather a wide range of on the ground weather and road condition data. These systems collect local weather, atmospheric conditions, and pavement conditions. Additionally, some RWIS sensors are used to monitor the water levels of nearby rivers, streams, or lakes in order to anticipate dangerous flooding conditions. The drawback of the current RWIS networks is that they can only collect data at fixed points where sensors are placed. This leaves gaps in knowledge about road and weather conditions that must be filled. Most commonly, transportation managers fill in these gaps by using spatial inference to predict what weather or road conditions are between RWIS sensors. Additionally, transportation managers will also use weather forecasts to attempt to predict how weather will affect roadways within their network. Each of these steps creates a delay from when information is collected and when it can be used. When dealing with changing weather patterns, delays of minutes or hours can render actionable data obsolete. Although RWIS networks have been an important step in improving the safety and efficiency of roadways in the United States, they fail to provide the breadth of data necessary to give a complete understanding of current road conditions at any given time. Future roads will take these data collection and mapping efforts a step forward in both scope and complexity. First, future roads will incorporate a larger network of automated weather stations. Efforts to reduce the form factor of current RWIS while increasing the complexity of data collected and the speed with which it is made available have already been realized in the private sector. The result is a smartweather professional weather station that can collect atmospheric, road, traffic, and weather data and instantly upload that information to cloud networks. Additionally, smartweather professional weather stations will capitalize on a second trend in future roads: improved vehicle-to-road and vehicle-to-vehicle connectivity. Portable weather stations placed on vehicles will act as mobile connection points for hyper-local weather and road data. This information can then be transmitted to smartweather professional weather stations along the roadway. Vehicle-mounted automated weather stations communicating with smartweather professional weather stations will effectively close the gaps left by traditional RWIS deployments. This will give transportation managers a complete view of road and weather conditions across their entire system. Real-time Visualizations and Actionable Data
  23. 23. Smart road in future 23 One of the key areas that differentiates the deployment of smartweather professional weather stations along with vehicle mounted portable weather stations is the level of interconnectedness in these operations. Smartweather professional weather stations can communicate with data cloud collection systems via wireless, cellular, or satellite data. They are data collection nodes of both weather and atmospheric conditions. They also collect data from passing portable weather stations and other automated weather stations along roadways. Once this data is collected and transmitted, it is processed through robust analytics systems, filtered down, and rendered into usable visualizations. At this point it is sent to a data dashboard system customized for each agency or transportation manager’s particular operation. All of this is conducted in real-time, so that transportation managers are no longer working with outdated data. Additionally, customized data dashboard systems allow transportation managers to determine what information is critical to their operation, and display that data in a manner that is easy to grasp at a moments notice. Depending on the needs of the local or government institutions in charge of overseeing roads, transportation manager’s will be able to collect huge amounts of raw data, and then act upon this data proactively rather than reactively. Customizable data dashboards that display real- time data from their network of both portable and fixed automated weather stations will provide a greater breadth of up-to-date weather data across the entire road network. This type of system creates more actionable data for transportation manager’s, and allows them to more effectively deploy resources as conditions change. At the most basic level, future roads will realize efforts to generate unprecedented amounts of actionable data about hyper-local weather, road, and atmospheric conditions. Additionally, smart roads will provide critical information regarding road use and traffic patterns, and allow transportation managers to ease congestion more effectively and efficiently. The collection of road and weather data, vehicle-to-road, and vehicle-to-vehicle data will expand our scope of knowledge about how our roadways are used. Most importantly, this data will then be used to proactively make roads safer by addressing dangerous road conditions before they happen. Real-time vehicle-to-road and vehicle-to-vehicle data will pinpoint where and how congestion and accidents occur, and allow traffic managers the means to preempt these conditions planning for the Future. Additionally, the net effect of this data over the long term will be smarter road planning and building. Civil engineers will be able to use the data generated by future roads to model the safest and most efficient road systems, and incorporate this information into future patterns of growth. Car manufacturer’s will also be able to use the data gathered from future roads to design safer cars that more effectively communicate with both roads and other vehicles. The creation of feedback loops between the data generated on future roads and the design of both roads and vehicles will perhaps be one of the most lasting effects of smart road technology. Ultimately, the incorporation of future roads into the Internet of Things will allow all of us to have a safer, more reliable driving experience, both in the short and long term. Sensors on the rise
