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Tfin 50 part 1

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Tfin 50 part 1

  1. 1. TFIN50 Financial Accounting I Part 1 of 2 mySAP ERP Financials Date Training Center Instructors Education Website Participant Handbook Course Version: 2006 Q2 Course Duration: 10 Day(s) Material Number: 50080192 An SAP course - use it to learn, reference it for work
  2. 2. Copyright Copyright © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. Trademarks • Microsoft®, WINDOWS®, NT®, EXCEL®, Word®, PowerPoint® and SQL Server® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. • IBM®, DB2®, OS/2®, DB2/6000®, Parallel Sysplex®, MVS/ESA®, RS/6000®, AIX®, S/390®, AS/400®, OS/390®, and OS/400® are registered trademarks of IBM Corporation. • ORACLE® is a registered trademark of ORACLE Corporation. • INFORMIX®-OnLine for SAP and INFORMIX® Dynamic ServerTM are registered trademarks of Informix Software Incorporated. • UNIX®, X/Open®, OSF/1®, and Motif® are registered trademarks of the Open Group. • Citrix®, the Citrix logo, ICA®, Program Neighborhood®, MetaFrame®, WinFrame®, VideoFrame®, MultiWin® and other Citrix product names referenced herein are trademarks of Citrix Systems, Inc. • HTML, DHTML, XML, XHTML are trademarks or registered trademarks of W3C®, World Wide Web Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. • JAVA® is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. • JAVASCRIPT® is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc., used under license for technology invented and implemented by Netscape. • SAP, SAP Logo, R/2, RIVA, R/3, SAP ArchiveLink, SAP Business Workflow, WebFlow, SAP EarlyWatch, BAPI, SAPPHIRE, Management Cockpit, mySAP.com Logo and mySAP.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries all over the world. All other products mentioned are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. Disclaimer THESE MATERIALS ARE PROVIDED BY SAP ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND SAP EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR APPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WITH RESPECT TO THESE MATERIALS AND THE SERVICE, INFORMATION, TEXT, GRAPHICS, LINKS, OR ANY OTHER MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS CONTAINED HEREIN. IN NO EVENT SHALL SAP BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION LOST REVENUES OR LOST PROFITS, WHICH MAY RESULT FROM THE USE OF THESE MATERIALS OR INCLUDED SOFTWARE COMPONENTS.
  3. 3. About This Handbook This handbook is intended to complement the instructor-led presentation of this course, and serve as a source of reference. It is not suitable for self-study. Typographic Conventions American English is the standard used in this handbook. The following typographic conventions are also used. Type Style Description Example text Words or characters that appear on the screen. These include field names, screen titles, pushbuttons as well as menu names, paths, and options. Also used for cross-references to other documentation both internal (in this documentation) and external (in other locations, such as SAPNet). Example text Emphasized words or phrases in body text, titles of graphics, and tables EXAMPLE TEXT Names of elements in the system. These include report names, program names, transaction codes, table names, and individual key words of a programming language, when surrounded by body text, for example SELECT and INCLUDE. Example text Screen output. This includes file and directory names and their paths, messages, names of variables and parameters, and passages of the source text of a program. Example text Exact user entry. These are words and characters that you enter in the system exactly as they appear in the documentation. <Example text> Variable user entry. Pointed brackets indicate that you replace these words and characters with appropriate entries. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. iii
  4. 4. About This Handbook TFIN50 Icons in Body Text The following icons are used in this handbook. Icon Meaning For more information, tips, or background Note or further explanation of previous point Exception or caution Procedures Indicates that the item is displayed in the instructor's presentation. iv © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  5. 5. Contents Course Overview......................................................... vii Course Goals ...........................................................vii Course Objectives .....................................................vii Unit 1: Basic settings ..................................................... 1 Organizational Units ....................................................3 Variant Principle....................................................... 15 Fiscal Year ............................................................. 17 Currencies ............................................................. 27 Unit 2: Master Data ...................................................... 41 General Ledger Accounts............................................ 42 Customer/Vendor Accounts ......................................... 73 Bank Accounts .......................................................108 Unit 3: Document Control............................................. 119 Document Structure .................................................120 Posting Periods ......................................................147 Posting Authorizations ..............................................158 Simple Documents in Financial Accounting ......................165 Unit 4: Posting Control ................................................181 Default Values ........................................................183 Change Control ......................................................191 Document Reversal..................................................200 Payment Terms and Cash Discounts..............................209 Taxes ..................................................................231 Cross-Company Code Transactions ..............................255 Unit 5: Clearing..........................................................271 Clearing Open Items.................................................272 Incoming and Outgoing Payments.................................288 Payment Differences ................................................301 Exchange Rate Differences ........................................318 Unit 6: Cash journal ....................................................325 Cash Journal Configuration.........................................326 Cash Journal Transaction...........................................336 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. v
  6. 6. Contents TFIN50 Unit 7: Special G/L transactions.....................................353 Application Area for Special G/L Transactions...................354 Configuration of Special G/L Transactions .......................386 Unit 8: Parking Documents...........................................403 Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document...........404 Parking Documents and Processing Parked Documents.......419 Document Parking and Workflow ..................................431 Appendix 1: Data Sheet ............................................455 Appendix 2: Menu Paths ...........................................461 Index .......................................................................477 vi © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  7. 7. Course Overview Target Audience This course is intended for the following audiences: • Solution consultants responsible for the implementation of Financial Accounting with mySAP ERP Financials Course Prerequisites Required Knowledge • Business proficiency in the area of Financial Accounting (Accounting). • SAP120 Navigation • ERP001 Management Empowered by mySAP ERP • ERP020 Management Empowered by mySAP ERP Financials Course Goals This course will prepare you to: • Configure and utilize the organizational units, master data and documents from Financial accounting in mySAP ERP Financials • Configure and utilize the SAP transaction processes in external accounting Course Objectives After completing this course, you will be able to: • Create organizational units for Financial Accounting • Maintain master data • Influence the entry of posting transactions • Analyze and explain posting transactions • Display special G/L transactions in the system • Use the document parking function within the system and define it appropriately SAP Software Component Information The information in this course pertains to the following SAP Software Components and releases: 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. vii
  8. 8. Course Overview TFIN50 Curriculum Path Figure 1: Solution Consultant mySAP Financials - Financial Accounting viii © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  9. 9. Unit 1 Basic settings Unit Overview • Company code, business areas • Fiscal Year • Currencies • Variant principle Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Map the accounting structure of your company using mySAP ERP Financials organizational units • Explain the meaning of the terms “company code” and “business area” and their differences • Create a company code • Explain the use and advantages of the variant principle • Explain the necessity and use of a fiscal year variant • Explain different types of fiscal year variants • Define a fiscal year variant according to your requirements • Assign the fiscal year variant to a company code • Define currencies in the mySAP ERP system • Explain the meaning of different exchange rate types • Maintain exchange rates • Use the different tools for maintaining exchange rates • Explain the options for maintaining exchange rates Unit Contents Lesson: Organizational Units.....................................................3 Exercise 1: Organizational Units ............................................9 Lesson: Variant Principle ....................................................... 15 Lesson: Fiscal Year.............................................................. 17 Exercise 2: The Fiscal Year ................................................ 21 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 1