  24. 24. Smart road in future 24 Future highways and bridges incorporate the “Internet of Things,” including using advanced sensors in new and existing structures. This year, information technology analysis firm Gartner Inc. predicts that nearly 5 billion connected “things” will be in use, with that figure exploding to 25 billion in the next five years. A current example of this technological integration of infrastructure is the Memorial Bridge in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) is using $355,000 in Federal Highway Administration Accelerated Deployment Demonstration funds to create a sensor network on the bridge. This network will be used, in what NHDOT calls a “living bridge,” to monitor bridge conditions and self-diagnose and report problems to transport officials. NHDOT plans to integrate 250 sensors into the structure, which will collect information on traffic volume, structural stress, vibration, wind speed, humidity and temperature. Like many of the roadway lighting solutions being proposed, these sensors will be powered sustainably. Instead of relying on sunlight, hydroelectric power will be used via a turbine system attached to the bridge pier. 2.2 Reference paper 2.2.1 Smart road infrastructure Abstract: The idea of creating such a project was the fact that in Ukraine, as well as in many other countries the existing traffic control system does not correspond to the growth rate of the number of vehicles and pedestrians. As a whole lags behind the management of road traffic from the growing number of cars and the changing needs of the people. Published in: East-West Design & Test Symposium, 2013 Date of Conference: 27-30 Sept. 2013 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 25 November 2013 Authors Artur Ziarmand 2.2.2 Performance assessment of a smart road management system for the wireless detection of wildlife road-crossing Abstract: A wireless distributed system for the detection of the wildlife road-crossing events is addressed to prevent the problem of collisions with the approaching vehicles. The system is based on a wireless sensor network architecture deployed along the road sides in order to alert in real-time the drivers about the dangerous presence of deers within a security area determined by Doppler radar modules integrated in the nodes of the wireless network. The system aims at providing the information for the smart management of road signs through their adaptive activation only in presence of real dangers. The performance of the detection has been assessed during a long-
  25. 25. Smart road in future 25 term measurement campaign along a road stretch in Trentino, Italy, where the problem of deer road-crossing significantly impacts the driver safety and security. Published in: Smart Cities Conference (ISC2), 2016 IEEE International Date of Conference: 12-15 Sept. 2016 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 03 October 2016 Authors F. Viani ELEDIA Research Center (ELEDIA@UniTN - University of Trento) Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, Italy A. Polo ELEDIA Research Center (ELEDIA@UniTN - University of Trento) Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, Italy E. Giarola ELEDIA Research Center (ELEDIA@UniTN - University of Trento) Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, Italy F. Robol ELEDIA Research Center (ELEDIA@UniTN - University of Trento) Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, Italy G. Benedetti Servizio Gestione Strade - Provincia Autonoma di Trento Via Gazzoletti 33, 38122 Trento, Italy S. Zanetti Servizio Gestione Strade - Provincia Autonoma di Trento Via Gazzoletti 33, 38122 Trento, Italy 2.2.3 Project Safespot (Smart Vehicles on Smart Roads) Abstract: The key aspect of the project is to expand the time horizon for acquiring safely relevant information for driving, as well as to improve the precision, the reliability and the quality of driver information, and to introduce new information sources. One of the main aims of SAFESPOT is to develop a "safety margin assistant" which will extend "in space and time" the safety information available to drivers by: (1) using both the infrastructure and vehicles as sources (and destinations) of safety-related information, and definition of an open, flexible and modular communications architecture; (2) developing the key enabling technologies: accurate relative localisation, ad-hoc dynamic networking, dynamic local traffic maps; (3) developing a new generation of infrastructure-based sensing techniques; (4) testing scenario-based applications to evaluate the impacts and end-user acceptability; (5) defining the practical implementation of such systems, especially in the interim period when not all vehicles will be equipped; (6) evaluating the liability aspects, regulations and standardization issues which can affect implementation: involvement of public authorities from the early stages will be a key factor for future deployment. Published in: Microwaves, Radar & Wireless Communications, 2006. MIKON 2006. International Conference on Date of Conference: 22-24 May 2006 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 15 October 2007
  26. 26. Smart road in future 26 Authors Tomasz Kosilo Institute of Radioelectronics; Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland, tel. +48 22 6607576, fax +48 22 8253769, t.kosilo@ire.pw.edu.pl Jerzy Kolakowski Institute of Radioelectronics; Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland, tel. +48 22 6607576, fax +48 22 8253769, j.kolakowski@ire.pw.edu.pl Zbigniew Walczak Institute of Radioelectronics; Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland, tel. +48 22 6607576, fax +48 22 8253769 2.2.4 IoT based dynamic road traffic management for smart cities Abstract: All metropolitan cities face traffic congestion problems especially in the downtown areas. Normal cities can be transformed into “smart cities” by exploiting the information and communication technologies (ICT). The paradigm of Internet of Thing (IoT) can play an important role in realization of smart cities. This paper proposes an IoT based traffic management solutions for smart cities where traffic flow can be dynamically controlled by onsite traffic officers through their smart phones or can be centrally monitored or controlled through Internet. We have used the example of the holy city of Makkah Saudi Arabia, where the traffic behavior changes dynamically due to the continuous visitation of the pilgrims throughout the year. Therefore, Makkah city requires special traffic controlling algorithms other than the prevailing traffic control systems. However the scheme proposed is general and can be used in any Metropolitan city without the loss of generality. Published in: High-Capacity Optical Networks and Enabling/Emerging Technologies (HONET), 2015 12th International Conference on Date of Conference: 21-23 Dec. 2015 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 04 February 2016 Authors Syed Misbahuddin College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture Department of Electrical Engineering, Umm Al- Qura University, Makkah Saudi Arabia Junaid Ahmed Zubairi Department of Computer and Information Sciences, State University of New York at Fredonia, NY, USA Abdulrahman Saggaf College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture Department of Electrical Engineering, Umm Al- Qura University, Makkah Saudi Arabia Jihad Basuni College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture Department of Electrical Engineering, Umm Al- Qura University, Makkah Saudi Arabia Sulaiman A-Wadany