  10. 10. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies .............................................................. 27 Exercise 3: Currencies...................................................... 35 2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  11. 11. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Lesson: Organizational Units Lesson Overview Reflect the organizational units in accounting with mySAP ERP • Explain the terms client, company code, and business area • Create company codes and business areas • Copy company codes • Make country-specific settings Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Map the accounting structure of your company using mySAP ERP Financials organizational units • Explain the meaning of the terms “company code” and “business area” and their differences • Create a company code Business Example Your client's company is a medium-sized enterprise based in the course country. The enterprise is a single legal entity. Figure 2: Organizational Units in mySAP ERP Financials The client is the highest level in the mySAP ERP system hierarchy. Specifications or data that is valid for all organizational units in mySAP ERP applications (such as exchange rates, for example) are entered at the client level. This eliminates the 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 3
  12. 12. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 need to enter this information more than once. Each client is an independent unit with separate master records and a complete set of tables and data. Users must enter a client key and have a user master record in the client in order to log on to the system. Important organizational units in Financials: • Company Code (for external purposes) A company code represents an independent balancing/legal accounting entity. An example would be a company with independent accounts within a corporate group. Financial statements required by law can be created at company code level. Therefore, a company code is the minimum structure necessary in mySAP ERP Financials. In an international business, operations are often scattered across numerous countries. Since most government and tax authorities require the registration of a legal entity for every company, a separate company code is usually created per country. • Business Area (for internal purposes) Business areas represent separate areas of operation within an organization and can be used across company codes. They are balancing entities that can create their own set of financial statements for internal purposes. It is therefore possible to save and evaluate transaction figures for each business area. The use of business areas is optional. 4 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  13. 13. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Figure 3: Creating a Company Code Hint: The IMG suggests the following order: • Copy, Delete, Check Company Code • Edit Company Code Data Copy an existing company code. This has the advantage that you also copy the existing company code-specific parameters. After copying, you can edit data in your new company code. You have to select a four digit alphanumeric key as the company code key. This key identifies the company code and, for example, must be entered later when posting business transactions or creating company code-specific master data. Hint: The use of the copy function is optional. You can also define the company code and carry out the configuration yourself, without using a reference company code. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 5
  14. 14. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Figure 4: Company Code The objects in the activity Edit Company Code Data include the following: • The address data is required for correspondence and is recorded on evaluation reports. • You must define a currency for each company code. Accounts are managed in the company code currency. All other currencies are interpreted as foreign. The system translates the amounts posted in a foreign currency into the company code currency. The currency defined in the company code is known in mySAP ERP Financials as local currency. • You must enter a language key so that the system can create texts automatically in the correct language; for example, when issuing checks. • The country key specifies which country is to be regarded as the home country. The system interprets all other countries as foreign. This is important for business or payment transactions, since different forms are required for foreign payment transactions. The system also supports different address formats for foreign correspondence. • When you define a business area, you only have to enter a four digit alphanumeric key and a short description. 6 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  15. 15. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Figure 5: Country Templates In the mySAP ERP standard system, company code 0001 is a template for a general company code with chart of accounts INT and no special country specifications. If you need a company code for a country that has a country template, you can use the country installation program to copy the country-specific tables from the country template to company code 0001. Company code 0001 is then configured for the corresponding country. You should then copy this company code into your new company code. You may then start the country installation program again to create a template for another country and so on. Hint: The country installation program not only creates a country-specific company code template but also a country-specific template for controlling areas, plants, purchasing organizations, sales organizations, credit control areas, financial management areas, and so on. Caution: Do not forget to copy the country template before you continue. Do not use company code 0001 as your productive company code because the country version program always uses this company code as the target company code. Also, you should only run the country installation program in a new installation of mySAP ERP and not in an upgrade installation. This is because the structure of the country-specific Customizing may have changed from one mySAP ERP release to another. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 7
  16. 16. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 8 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  17. 17. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Exercise 1: Organizational Units Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create a company code Business Example Your client's company is a medium sized enterprise based in the course country. The enterprise is a single legal entity. Task 1: Create a company code GR## that reflects your client's company. In the rest of this course, you will be working in this company code. 1. Company code 1000 already contains all the necessary settings and data. Copy company code 1000 to your new company code GR##. Also copy the general ledger accounts at this point! 2. Change the definition of your company code GR##: Company name: Group ## Country: Course country Currency: Local currency Language: Local language You can fill the other fields to meet your requirements. 3. Review the global parameters that were copied for your company code when you created it. Task 2: Search the Implementation Guide (IMG) for all the settings that are relevant for the “business area balance sheet”. Hint: Use the binoculars icon to search for "Business area fin. statements". 1. Look for all the settings that are relevant for the “business area balance sheet”. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 9
  18. 18. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Task 3: True or false? 1. You can assign a business area to a company code directly. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 10 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  19. 19. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Solution 1: Organizational Units Task 1: Create a company code GR## that reflects your client's company. In the rest of this course, you will be working in this company code. 1. Company code 1000 already contains all the necessary settings and data. Copy company code 1000 to your new company code GR##. Also copy the general ledger accounts at this point! a) IMG Menu Path: Tools → Customizing → IMG → Execute Project. Choose the "SAP Reference IMG" pushbutton. IMG transaction code: SPRO Copy company code: IMG: Enterprise Structure → Definition → Financial Accounting → Edit, Copy, Delete, Check Company Code → Copy, delete, check company code Menu bar: Organizational object → Copy org. object Field Name or Data Type Values From Company Code 1000 To Company Code GR## Choose “Enter”. Field Name or Data Type Values Do you want to copy the company code data of the G/L accounts? Yes! Do you want to assign another local currency to the target company code? No Confirm the "Information: Certain data was not copied, see long text" dialog box by pressing "Enter". Confirm other warning messages by pressing "Enter" and continue copying. 2. Change the definition of your company code GR##: Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 11