  27. 27. Smart road in future 27 College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture Department of Electrical Engineering, Umm Al- Qura University, Makkah Saudi Arabia Ahmed Al-Sofi College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture Department of Electrical Engineering, Umm Al- Qura University, Makkah Saudi Arabia 2.2.5 Standardized testing of non-standard photovoltaic pavement surfaces Abstract: Emerging photovoltaic products have expanded the applications for the technologies into markets previously unconsidered for what was thought to be a delicate electronic product. One company leading this effort, Solar Roadways, Incorporated, is producing pavement replacing photovoltaic systems and proposing their use in everything from sidewalks to runways. Current pavement testing methods cannot be applied to these non-homogenous structures to identify if they can support the required loads. However, the standards called out specifically for pavements may be able to be translated to these products and their non-homogenous structures and non-standard materials to identify if they are able to perform similarly to standard pavements. This research modified existing test standards in several ways: rigid pavements standards for advanced loading, structural adhesive standards for shear loading, structure specific standards for moisture conditioning, and application specific standards for freeze/thaw cycling. These modifications are due to the fact that the materials in these emerging products do not have established tests to evaluate their performance in non-traditional applications. The future of electronics is dependent on product unique applications. This, in turn, requires finding methods of testing them based on application, extrapolation, or correlation to traditional material testing which enables faster product development and subsequent roll out. Published in: Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON) and Ohio Innovation Summit (OIS), 2016 IEEE National Date of Conference: 25-29 July 2016 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 16 February 2017 Authors John H. Nussbaum Department of Systems Engineering and Management, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson AFB, OH, USA Robert A. Lake Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson AFB, OH, USA Ronald A. Coutu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson AFB, OH, USA 2.2.6 Highway windmill Abstract: Vehicles moving in a highway suffer a lot to drive the vehicle during night time due to lighting problem. It is not possible task to lay electric cables underground and provide lighting
  28. 28. Smart road in future 28 throughout the length of the roads. In this paper, the drawback can be overcome by make use of VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine). The VAWT is coupled with disc type alternator is placed on the highway road dividers. As the wind is forced by passing vehicles from both sides, the wind speed on the centre place of highway roads will be more than at the pedestrian walking lane. This wind is forced to the VAWT from two directions heavily but this VAWT makes use of both the wind directions and rotates in one direction only. If the speed of the turbine increases results in increasing the speed of the alternator and the corresponding increased power is obtained at the output terminal. This power can be stored in battery bank which is placed under the windmill and utilized at night time for lighting purpose on the highway. Published in: Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN), 2011 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Date of Conference: 27-29 May 2011 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 08 September 2011 Authors R. Sathyanarayanan Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SriRam Engineering College, Chennai, India S. Muthamizh Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SriRam Engineering College, Chennai, India C. Giriramprasath Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SriRam Engineering College, Chennai, India K. T. Gopinath P. T. Meindo-Elang 2.2.7 The Application of VISSIM in the Intersection at Grade of Urban Road Nanshaomen Intersection for Example Abstract: The intersection at grade of urban road is an important part in road system, once the intersection appears traffic jam, the traffic effective operation can be affected. How to improve the capacity of the intersection means very important. Traffic simulation is an effective way to solve traffic problems. It utilizes modern computer technology to realize practical traffic system specialty, analyzes traffic system’s probable action in sorts of limited condition. In this paper, regarding Nanshaomen intersection as studying target, the existing problems in present intersection are found and the reasonable signal timing scheme and traffic lane divider scheme in intersection are put forward with the help of VISSIM, on the basis of investigation the present traffic quantity in peak time, signal timing scheme and traffic lane function divider. The improved scheme is evaluated on motor vehicles travel time, speed, line up length. The result indicates the scheme can reduce the vehicle delay and improve the capacity of the intersection effectively, and the application of VISSIM in the intersection at grade of urban road can get to good effect. It provides the effective reference to solve increasingly serious traffic jam in the intersection at grade of urban road.
  29. 29. Smart road in future 29 Published in: Optoelectronics and Image Processing (ICOIP), 2010 International Conference on Date of Conference: 11-12 Nov. 2010 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 13 January 2011 Authors Lin Yufan Coll. of Civil Eng., Xi'an Univ. of Archit. & Technol., Xi'an, China Li Xiaohua Coll. of Civil Eng., Xi'an Univ. of Archit. & Technol., Xi'an, China 2.2.8 Autonomous Vehicle and Real Time Road Lanes Detection and Tracking Abstract: Advanced Driving Assistant Systems, intelligent and autonomous vehicles are promising solutions to enhance road safety, traffic issues and passengers' comfort. Such applications require advanced computer vision algorithms that demand powerful computers with high-speed processing capabilities. Keeping intelligent vehicles on the road until its destination, in some cases, remains a great challenge, particularly when driving at high speeds. The first principle task is robust navigation, which is often based on system vision to acquire RGB images of the road for more advanced processing. The second task is the vehicle's dynamic controller according to its position, speed and direction. This paper presents an accurate and efficient road boundaries and painted lines' detection algorithm for intelligent and autonomous vehicle. It combines Hough Transform to initialize the algorithm at each time needed, and Canny edges' detector, least-square method and Kalman filter to minimize the adaptive region of interest, predict the future road boundaries' location and lines parameters. The scenarios are simulated on the Pro-SiVIC simulator provided by Civitec, which is a realistic simulator of vehicles' dynamics, road infrastructures, and sensors behaviors, and OPAL-RT product dedicated for real time processing and parallel computing. Published in: Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2015 IEEE Date of Conference: 19-22 Oct. 2015 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 17 December 2015 Authors Farid Bounini LIV, Univ. de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada Denis Gingras LIV, Univ. de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada Vincent Lapointe LIV, Univ. de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada Herve Pollart Opal-RT Technol. Inc., Montreal, QC, Canada 2.2.9 Constrained stochastic hybrid system modeling to road map - GPS integration for vehicle positioning Abstract:
  30. 30. Smart road in future 30 This paper considers the vehicle positioning problem of an automobile on-board navigation system which is mainly supported by Global Positioning System (GPS). To complement GPS, the existing navigation techniques incorporate additional vehicle sensors, together with the map data to match the positioning solution with the road map. We propose an advanced map- matching algorithm that integrates the additional map data with GPS and vehicle sensor measurements. Specifically, the detailed road map data, where individual road segments are subdivided into lanes, can impose further restriction on the vehicle as it is likely to move along the center of each lane and is rarely at boundary. Such a tendency can be mathematically interpreted as a statistical constraint in our map-matching algorithm. In addition, the lane change behavior of the vehicle can be accounted for by the discrete modes assigned to the individual road lanes. Then, the overall positioning process can be posed as a constrained stochastic hybrid system framework. The proposed map-matching algorithm provides more reliable vehicle positioning (continuous state estimate) and lane discrimination (discrete mode estimate) without needing costly sensor resources. Published in: Decision and Control (CDC), 2016 IEEE 55th Conference on Date of Conference: 12-14 Dec. 2016 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 29 December 2016 Authors Cheolhyeon Kwon School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907 USA Inseok Hwang School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907 USA 2.2.10 Development of IoT based vehicular pollution monitoring system Abstract: Wireless sensors are used in most of the in real time applications for collecting physical information. The impossible measurements in typical ways have currently become attainable using the wireless technology. In this technology, the measurement of air quality is one of the difficult areas for the researchers. The main source of atmosphere pollution happens due to vehicles. The high inflow of vehicles in urban areas causing more air pollution and decreasing air quality that leads to severe health diseases. The main objective of the paper is to introduce vehicular pollution monitoring system using Internet of Things (IoT) which is capable of detecting vehicles causing pollution on the city roads and measures various types of pollutants, and its level in air. This paper also reports the status of air quality whenever needed to the environmental agencies. The proposed systems also assures the existence of wireless sensors for vehicle pollution system that specialize in a straight forward accessibility of real time data through internet using IoT. The measured data is also shared to vehicle owner, traffic department and agencies of national environment. This system is a low cost and provides good results in controlling the air pollution especially in the urban areas. Published in: Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT), 2015 International Conference on Date of Conference: 8-10 Oct. 2015 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 14 January 2016
  31. 31. Smart road in future 31 Authors Ramagiri Rushikesh Department of ECE, JNTUA College of Engineering, Pulivendula, Kadapa, AP, India Chandra Mohan Reddy Sivappagari Department of ECE, JNTUA College of Engineering, Pulivendula-516390, Kadapa, AP, India 2.2.11 VANET-Enabled Eco-Friendly Road Characteristics-Aware Routing for Vehicular Traffic Abstract: The lack of significant breakthroughs in terms of alternative energy sources has caused both fuel consumption and gas emissions to constantly increase. In this context, improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions in the transportation sector is vital, as vehicles are one of the important contributors to air pollution. This paper introduces EcoTrec, a novel eco-friendly routing algorithm for vehicular traffic which considers road characteristics such as surface conditions and gradients, as well as existing traffic conditions to improve the fuel savings of vehicles and reduce gas emissions. EcoTrec makes use of the Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANET) both for collecting data from distributed vehicles and to disseminate information in aid of the routing algorithm. The algorithm calculates the fuel efficiency of various routes and then directs the vehicle to a fuel efficient route, while also avoiding flash crowding. Simulation-based tests showed that by using EcoTrec, fuel emissions were significantly reduced, when compared with existing state-of-the-art vehicular routing algorithms. Published in: Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2013 IEEE 77th Date of Conference: 2-5 June 2013 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 06 January 2014 Authors Ronan Doolan Performance Eng. Lab. (PEL), Dublin City Univ., Dublin, Ireland Gabriel-Miro Muntean Performance Eng. Lab. (PEL), Dublin City Univ., Dublin, Ireland 2.2.12 An infrared based intelligent Traffic System Abstract: An efficient traffic system is needed for safety of lives, property, time and economy. Here we present a design and implementation of low cost, low power consummated and more reliable an Infrared based intelligent Traffic System. The system is a wireless network based which contains infrared transmitter with a unique identification number and infrared receiver. The system can response rapidly with the violation of traffic rules and shows the result as a tracked ID of the violated vehicle on the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). This system describes a highly accurate Traffic system using infrared communication. This system achieves high accuracy and more efficiency at Four Way Terminals. This system can be applied in case of both Road divider and Four Way Terminals. Published in: Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), 2012 International Conference on
  32. 32. Smart road in future 32 Date of Conference: 18-19 May 2012 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 04 October 2012 Authors Sikder Sunbeam Islam Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh Kowshik Dey Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh Mohammed Rafiqul Islam Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh Mohammad Kurshed Alam Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh 2.2.13 Experimental research on frost resistance of concrete under the action of de-icing salt Abstract: The de-icing salt is widely utilized in Northeast China for its removal of snow and ice. However, the remain of frozen salt from the de-icing salt on concrete roads can lead to erosion. In this paper, frost resistance of concrete under the action of the de-icing salt analysis was carried out, in which concrete freeze-thaw under the action of different types of de-icing salt were researched, and de-icing salt on the different strength concrete function of freeze-thaw were also researched. The analysis of the test data will show that the de-icing salt on concrete's mechanism of action is the same, environmental protection type de-icing salt on surface corrosion is relatively small; corrosion of the de-icing salt on concrete is related with its strength, the strengther the salt content is, the smaller corrosion it is. It will have a guiding significancebe on road design in Northeast China and frost resistance of concrete under the action of de-icing salt analysis. Published in: Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), 2012 2nd International Conference on Date of Conference: 21-23 April 2012 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 17 May 2012 Authors Gai Xiaolian Northeast Petroleum University Hua-ri college Harbin 150027 China 2.2.14 Smart traffic light in terms of the cognitive road traffic management system (CTMS) based on the Internet of Things Abstract:
  33. 33. Smart road in future 33 This work is aimed to describe a cognitive traffic management system (CTMS) based on the Internet of Things approach. Telecommunication technologies, which can be used for the system development and deployment, are analyzed. Smart traffic light integration is proposed as a replacement of the existing traffic lights. The main purpose of such replacement is to optimize traffic management processes which are made by government authorities. Smart traffic light integration excludes mistakes caused by human factor. Proposed approach can be used as a part of e-government system in further. Published in: Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS), 2014 East-West Date of Conference: 26-29 Sept. 2014 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 02 February 2015 ISBN Information: INSPEC Accession Number: 14887843 DOI: 10.1109/EWDTS.2014.7027102 Publisher: IEEE 2.2.15 Dynamic road lane management: A smart city application Abstract: The SMART CITY is an important field for ubiquitous computing (UC), ambient intelligence (AmI), connected vehicles (CV), and new styles of User Interfaces, mainly mobile. Data vitalization related to in-city data collection and their appropriate diffusion to city actors (private and professional) and their services (applications) is one issue. In a more precise and specific context of a dynamic lane allocation system, which is presented in this paper, we describe the use of Location-Based services and Internet of Things in this system, as well as User Interfaces proposed. A simulation environment allows us to conduct an initial validation of the system and to study acceptability of User Interfaces before in-the-field deployment. Published in: Advanced Logistics and Transport (ICALT), 2014 International Conference on Date of Conference: 1-3 May 2014 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 28 July 2014 ISBN Information: INSPEC Accession Number: 14484690 DOI: 10.1109/ICAdLT.2014.6864085 Publisher: IEEE
  34. 34. Smart road in future 34 Chapter 3: Research Methods This section focuses on three important human factors and their relation to road use, followed by a contemplation of the impact with certain smart-road technologies and a philosophy of its design. This is meant to illustrate the importance of proper research and co-creation between all involved parties, so that the implementation of smart-road technologies can be done in a safe and effective way. 3.1 Method of Data Collection When trying to understand the interactions between humans and smart road systems, it is hard to discard the role of the car. This role is changing over time, as can be seen withrecent vehicles that are capable of sensing their environment and navigating without any human input. With the car gaining more and more autonomy, one of the biggest issues in relation to the highly automated systems is that of drivers facing a loss of control (Perrow, 1984). With regard to smart road technologies an important questions arise; such as, what is the impact of automation systems both of cars as well as roads, on a driver’s perceived loss of control? Some of the most important studies regarding the perceived loss of control can be tracked back to the highly automated systems found in airplanes. Studies have indicated that due to the infrequency of accidents, it can lead pilots to have a sense of complacency and overreliance in the automation systems. This, in turn, can lead to a lacking situational awareness and to the inability to cope with automation surprises, even of well-trained people (Parasuraman et al., 2008, Manzey et al., 2008, Sarter et al., 1997 and Manzey and Bahner, 2005). In this short complementary piece on car automation technologies, four relevant points have to be taken into consideration. First, studies have indicated that the level of human control determines the acceptance of automation (TAUCIS, 2006). In distinguishing between the need for control and the actual perceived control, drivers have indicated that they perceive less control than they preferred to have. In short, drivers will accept smart technologies as long as they have the means to exercise the overriding and concluding control over the system. Second, a high rate of automation errors leads to a decreased level of trust in the system (de Vries et al., 2003). However this should become less of a problem with the assumption that due to experimentation, current technologies become less susceptible to the number of automation malfunctions. Third, studies have shown that the longer a driver uses automation technology, the more familiar he or she will become with it (Larsson, 2012). Although this is not the same as trust, it might very well lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness, and understanding of how to drive safely. And last, drivers experience a greater externality when using automated systems rather than being subject to the usual manual conditions (Stanton & Young, 2005), but only under conditions that entail a high level of control (Fink & Weyer, 2014). Taking into account such findings, road designers as well as car designers should integrate a hybrid interaction of automated systems or cars and smart road technologies. Considering that drivers nowadays feel increasingly comfortable with driver assistance systems when they are implemented with regard manoeuvring (Weyer, Fink, & Adelt, 2015), considering both tales of the tape could only reinforce safety and mobility.