  20. 20. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Company name: Group ## Country: Course country Currency: Local currency Language: Local language You can fill the other fields to meet your requirements. a) Select the green arrow to return to the dialog box and select "Edit company code data" or follow the next menu path. Change the definition of the company code: MG: Enterprise Structure → Definition → Financial Accounting → Edit, Copy, Delete, Check Company Code → Edit Company Code Data. Select GR##. Field Name or Data Type Values Company Name Group ## City Any city Country Course country Currency Local currency Language Local language Choose “Save". 3. Review the global parameters that were copied for your company code when you created it. a) Review the global company code parameters. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Company Code → Enter Global Parameters Doubleclick on your company code to review the global parameters. Note: Congratulations! You have just created your own company code! Continued on next page 12 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  21. 21. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Task 2: Search the Implementation Guide (IMG) for all the settings that are relevant for the “business area balance sheet”. Hint: Use the binoculars icon to search for "Business area fin. statements". 1. Look for all the settings that are relevant for the “business area balance sheet”. a) Enabling Business Area Financial Statements Check Activation of Business Area Balance Sheets Activate Business Area Balance Sheets Task 3: True or false? 1. You can assign a business area to a company code directly. Answer: False Business areas are not directly assigned to company codes. This makes it possible to evaluate transaction figures for each business area beyond the boundaries of the company code too. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 13
  22. 22. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Map the accounting structure of your company using mySAP ERP Financials organizational units • Explain the meaning of the terms “company code” and “business area” and their differences • Create a company code 14 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  23. 23. TFIN50 Lesson: Variant Principle Lesson: Variant Principle Lesson Overview You get a theoretical insight using the variable principle within the SAP system. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Explain the use and advantages of the variant principle Business Example Your customer has been informed by an experienced consultant that there is a principle in mySAP ERP that appears in several configuration tables and that simplifies the system for him. Figure 6: The Variant Principle The following example should explain this principle: Create a fiscal year variant • Define the variant: K4 is your fiscal year variant. • Determine values for the variant K4: Define the properties of fiscal year K4. • Assign the variant to mySAP ERP objects: Assign K4 to various company codes that use this fiscal year. • The main advantage for using variants is that it is easier to maintain properties which are common among several business objects. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 15
  24. 24. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Explain the use and advantages of the variant principle 16 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  25. 25. TFIN50 Lesson: Fiscal Year Lesson: Fiscal Year Lesson Overview This lesson explains how you define different fiscal year variants. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Explain the necessity and use of a fiscal year variant • Explain different types of fiscal year variants • Define a fiscal year variant according to your requirements • Assign the fiscal year variant to a company code Business Example The company's fiscal year corresponds to the calendar year. The Accounting Manager wants four special periods for postings for year-end closing. Figure 7: The Fiscal Year To assign business transactions to different periods, you have to define a fiscal year with posting periods. You define the fiscal year as a variant that is assigned to the company code. The fiscal year variant contains the definition of posting periods and special periods. Special periods are used for postings that are not assigned to time periods, but to the business process of “year-end closing”. In total, you can define 16 periods. The system derives the posting period from the posting date. If the posting date falls within the last normal posting period, you can post the transaction in one of the special periods. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 17
  26. 26. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Example: The graphic shows a fiscal year with 12 posting periods and 4 special periods. If the posting date falls in the 12th period, you can post the transaction in one of the four special periods instead. Standard fiscal year variants are already defined in the system and you can use them as templates. Hint: The fiscal year variant does not specify whether a period is open or closed. This data is managed in another table. The fiscal year variant only defines the number of periods and their start and finish dates. Figure 8: Year-Independent Fiscal Year Variant If each fiscal year of a fiscal year variant uses the same number of periods, and the posting periods always start and end on the same day of the year, the variant is year-independent. A year-independent fiscal year variant can be defined as: • Calendar year • Non-calendar year If the fiscal year is defined as the calendar year, the posting periods are equal to the months of the year. Therefore, a fiscal year that is a calendar year must have 12 posting periods. 18 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  27. 27. TFIN50 Lesson: Fiscal Year If the fiscal year is defined as a non-calendar year, you have to define the posting periods by assigning end dates to each period. A non-calendar year can have between 1 and 16 posting periods. If the non-calendar year does not start on January 1st, the periods of the year that belong to the former or the coming fiscal year must have an indicator -1 or +1. The example above on the right shows a non-calendar year with 6 posting periods which goes from April to March. The months January to March therefore still belong to the old fiscal year and have the indicator -1. If the fiscal year differs from the calendar year, but the posting periods correspond to calendar months, the day limit for February should be 29 to consider leap years. Fiscal years are normally year-independent. Figure 9: Year-Specific Fiscal Year Variants A fiscal year variant has to be defined as year-specific if one of the following conditions is fulfilled: The start and end dates of the posting periods for some fiscal years are different to the dates for other fiscal years. Some fiscal years use a different number of posting periods. If all of the fiscal years of a fiscal year variant have the same number of posting periods, only the different period dates for the different years have to be defined (see example on the left). If one year of a fiscal year variant has less posting periods than the others, it is called a shortened fiscal year (see example on the right). This could be required, for example, if closing has to be carried out before the end of the normal fiscal year; (for example, if the beginning of the fiscal year should be changed or if the company was sold). You have to define the shortened fiscal year and its number of posting periods before you can define the period dates. For this year, you can only assign a lower number of posting periods. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 19
  28. 28. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 20 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  29. 29. TFIN50 Lesson: Fiscal Year Exercise 2: The Fiscal Year Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create a calendar year-based fiscal year variant and assign it to your company code • Create a quarter-based fiscal year variant Business Example The company's fiscal year corresponds to the calendar year. The Accounting Manager wants four special periods for postings for year-end closing. Task: Check the properties of the fiscal year variants. Define the fiscal year variants. 1. Which of the predefined fiscal year variants are Calendar year Year-specific 2. For what purposes are year-specific fiscal year variants usually used? 3. Create a calendar year variant ## for your company with 12 posting periods and four special periods Hint: Add 30 to your group number since some of the existing data begins with 01, 02, and so on. For example, if your group number is 02, add 02 + 30 and enter 32 for your fiscal year variant. 4. Assign the fiscal year variant that you created to your company code GR##. 5. Create a fiscal year variant ## + 60 for a fiscal year with just four posting periods and one special period. The length of one posting period is three months. The fiscal year runs from April to March. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 21
  30. 30. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Solution 2: The Fiscal Year Task: Check the properties of the fiscal year variants. Define the fiscal year variants. 1. Which of the predefined fiscal year variants are Calendar year 01, K0, K1, K2, K3, K4 Year-specific AA, AM, R1, UL, WK 2. For what purposes are year-specific fiscal year variants usually used? Answer: The year-specific fiscal year variants are used: • If the start and end date of the posting periods differ from year to year • If one fiscal year has fewer posting periods than the others (shortened fiscal year) Continued on next page 22 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  31. 31. TFIN50 Lesson: Fiscal Year 3. Create a calendar year variant ## for your company with 12 posting periods and four special periods Hint: Add 30 to your group number since some of the existing data begins with 01, 02, and so on. For example, if your group number is 02, add 02 + 30 and enter 32 for your fiscal year variant. a) Create a fiscal year variant based on the calendar year. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Fiscal Year → Maintain Fiscal Year Variant (Maintain Shortened Fisc. Year) Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values FV ## + 30 Hint: Add 30 to your group number since some of the existing data begins with 01, 02, and so on. For example, if your group number is 02, add 02 + 30 and enter 32 for your fiscal year variant. Field Name or Data Type Values Description 12 periods calendar year ## Calendar Year Number of posting periods 12 Number of special periods 4 Choose "Save“. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 23