  35. 35. Smart road in future 35 3.2 Sampling Technique 3.2.1 Human processing capabilities This section focusses on three important human factors and their relation to road use, followed by a contemplation of the impact with certain smart-road technologies and a philosophy of its design. This is meant to illustrate the importance of proper research and co-creation between all involved parties, so that the implementation of smart-road technologies can be done in a safe and effective way. 3.2.1.1 A methodological issue in design choice One of the most important human factors that has to be considered is human processing capabilities. Human processing capabilities describe how a human being processes information when he or she interacts with the environment, in this case the road and vehicle environment. Scientific literature is arguing that traffic systems should have self-explaining properties that are designed in such a way that they strictly conform to the expectations of the road user. The road and its surrounding elements that can be considered part of the road system, like road signs, bridges and tunnels, should be easily recognisable, easily distinguishable and easily interpreted. These restrictions posed by the design conform to expectations, will limit the use of smart road technologies. These restrictions also make it difficult for engineers to innovate road networks, as their technologies have to conform to not only the technical requirements but also to requirements indirectly posed by the road user (e.g. road signs). Road users might be negatively influenced and impacted by a new road innovation if the implementation of said innovation falls outside of the boundaries of expectation. It is therefore of the utmost importance that engineers have to take into consideration the human factors which can play a role when using a new road innovation or technology. Though the true impact can only be measured and accounted for scientifically when certain smart technologies are implemented and used, a hypothetical analysis of the smart road technology in light of the limits of human processing capabilities will be given in order to point out the implications and possibilities that innovations in road technology might bring. Perception is not merely passive, but an active construction process. It can be seen as the result of an interaction between sensory input, expectations, and other information processing characteristics of the driver and is also known as ‘perceptual expectancy’. This characterization can be seen as a predisposition to perceive things in a particular way. When drivers perceive the road environment differently than its designer originally had in mind, drivers will treat - and behave in - the road environment in a different manner than was expected by the designer. In actively constructing the environment, over 90% of the information that is processed by the driver is visual (Hills, 1980). Due to the limitations of the visual system and the complexity of the driving environment, a driver’s perception will mostly rely on top-down expectations. This means that drivers will perceive those occurrences that are in line with their expectations, and will most probably overlook events that do not conform with their expectations (Stroop, 1935; Biederman, Glass & Stacy, 1973). Perception itself is therefore shaped by top-down processes (Coon & Mitterer, 2008). It is because particular events are not expected to happen, rather than overdue reaction times, that a large portion of drivers are involved in crashes and collisions (Sussman et al., 1985). 3.2.1.2 A smart processing capability and methodological design decisions
  36. 36. Smart road in future 36 Following the information presented, engineers should design smart road technologies in such a way that they are in line with the expectations of the road user. This need has been identified in philosophy of design as well, where it has been problematized that the dependency of technological development on time and money has not been discussed in a necessary philosophical manner (Kroes, Franssen and Bucciarelli, 2009). Instead, many philosophy of design theories focus on explaining the technologically framed and instrumental rationality of engineers as bounded rationality (Simon, 1982). That explains that engineers stop generating options and their consequences in order to avoid information overload and calculative intractability in decision making. Considering smart road technologies, it can be said that glowing lines might not only be easily recognisable as a road marking, but furthermore they would need to be recognisable as the same road marking that was its predecessor. However, characteristics like colour and the very ‘glowing’ nature itself, might prove problematic, at least when newly implemented. Another conceptual understanding from philosophy of design that can be applicable here are theories of means-ends reasoning (Hughes, Kroes & Zwart, 2007). Such theories argue that engineers should not just be concerned with the evaluation of given means with respect to their ability to achieve given ends, but that they should also be concerned with the generation or construction of means for given ends. The introduction of new road technologies should therefore go in hand with educational means for the drivers. The road user would need time to accept the changes as part of their expectancy schematic. The meaning of the lines depends on their pattern for instance, a continued line means that it is not allowed to cross. Scenarios might occur with the glowing paint, e.g: that because of their phosphorescent capacity, a dashed line would rather resemble a continued line in the dark, or when reaching a certain speed. Even though there is no research so far that indicates such problems, this and similar hypothesis might be worth exploring before implementing new smart road technologies on a larger scale. 3.3 Sample size Design options should ideally meet functional requirements which have been identified amongst others, these may or may not originate from the prospective user (e.g. the driver’s processing capabilities). Once engineers choose a design option, it turns into a practical decision-making problem which is ought to be solved within a particular engineering-design task. With regard to this practical decision-making problem, engineers are facing several methodological problems, the most important one being identified in literature as the multi-criteria decision problem (Franssen, 2005). This problem addresses that various requirements of for instance smart road technologies are accompanied with their own operationalizations in terms of measurement procedures and design parameters for determining their performance. However, such measurements that determine safety and throughput design parameters might depend on practical operationalizations such as where and when traffic gets stuck or accidents happen, overlooking the why. Therefore, another human factor that engineers should take into account is that people have a limited amount of processing resources available. Whenever the task demand exceeds the amount of processing resources available, a task overload will result. In case a task will approach an overload, a road user will commonly adapt his or her behaviour in such a way that the demand of the load will become lighter. In such a case, drivers will ignore or skip additional tasks. In numbering and ranking quantitative scales that represent the various
  37. 37. Smart road in future 37 options out of which a choice is to be made, engineers come up with a result that adequately represents a ‘best score’. In considering a best solution, the optimal solution should include a driver’s task overload. The concept of task overload should be understood in relation to the mental workload, referring to the information processing demands that are brought about by the tasks that a driver needs to execute (e.g. De Waard, 1996). Specifically, a task overload can be seen as those aspects between a driver and its tasks that result in the tasks requirements exceeding a driver’s capacity to deliver (Gopher & Donchin, 1986). This task overload is determined by the task requirements as well as the capacity of a driver. Because different drivers have divergent capacities, the extent to which a driver experiences such an excess of tasks often depends of the characteristics of a specific driver and the variety of tasks that may call upon a variety of capacities. Basically, the idea is that a driver has a limited amount of processing resources available. These resources can be seen as a means, or an expedient, that can be used to cope with a difficult situation. Some authors have argued that this can be considered as one undividable resource (Kahneman, 1973), whereas others suggest that there are multiple resources available for different task components (Wickens, 1984). Although it can be considered clear to see that driver workload is an important factor influencing traffic behaviour, it remains a complex phenomenon that causes various effects on physiology, performance and subjective feelings (Theeuwes, Horst & Kuiken, 2012). Physiological effects can be considered an increase in heart rate or the release of stress hormones, performing effects relate to cognitive tunnelling (Williams, 1985) or the functional field of view (Williams, 1982), and an subjective effect can be the experience of the overload. It is important to measure these effect while driving (Horst, Hoekstra & Theeuwes, 1995), which is done often through driving simulator studies (Hoedemaeker, Hogema & Pauwelussen, 2006; Hogema, 2005; Verwey & Veltman, 1995) measuring e.g. the peripheral detection (Van Winsum, Martens & Herland, 1999; Martens, & Van Winsum, 2000; Miura, 1986; Williams, 1995). Additionally, it has been suggested that the arousal level of a driver can be reduced to such a low level that the vehicle is being driven on the cognitive automatic pilot, reducing the attentional capacity to perform (Young & Stanton, 1997; Wickens & Kessel, 1981). As a person becomes more experienced in driving, such as in steering the wheel, passing other cars, primary hazard monitoring, or singing along a favorite song, a driver becomes better in managing the fully integrated and interrelated set of subtasks. Under normal circumstances, due to this automation of primary and secondary tasks, driving commonly consists of long periods of relatively low workload. Until, however, the comfortable workload is abruptly interrupted, rising to extreme heights, also known as the ‘moment of terror and panic’ (Hancock, Lesch & Simmons, 2003). In managing the workload, a determining factor is seen as the anticipation of the moment in which the workload may increase. However, instead of relying on a driver’s intent to anticipate and reducing the workload, the predictability of the road environment remains crucial (Theeuwes & Godthelp, 2005). Human factors research in traffic behaviour therefore remains to have a strong claim that consistent and easily recognizable road environments allow for the development and collection of consistent behaviour (Theeuwes, Horst & Kuiken, 2012).
  38. 38. Smart road in future 38 3.3.1 A driver’s workload and the trade-offs of smart road technologies In choosing a solution that best represents the optimal solution to the designproblem, engineers have to make certain trade-offs. They have to judge the merit of one option in relation to another option. In weighing relative good and bad performances, a relatively good performance of the workload criterion would be that smart road technologies would ideally help in minimizing the risk of task overloads. For that, the amount of information that is assigned to or expected from a driver in a specified time period should not exceed the amount of processing resources available. Dynamic paint that becomes visible when temperatures are low, could negate the need for road signs that warn the driver about slick roads. In contrast to the road signs, the driver would only have to pay attention to the painted warning signs when they are actually relevant. Solar roads have a passive character, since they not necessarily demand the attention of a road user. However they could play a role in the workload management of the driver because of their physical properties. If the road surface would be for instance slicker when it is raining (slicker than ‘normal’ roads) the driver would have to adjust his driving. Currently, the solar roads’ constructors promise that this is not the case, but it still has to be proven in tests (FAQ, n.d.). Charging lanes also should not increasingly demand our attention in order to keep the workload within acceptable boundaries. The most important task, possibly leading to a workload overload, is switching lanes. However, drivers on a charging lane are inclined to stay on the lane to maintain the charging process. Therefore, charging lanes could reduce the possibility of task overload. Legislation could also be a determining factor in the amount of workload. Questions such as; is it allowed for combustion engine cars to drive on the charging lanes? If so, when and where? Will have to be answered and considered carefully also with regards to workload. By applying a different set of traffic rules and laws, a dichotomy could be created between car owners and users (electric and combustion drivers). It is interesting to mention the impact this might have on the preference of vehicle for a car owner and how this might have major implications, for instance in the field of sustainability and preserving the environment. However regarding more immediate behaviour on the road, this dichotomy could affect the physiology, performance and subjective feelings. Just imagine a major traffic jam in which you are stuck, whilst right next to you there is a charging lane on which just a few electric cars are driving right past you. And of course, in this scenario you are already late for this important meeting. This might very well lead to mild annoyance, to say the least. 3.4 Instrument of Data Collection 3.4.1 Ergonomic principles of drivers and the object worlds of engineers Just as drivers perceive and collect information from the road environment in a particular way, so do engineers. Within engineering design, it is argued that the decision-making of modern technology being done in teams poses a significant problem (Bucciarelli, 1994). The teams that the Rijkswaterstaat employs are presumably composed of experts from different disciplines, ranging from different types of engineers (e.g. structural engineers and specialist designers) to project managers and other consultants, not to mention collaborative practices. Each of these