  32. 32. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 4. Assign the fiscal year variant that you created to your company code GR##. a) Assign the fiscal year variant to a company code. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Fiscal Year → Assign Company Code to a Fiscal Year Variant Confirm any information with “Enter”. Field Name or Data Type Values Fiscal Year Variant ## + 30 Choose “Save". Continued on next page 24 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  33. 33. TFIN50 Lesson: Fiscal Year 5. Create a fiscal year variant ## + 60 for a fiscal year with just four posting periods and one special period. The length of one posting period is three months. The fiscal year runs from April to March. a) Define a fiscal year variant with four posting periods and one special period. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Fiscal Year → Maintain Fiscal Year Variant (Maintain Shortened Fisc. Year) Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values FV ## + 60 Description 4 periods - Group ## Number of Posting Periods 4 Number of Special Periods 1 Choose “Save". Select the green arrow to return to the overview screen. Define the period dates: Select fiscal year variant ## + 60. Doubleclick on “Periods" in the dialog structure. Edit → New Entries Month Day Period Year Shift 03 31 4 —1 06 30 1 0 09 30 2 0 12 31 3 0 Choose “Save". Note: You have just created a calendar-year fiscal year variant and assigned it to your company code. You have also created a non-calendar fiscal year variant. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 25
  34. 34. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Explain the necessity and use of a fiscal year variant • Explain different types of fiscal year variants • Define a fiscal year variant according to your requirements • Assign the fiscal year variant to a company code 26 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  35. 35. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Lesson: Currencies Lesson Overview This lesson presents the configurations options in this area. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Define currencies in the mySAP ERP system • Explain the meaning of different exchange rate types • Maintain exchange rates • Use the different tools for maintaining exchange rates • Explain the options for maintaining exchange rates Business Example The company has customers and vendors in several foreign countries. The head accountant is worried that keeping the exchange rates up to date in the system will involve a substantial amount of work. You need to convince him that it is much less work than expected if the tools mySAP ERP offers are used. Figure 10: Currencies and Exchange Rate Types A currency key must be assigned to every currency used. Most currencies are already defined in the SAP System with standard international currency keys. Each currency key can have a validity date. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 27
  36. 36. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 For every combination of two currencies, you can maintain different exchange rates which are distinguished by an exchange rate type. These different exchange rates can be used for various purposes such as valuation, conversion, translation, and planning. Figure 11: Translation Ratios The relationship between currencies must be maintained per exchange rate type and currency pair using translation ratios. This usually has to be performed only once. Because inflation can heavily influence the relationship between currencies, translation ratios can be maintained on a time period basis. Figure 12: Maintaining Exchange Rates 28 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  37. 37. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Maintaining exchange rates is an on-going task. To reduce maintenance, mySAP ERP offers several tools. For each exchange rate type you can use one of the following tools: • Inversion (of the tools available, inversion is the oldest and is seldom used today) • Base currency • Exchange rate spreads Hint: You can only use one of these tools for each exchange rate type. You can however use different tools for different exchange rate types. Using report RFTBFF00, which enables you to transfer external market data in file form, you can automatically update the exchange rate table by uploading an input file in Multicash form. You can also use the reports RFTBDF07 and RFTBDF14 to transfer exchange rates; the data is transferred realtime using a datafeed interface if the external datafeed supports realtime provision of exchange rates. Remote Function Call (RFC) creates a direct connection between an external system and the SAP System. For more information about the file input format, data providers, file structures, and so on, see the documentation for this report. Figure 13: Exchange Rate Spreads 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 29
  38. 38. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Exchange rate spreads between the bank buying/selling rate and average rate usually remain constant. If the exchange rate spread of an exchange rate type is entered in the system, you only have to maintain the average rate since the buying and the selling rate can be derived by adding/subtracting the exchange rate spread to/from the average rate. Combination of base currency and exchange rate spreads: A very efficient combination of the exchange rate tools is: • Using a base currency for the average rate (M) • Using the exchange rate spreads to calculate the buying and selling rates (B and G) Figure 14: Base Currency A base currency can be assigned to an exchange rate type. You then only have to maintain exchange rates for all other currencies into this base currency. A translation between two foreign currencies is calculated via the base currency, that is, by combining two exchange rates. Until Release 4.0A, you could not use more than one base currency per exchange rate type. Legal requirements may make it necessary to use different base currencies for the translation into different currencies. 30 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  39. 39. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Figure 15: Direct/Indirect Quotation of Exchange Rates All mySAP ERP applications and functions process exchange rates using direct quotation as well as indirect quotation. Whether the exchange rate is defined or communicated using the direct or indirect method of quotation depends on the market standard or the individual business transaction. The use of indirect quotation is neither application nor country-specific - it affects all the components in which exchange rates are used. In direct quotation, one unit of foreign currency is quoted for the local currency, whereas in indirect quotation, one unit of local currency is quoted for the foreign currency. Example: Local currency = EUR, foreign currency = USD • Direct quotation: 1 USD = 1.07021 EUR • One unit of foreign currency USD costs the displayed number of units of local currency • Indirect quotation: 1 USD = 0.93439 EUR • For one unit of the local currency EUR you will receive the displayed number of units of the foreign currency. For each currency pair you can define either the direct quotation or the indirect quotation as the standard notation for the exchange rate. If the exchange rate you enter does not have the same quotation as the standard quotation set up here, the exchange rate is highlighted to show this. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 31
  40. 40. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Figure 16: Worklists for Maintaining Exchange Rates In lots of companies, the maintenance of the exchange rate table TCURR is shared by several employees. The following problems can occur: • Employees maintain incorrect exchange rates (unknowingly or unintentionally) • Employees maintain the exchange rates with the incorrect quotation (indirect instead of direct, or vice versa) • The table is very large, and maintaining it is very time-consuming (scrolling is necessary) • The table TCURR cannot be maintained by more than one user simultaneously. As of release R/3 Enterprise you can define worklists and then maintain the exchange rates using the transaction TCURMNT. This has the following advantages: • Only the relevant exchange rates can be maintained. You can also assign authorizations for worklists. • Only the relevant quotation can be maintained. • The worklist is smaller and therefore clearer. • Parallel processing of different worklists is possible. 32 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  41. 41. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Figure 17: Design of exchange rate in different quotations Exchange rates can be entered as a direct or indirect quotation. You can maintain two prefixes that can be used to differentiate between direct and indirect quotation exchange rates during input and display. If you do not enter a prefix, the standard setting is valid: • “” (blank, without a prefix) for direct quotation exchange rates • “/” for indirect quotation exchange rates Scenario 1: If you mostly work with direct quotations and only rarely use indirect quotations, you should use the standard setting. In this way you can enter direct quotation exchange rates without a prefix. Scenario 2: If you increasingly use indirect quotations as well as direct quotations, you should define a separate prefix for both, for example: • “*” for direct quotation exchange rates, “/” for indirect quotation exchange rates • If you follow this suggestion, the configuration does not allow exchange rates to be entered without a prefix, an error message occurs. Users are therefore forced to consider which is the correct quotation and enter the rate with a valid prefix. 3. Scenario: If you use mostly indirect quotations, you can check the setting as follows: • “*” for direct quotation exchange rates, “ ” (blank) for indirect quotation exchange rates • This configuration allows indirect quotation exchange rates to be entered without a prefix whereas the less used direct quotation exchange rates have to be entered with a prefix. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 33