  39. 39. Smart road in future 39 disciplines has its own theories, its own models of interdependencies, its own criteria of assessment, and so forth. It is argued that the professionals belonging to these disciplines should be considered as occupants of different object worlds (Bucciarelli, 1994). These professionals, however, might design individual information carriers in the way that fits their object world, not taking into account the basic ergonomic principles such as visibility, clarity and understandability in the way that the road user processes it. The aspects that designers intent when conveying information from the road environment to its road users must actually be read and comprehended properly to be successful (Campbell, Richard & Graham, 2008). What designers believe to be representative or contriving a particular purpose of effect, may not at all be found logical or comprehensible by the road users. An important role herein is reserved for some typical sensory characteristics on one side and characteristics of informational carriers on the other. Ascribed to detecting human sensory characteristics can elements such as light intensity, contrast in brightness and colour, and conspicuity of objects. After the precondition of information being detectable, cognitive functions such as expectancy, memory, recognition and comprehension come into play, each which take an amount of time in the information processing sequence. When information carriers are meeting basic ergonomic principles, visual perception (Hills, 1980) and the equilibrium can be considered crucial, as the vast information that is needed for driving pertains vision and changes in the equilibrium may warm a driver for potentially unsafe conditions. All senses however contain the elementary characteristics of having an absolute threshold, having differential thresholds, displaying adaption, and having a non-linear relationship between the stimulus and the perceived sensation. In detecting information carriers, these human sensory characteristics can be considered important for basic ergonomic principles. 3.4.1 Validity and reliability test. If there are going to be different team members within the party that has been employed by Rijkswaterstaat, it is going to be likely that certain members are going to disagree on how to relatively rank and evaluate the different designs under discussion. Most probably, agreeing upon one option as being the best might not be arrived at through an algorithmic method that exemplifies engineering rationality. Rather, the team as a whole – in approaching the abstract design problem – will rely on models social interaction e.g. bargaining and strategic thinking (Franssen & Bucciarelli, 2004). With regard to smart road technologies, it is pivotal for engineers for consider that drivers will also perceive and collect relevant information from the road environment in a particular way. Hence, also smart road technologies should take into account the basic ergonomic principles such as visibility, clarity and understandability for the road user. The charging lanes should have a very understandable appearance that indicates their use and difference. With the use of contrasting colors, the ergonomic principles can be better ensured. An example of the use of colour would be the typical dutch bicycle lane, which is indicated mostly with a specific colour of red.
  40. 40. Smart road in future 40 Because of their luminescent properties, glowing lines have the ability to be properly visible without need for additional street lighting. It is however important that the patterns in which they are used, are similar to the normal street paint. These patterns indicate specific traffic rules and are therefore very important and not to be misunderstood. As mentioned before, the glowing lines would still have to be recognisable as dashed lines, even at great speed, in order for the technology to conform to human processing capabilities. Their luminescent properties might possibly challenge this prerequisite, which could lead to misunderstandings about whether or not it is allowed to pass cars. In the current state of development, glowing lines do not yet have the properties to light up for a whole night. A combination of solar roads and glowing lines, could ensure the visibility of the lines by using the solar produced energy for street lighting. Maybe an even more innovative use of the solar road without the dynamic paint, could be an integration of LED lines that are powered by the solar energy. In order to ensure proper visibility at all times, there would be a back up power system in this scenario. 3.5 Research Model developed When trying to understand the interactions between humans and smart road systems, it is hard to discard the role of the car. This role is changing over time, as can be seen withrecent vehicles that are capable of sensing their environment and navigating without any human input. With the car gaining more and more autonomy, one of the biggest issues in relation to the highly automated systems is that of drivers facing a loss of control (Perrow, 1984). With regard to smart road technologies an important questions arise; such as, what is the impact of automation systems both of cars as well as roads, on a driver’s perceived loss of control? Some of the most important studies regarding the perceived loss of control can be tracked back to the highly automated systems found in airplanes. Studies have indicated that due to the infrequency of accidents, it can lead pilots to have a sense of complacency and overreliance in the automation systems. This, in turn, can lead to a lacking situational awareness and to the inability to cope with automation surprises, even of well-trained people (Parasuraman et al., 2008, Manzey et al., 2008, Sarter et al., 1997 and Manzey and Bahner, 2005). In this short complementary piece on car automation technologies, four relevant points have to be taken into consideration. First, studies have indicated that the level of human control determines the acceptance of automation (TAUCIS, 2006). In distinguishing between the need for control and the actual perceived control, drivers have indicated that they perceive less control than they preferred to have. In short, drivers will accept smart technologies as long as they have the means to exercise the overriding and concluding control over the system. Second, a high rate of automation errors leads to a decreased level of trust in the system (de Vries et al., 2003). However this should become less of a problem with the assumption that due to experimentation, current technologies become less susceptible to the number of automation malfunctions. Third, studies have shown that the longer a driver uses automation technology, the more familiar he or she will become with it (Larsson, 2012). Although this is not the same as trust, it might very well lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness, and understanding of how to drive safely. And
  41. 41. Smart road in future 41 last, drivers experience a greater externality when using automated systems rather than being subject to the usual manual conditions (Stanton & Young, 2005), but only under conditions that entail a high level of control (Fink & Weyer, 2014). Taking into account such findings, road designers as well as car designers should integrate a hybrid interaction of automated systems or cars and smart road technologies. Considering that drivers nowadays feel increasingly comfortable with driver assistance systems when they are implemented with regard manoeuvring (Weyer, Fink, & Adelt, 2015), considering both tales of the tape could only reinforce safety and mobility.

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