  42. 42. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 In SAP Note no. 783877 you will find an overview of FAQs about currency translation. 34 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  43. 43. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Exercise 3: Currencies Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Check your knowledge about maintaining exchange rates in mySAP ERP Business Example The company has customers and vendors in several foreign countries. The head accountant is worried that it will be a substantial amount of work to keep the exchange rates up-to-date within the system. You need to convince him/her that it is much less work than expected if the tools provided by mySAP ERP are used. Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. Name the tools for maintaining the exchange rates: Task 2: Answer the following question: 1. In mySAP ERP currencies are defined using . Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 35
  44. 44. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Task 3: Answer the following question: 1. Name three commonly used exchange rate types and what they are used for: Task 4: Answer the following question: 1. Name the IMG path where you define the base currency. 36 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  45. 45. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Solution 3: Currencies Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. Name the tools for maintaining the exchange rates: Answer: • Inversion • Base currency • Exchange rate spreads Task 2: Answer the following question: 1. In mySAP ERP currencies are defined using currency keys. Answer: currency keys Task 3: Answer the following question: 1. Name three commonly used exchange rate types and what they are used for: Answer: • M: Average rate for posting and clearing • G: Buying rate • B: Bank selling rate Task 4: Answer the following question: 1. Name the IMG path where you define the base currency. Answer: SAP NetWeaver → General Settings → Currencies → Check Exchange Rate Types 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 37
  46. 46. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Define currencies in the mySAP ERP system • Explain the meaning of different exchange rate types • Maintain exchange rates • Use the different tools for maintaining exchange rates • Explain the options for maintaining exchange rates 38 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  47. 47. TFIN50 Unit Summary Unit Summary You should now be able to: • Map the accounting structure of your company using mySAP ERP Financials organizational units • Explain the meaning of the terms “company code” and “business area” and their differences • Create a company code • Explain the use and advantages of the variant principle • Explain the necessity and use of a fiscal year variant • Explain different types of fiscal year variants • Define a fiscal year variant according to your requirements • Assign the fiscal year variant to a company code • Define currencies in the mySAP ERP system • Explain the meaning of different exchange rate types • Maintain exchange rates • Use the different tools for maintaining exchange rates • Explain the options for maintaining exchange rates 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 39
  48. 48. Unit Summary TFIN50 40 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  49. 49. Unit 2 Master Data Unit Overview Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Define and use a chart of accounts • Describe the structure of a general ledger account • Control the format of a general ledger account • Name and describe different types of general ledger accounts • Create, maintain, and control general ledger accounts • Describe how you can change several general ledger accounts at the same time • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of group and country charts of accounts • Describe the structure of customer and vendor accounts • Discuss the similarities and differences between general ledger and customer and vendor accounts • Control and maintain customer and vendor accounts • Explain relationships between customer and vendor accounts • Maintain bank master data • Define house banks • Create accounts at your house banks • Maintain the links between bank and G/L accounts Unit Contents Lesson: General Ledger Accounts ............................................ 42 Exercise 4: General Ledger Accounts .................................... 63 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts .......................................... 73 Exercise 5: Customer/Vendor Accounts.................................. 91 Lesson: Bank Accounts ........................................................108 Exercise 6: Bank Master Data ............................................113 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 41
  50. 50. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Lesson Overview You will be introduced into the Master Records of General Ledger Accounts. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Define and use a chart of accounts • Describe the structure of a general ledger account • Control the format of a general ledger account • Name and describe different types of general ledger accounts • Create, maintain, and control general ledger accounts • Describe how you can change several general ledger accounts at the same time • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of group and country charts of accounts Business Example The accounting manager has decided that the chart of accounts and company code settings for the G/L accounts can be copied from company code 1000. However, the accounting department requires additional general ledger accounts to process authorized travel expenses and payments. The expense account numbers must be in a separate number interval. Figure 18: Chart of Accounts 42 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  51. 51. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts The chart of accounts is a variant which contains the structure and the basic information about general ledger accounts. You define the chart of accounts with a four character ID. You define the individual components of the chart of account, for example, language, length of the G/L account number, group chart of accounts, status. The chart of accounts must be assigned to every company code for which accounts are to be set up based on the structure concerned. Figure 19: Define Chart of Accounts The maintenance language is the language in which account descriptions are maintained. The length of the G/L account numbers can be from 1 to 10 digits. Via the type of integration between general ledger accounts and cost types, you can control to what extent the cost master record is maintained when you maintain the G/L account master records of profit and loss statement accounts. You can maintain cost types manually, however, you also have the option of maintaining them automatically. When you save a new G/L account, the corresponding cost type is created automatically. The prerequisite however, is that a default value for the cost element category is defined for this cost element, since if no default value exists, the system assumes that no cost element is to be created. You can assign a group account number for each G/L account. This account number is used for cross-company code reporting if the company codes use different charts of accounts. If you enter a group chart of accounts in the chart of accounts, the system defines that you have to enter a group account number in 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 43
  52. 52. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 the corresponding field in the G/L account definition (required entry field) and checks whether the group account number you have entered exists in the group chart of accounts. A chart of accounts that is not yet completed can be blocked so that no company code can use it until it is ready. You can get a directory of the G/L accounts in your chart of accounts for information or for documentation purposes via report RFSKPL00. You use the G/L account plan to display G/L account master data and to print G/L account lists. Figure 20: Assigning the Chart of Accounts Every company code must have a chart of accounts assigned to it. One chart of accounts can be assigned to several company codes (variant principle). The Controlling component uses the same chart of accounts as the Financial Accounting component. If company codes intend to use cross-company code controlling, they must use the same chart of accounts. In the example above, company codes 1000 and 2000 can do cross-company code controlling, but company codes 2000 and 3000 cannot. You can use report RFSKVZ00 to view the G/L account directory with chart of account- and company code-specific data. 44 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  53. 53. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 21: Chart of accounts segment The chart of accounts contains basic information about the accounts. The information for an account is summarized in a chart of accounts segment. It contains: • Account number • Name of the account (as short and as long text) • Control fields (see the following graphics) • Consolidation fields You can translate the chart of accounts into other languages in order to be able to display the account name in the appropriate logon language when displaying master data and when posting. If the chart of accounts has not been translated into the appropriate logon language, the account name appears in the maintenance language. Texts with different information can be assigned to each chart of accounts segment. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 45
  54. 54. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 22: Fields in the Chart of Accounts Segment The information entered in the chart of account segment for a G/L account applies to all company codes. You only enter this information once. Whenever you enter information for a company code for an account number, the information from the chart of accounts segment is accessed automatically, so you do not have to enter it again. Texts entered for the chart of accounts segment are managed by text ID and language. You can display texts using the report “Account Assignment manual” (RFSKTH00). You can search for account numbers using keywords. You can define and change the layout of the tab pages for the individual processing of the G/L account master data. You can define: • The number of tab pages • The title of the tab pages • The field groups that you require and their position on the tab pages • You can select the layouts for central processing, and processing in the chart of accounts- and company code-specific area. The standard system contains layouts for these editing functions (they start with SAP). You can copy these layouts, adjust them to meet your requirements, and then assign them to your chart of accounts or your account groups. 46 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  55. 55. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 23: Company Code Segment To use one of the accounts from the assigned chart of accounts in your company code, you must create a company code segment for the account. This company code segment is added to the chart of accounts segment, and together they form the account. The company code segment contains information that refers exclusively to the company code concerned. This information controls the entry of accounting documents and the management of accounting data. In the graphic “Company Code Segment”, the company code does not use account 000002 but another company code in your group may do. This could be, for example, a foreign currency balance sheet account that is managed in the currency of the country in which the company code in the graphic does not have any business partners, but another company code in the group does. Figure 24: Fields in the Company Code Segment 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 47
  56. 56. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 The company code segment for the same G/L account can be different depending on the requirements of the company code. For example, you set the “Tax Category” indicator for a specific company code to include taxes when expense accounts are used. For other company codes, you might not set the indicator. You define the information that is relevant to each company code: • Currency • Taxes • Reconciliation account • Line item display • Sort key • Field status group • House bank • Interest calculation information As mentioned in the graphic for the chart of accounts segment, texts are managed by text ID and language. You can display texts using the report “Account Assignment Manual”. Figure 25: One Chart of Accounts, Several Company Codes Every company code that wants to use an account from the assigned chart of accounts has to create its own company code segment. Because the number and name of the account is maintained in the chart of accounts, the account has the same name and number in all assigned company codes. 48 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  57. 57. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 26: Balance Sheet and P&L Statement Accounts In the chart of accounts segment, you have to specify whether the account is a balance sheet or a profit and loss statement account. These two types of accounts are treated differently in the closing procedure. • For balance sheet accounts, the balance is carried forward to the same account. • For profit and loss statement accounts, the balance is carried forward to a retained earnings account and the profit and loss statement account is set to zero. A key (for example, X) is assigned to the account to which the balance is carried forward. You enter this key in the field "P&L Statement Type" in the chart of accounts segment. In Customizing, users define the retained earnings account that is assigned to expense accounts during G/L account master record creation. If there is only one retained earnings account, the system automatically uses the one defined in Customizing. If there is more than one retained earnings account, when you create a master record, you can select the retained earnings account for each profit and loss statement account. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 49
  58. 58. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 27: Account Groups for G/L Accounts Since a chart of accounts contains many different types of accounts, they can be grouped into different account groups. Usually, one account group groups accounts with the same tasks within the general ledger, for example, cash accounts, material accounts, asset accounts, profit and loss statement accounts, and so on. By assigning a number range to an account group, you can ensure that accounts of the same type are within the same number range. Number intervals for G/L account master records can overlap. You must enter the account group in the chart of accounts segment; it controls the appearance of the company code segment of a G/L account. For example, for all of your cash accounts, you want to be able to display all of the line items. In Customizing, you therefore alter the field status for your “Cash Accounts” account group to make “line item display” a required entry field. mySAP ERP delivers predefined account groups. 50 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  59. 59. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 28: Field Status The field status enables you to control the display and maintenance of an account's master data. • You can assign fields that you do not use the status Hide. • Fields whose values must not be changed can have the status Display (even in change mode). • For fields where you must enter a value, you can define the status Required Entry. • Fields that can contain an entry, but are not required, can be set to Optional Entry. Certain fields are grouped together and their field status is valid for the entire group, for example, interest calculation indicator, interest cycle, and last interest calculation key date. The fields “Account Currency” and ”Field Status Group” are always required fields. This status cannot be changed. Note: Fields that are hidden may still contain values that are taken into consideration. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 51
  60. 60. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 29: Field Status for Master Data The fields displayed in the general ledger account master record are not only controlled by the account group, but also by the transaction that you are using to edit the master data (transaction-specific control), for example Create, Change, Display. If you do not want certain fields to be modifiable after you have created a master record, specify that a particular field is not modifiable in the “Change Master Data” transaction in Customizing. For example, you want the currency of your cash account to be GBP and you do not want this to be modifiable. In the transaction “Change Master Data” in Customizing, assign the status “Display” to the relevant field. For each field, the field status definitions from the account group and the transaction are taken into consideration and the one with higher priority is used. The priorities are (starting with the highest): • Hide • Display • Required entry • Optional entry Fields which are accessed with the transaction master record display are always either displayed or hidden, since you cannot make an entry in a "display" transaction. If you do not want to use the transaction-specific control, set the field status for all fields to optional. Since this field status has the lowest priority, the account group-specific control is always used. 52 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  61. 61. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 30: Reconciliation Accounts Reconciliation accounts are general ledger accounts assigned to the business partner master records to record all transactions in the sub-ledger. All postings to the subledger accounts are automatically posted to the assigned reconciliation accounts. The general ledger is therefore always up to date. You define a G/L-account as a reconciliation account by entering one of the following account types in the field Reconciliation Account for Account Type: • D for Accounts Receivable • K for Accounts Payable The reconciliation account is then only valid for the account type specified. Typical reconciliation accounts are "accounts payable" and "accounts receivable". Note: You cannot post amounts directly to reconciliation accounts. If you want to look at the business partner accounts assigned to a specific reconciliation account, you can select the field for the reconciliation account in the customer or vendor list (RFDKVZ00 or RFKKZV00) via the free selections. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 53
  62. 62. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 31: Line Item Display Transaction figures are the totals of line item postings on the debit or credit side. The balance is the difference between the debit and the credit transaction figure. The “Line Item Display” field is a control field in the company code segment of an account. • For accounts without “line item display”, only the transaction figures are updated when documents are posted to these accounts. When a user wants to look at this account online, they can only view the balance. • For accounts with “line item display” the most important data from the posted line items is stored in a special index table. Because this data is also stored in the documents, it is redundant and needs additional storage and system time. When a user wants to look at this account online, they can view both the balance and the individual line items. You can use report RFSEPA01 to subsequently activate the line item display - read the documentation for this report before you execute it. 54 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  63. 63. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Since the line item display takes up additional system resources, you should only use it if there is no other way of looking at the line items. You should not activate the line item display for: • Reconciliation accounts (line items are managed in the subledgers) • Revenue accounts (line items are managed by the Sales order Management application) • Material stock accounts (line items are managed by the Purchasing Management application) • Tax accounts (Tax items are only useful in connection with the document; the tax amounts were already checked when the document was posted.) Figure 32: Open Item Management Items in accounts with open item management are specified as open or cleared. Accounts with open item management must have line item display activated. Open item management is a prerequisite if you need to check whether there is an offsetting posting for a given business transaction. You can display open and cleared items separately, and therefore it is easy to see which business transactions still need to be cleared. You should use open item management for the following accounts: • Bank clearing accounts • Clearing accounts for goods receipt/invoice receipt • Salary clearing accounts. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 55
  64. 64. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 You can only activate or deactivate open item management if the account has a zero balance. Figure 33: Account in Local Currency You can select one of the following currencies as account currency: • Local currency • Foreign currency As standard, the local currency is proposed as the account currency when you create a G/L account. If the account currency is the local currency, the account can be posted to in any currency. The other currencies are translated into the local currency for each line item. Transaction figures are managed for each currency: • Local currency (total of all posting amounts translated into local currency) • Currency 1 (total of all amounts posted in currency 1, may be the local currency) • Currency 2 (total of all amounts posted in currency 2) • Currency 3 (total of all amounts posted in currency 3) • And so on. This applies whether or not line item display is activated. 56 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  65. 65. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 34: Only Balances in Local Currency If the "Only Balances in Local Currency" checkbox is set in the master data record, transaction figures are only managed for amounts converted to the local currency. You should select this field for clearing accounts where you want to clear accounts by assigning items with the same local currency amount with one another, without necessitating exchange rate difference postings. The indicator must be set in cash discount and GR/IR clearing accounts. It must not be set in reconciliation accounts for customers or vendors. The indicator is usually set in balance sheet accounts that are not managed in foreign currencies and not managed on an open item basis. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 57
  66. 66. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 35: Account in Foreign Currency Accounts with a foreign currency as the account currency can only be posted to in this foreign currency. • Manually – One-step: Create both segments simultaneously (centrally) – Two-step: 1. Chart of accounts segment 2. Company code segment • Copying – Copying an individual G/L account with reference to another G/L account – Copy the entire company code segment – Copy the entire chart of accounts segment • Data Transfer – Transfer a new chart of accounts from an external system • Create Manually: – With the two step method, you create the chart of accounts segment separately from the company code segment. This allows you to create the G/L account only in the chart of accounts segment or in multiple company code segments. 58 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  67. 67. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts – Use the one-step method to create a G/L account in a specified company code. Repeat step 2 of the two-step method, that is, creation in the company code segment, to create the G/L account in additional company codes as needed. • Creating G/L accounts by copying: – To create an account that has the same properties as an existing account, that is, another cash account, create the new account with reference to the existing account and change the account name accordingly. – If all of the G/L accounts in an existing company code are required in another company code, you can copy the entire company code segment to the new company code. – You can also copy the entire chart of accounts to a new chart of accounts, including the account determination. You can also copy the financial statement version. • Data Transfer: – To reduce data entry, programs such as RFBISA00, Batch Input Interfaces for G/L Account Master Data, can be modified by the ABAP team to transfer new charts of accounts. Figure 36: Collective Processing The mySAP ERP System provides collective processing functions for the G/L account master records. You can change the master data in the chart of accounts segment, company code segment, or the names of several G/L accounts at the same time. The G/L accounts can be from different charts of accounts. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 59
  68. 68. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 You can make changes to the displayed G/L accounts: • You can select the fields to be changed • You can change the values of the fields displayed. Enter the new values in the column “New” to replace the existing values. For all G/L accounts selected, the old value is replaced with the new value NOTE: Changes to existing G/L accounts are effective as soon as they have been saved and could have far-reaching consequences. You should therefore check your changes before saving. Figure 37: Group Chart of Accounts For internal purposes, cross-company code reporting may be useful, for example, financial statements that contain the items of several company codes. This is no problem as long as all company codes use the same chart of accounts. However, some company codes may have to use special charts of accounts because of legal requirements. If this is the case, the following procedure applies for internal reporting: • A group chart of accounts can be used. This group chart of accounts must contain all of the group accounts. • The group chart of accounts must be assigned to each operational chart of accounts. After you have done this, the ”Group Account Number” field in the chart of account segments of the operational charts of accounts becomes a required entry field. • You must enter the group account number in the chart of accounts segment of the operational account. Different accounts of one operational chart of accounts can refer to the same group account. • You must use a financial statement version for the group chart of accounts. 60 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  69. 69. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Disadvantage: Because the company codes use different operational charts of accounts, you cannot carry out cross-company code controlling. Figure 38: Country Chart of Accounts An alternative to using a group chart of accounts is to use a country chart of accounts. All company codes use the same operational chart of accounts. Company codes that nevertheless require a special chart of accounts for external reporting have the following option: • A country chart of accounts is assigned. • The country chart of accounts number (alternative account number) is entered in every company code segment. Every country chart of accounts number can only be used once. Note: Since all company codes use the same operational chart of accounts for postings, you can carry out cross-company code controlling. Disadvantage: Accounting clerks who may be familiar with the country charts of accounts will first have to get used to using the operational chart of accounts. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 61
  70. 70. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 39: Scenario: Charts of Accounts for a Group In the scenario of an international group as shown in the graphic, cross-company code cost accounting is possible for the European company codes, since the company codes in Spain, Germany, and England all use the same operational chart of accounts. The European company codes all use chart of accounts INT as their operational chart of accounts. The company code in the United States and the one in Canada both use chart of accounts CAUS as their operational chart of accounts. Cross-company code controlling is therefore also possible in North America. To create reports using the country chart of accounts, the board of the group has decided to define country-specific charts of accounts for the company codes. The board also decided that the group does not need controlling for Europe and North America combined, but that they would like consolidation to take place. Therefore, a group chart of accounts (CONS) was set up for the operating charts of accounts INT and CAUS. 62 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  71. 71. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Exercise 4: General Ledger Accounts Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create and use a chart of accounts • Create general ledger accounts • Create account groups • Check your knowledge about general ledger accounts Business Example The accounting department requires additional general ledger accounts to handle authorized travel expenses and disbursements. An authorized travel expense is an expense over 10,000 units of local currency approved by the Accounting manager. The expense account numbers must fall within the range of AE0000 to AE9999. The disbursement account numbers must be within the range CD0000 to CD9999. Task 1: Carry out the following tasks: 1. A G/L account consist of which segments? 2. When you copied company code 1000 in the previous exercise, you copied the chart of accounts as well as the company code segment for your company code. The associated account groups were also copied with the chart of accounts. For the general ledger accounts mentioned in the business scenario, the accounting department needs two additional account groups, one for the expenses and one for the disbursements. Copy the account group "ERG." within your chart of accounts (INT) to the new account group AE## with the description “Authorized expenses ##”. Change the number range for the account group AE## to AE0000-AE9999 accordingly. Copy the account group "SAKO" within your chart of accounts (INT) to the new account group CD## with the description "Cash expenses ##". Change the number range for the account group CD## to CD0000-CD9999 accordingly. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 63
  72. 72. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 3. Create three general ledger accounts: Two for authorized expenses (entertainment expenses, sports car rental expenses), and one for cash payments. To create the accounts use reference accounts that your instructor gives you. Use the new account group AE## or CD## for the new accounts. Then display the chart of accounts for your company code. Account number: AE01##, AE02##, CD03## Reference account numbers: Your instructor will give you this information. Hint: Use group account number 312600 “Other General Expenses” for the new accounts for authorized expenses. You can use group account number 110100 for the new account for cash disbursements. You will find further information about reference account numbers in the unit on “master data”. 4. Name the possible field status definitions in the order of their priority: 5. Different company codes can use the same . Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 6. The controls the field display for the company code data in the G/L account master record. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 7. contain the total of the transaction figures for the corresponding subledger accounts. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Continued on next page 64 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  73. 73. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Task 2: True or false? 1. Reconciliation accounts are updated on a daily basis. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2. You can always display the line items of a G/L account. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 3. G/L accounts with open item management must have line item display. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 4. G/L accounts that are managed in local currency can only be posted to in this currency. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 5. G/L accounts that are managed in a foreign currency can only be posted to in this foreign curren cy. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 6. Because the company codes use different operational charts of accounts, you cannot carry out cross-company code controlling. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 65
  74. 74. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Solution 4: General Ledger Accounts Task 1: Carry out the following tasks: 1. A G/L account consist of which segments? Answer: • Chart of accounts segment • Company code segment 2. When you copied company code 1000 in the previous exercise, you copied the chart of accounts as well as the company code segment for your company code. The associated account groups were also copied with the chart of accounts. For the general ledger accounts mentioned in the business scenario, the accounting department needs two additional account groups, one for the expenses and one for the disbursements. Copy the account group "ERG." within your chart of accounts (INT) to the new account group AE## with the description “Authorized expenses ##”. Change the number range for the account group AE## to AE0000-AE9999 accordingly. Continued on next page 66 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  75. 75. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Copy the account group "SAKO" within your chart of accounts (INT) to the new account group CD## with the description "Cash expenses ##". Change the number range for the account group CD## to CD0000-CD9999 accordingly. a) Copy G/L account group. IMG: Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → G/L Accounts → Master Data → Preparations → Define Account Group Scroll down to your chart of accounts INT. Select the account groups SAKO, General G/L Accounts II and ERG, Profit and Loss Statement Accounts for your chart of accounts, and the icon for “Copy as”. Field Name or Data Type Values Next, overwrite the ERG account group with the following information: Account Group AE## Name Authorized Expenses ## From Account AE0000 To Account AE9999 Then overwrite the SAKO account group with the following information: Account Group CD## Name Cash Disbursements ## From Account CD0000 To Account CD9999 Select "Enter" and then "Save". 3. Create three general ledger accounts: Two for authorized expenses (entertainment expenses, sports car rental expenses), and one for cash payments. To create the accounts use reference accounts that your instructor gives you. Use the new account group AE## or CD## for the new accounts. Then display the chart of accounts for your company code. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 67
  76. 76. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Account number: AE01##, AE02##, CD03## Reference account numbers: Your instructor will give you this information. Hint: Use group account number 312600 “Other General Expenses” for the new accounts for authorized expenses. You can use group account number 110100 for the new account for cash disbursements. You will find further information about reference account numbers in the unit on “master data”. a) Create general ledger accounts (expense accounts): SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → G/L Accounts → Individual Processing → Centrally Or transaction code: FS00 Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account AE01## Company Code GR## Choose G/L Account → Create With Reference. Field Name or Data Type Values Account Number Your instructor will give you this information. Company Code GR## Choose “Enter“. Hint: Make settings so that you can display key information (for example, AE##, CD##) in all dropdown lists. Use the shortcut “Alt+F12” to access Customizing of Local Layout. Under “Options”, choose the “Expert” tab page. Select the entry “Show Keys in all Dropdown Lists”. Copy the setting. Continued on next page 68 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  77. 77. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Field Name or Data Type Values Account Group AE## (authorized expenses ##) Short Text Entertainment ## G/L Account Long Text Entertainment expenses ## Group account number 312600 Choose the“Control Data” tab and delete the entry in the “Alternative Account Number” field. Choose “Save“. If necessary, confirm the information messages with “Enter”. Repeat this process to create the additional expense account AE02## for Sport’s Car Rental Expense. b) Create a general ledger account (cash payment account): SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → G/L Accounts → Individual Processing → Centrally Or transaction code: FS00 Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account CD03## Company Code GR## Choose G/L Account → Create With Reference. Field Name or Data Type Values Account Number Your instructor will give you this information. Company Code GR## Choose “Enter“. Field Name or Data Type Values Account Group Cash Disbursements ## Short Text Disbursements GR## G/L Account Long Text Cash Disbursements GR## Group account number 110100 Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 69
  78. 78. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Choose the “control data” tab and delete the alternative account no. Choose “Save“. If necessary, confirm the information messages with “Enter”. c) Display your chart of accounts: SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Information System → General Ledger Reports → Master Data → G/L Account List → G/L Account List On the selection screen, enter the following information… Field Name or Data Type Values Chart of Accounts INT Company Code GR## Choose “Execute“. This report shows you master data for every general ledger account. Use the binoculars icon (Ctrl + F) to navigate to the new G/L accounts you have created. Select the green arrow to return to the selection screen. Remove all of the checkmarks from the boxes in the “Output Control” section and re-run the report. Now the report will give you the account number and G/L account long text. Note: You have just added three new general ledger accounts to your chart of accounts and run a report to check the chart of accounts for your company code. 4. Name the possible field status definitions in the order of their priority: Answer: • Hide • Display • Required entry • Optional entry 5. Different company codes can use the same chart of accounts. Answer: chart of accounts Continued on next page 70 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  79. 79. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts 6. The account group controls the field display for the company code data in the G/L account master record. Answer: account group 7. Reconciliation accounts contain the total of the transaction figures for the corresponding subledger accounts. Answer: Reconciliation accounts Task 2: True or false? 1. Reconciliation accounts are updated on a daily basis. Answer: False The reconciliation accounts are updated realtime. 2. You can always display the line items of a G/L account. Answer: False You can only display the line items if the account is managed with line item display. 3. G/L accounts with open item management must have line item display. Answer: True You cannot define a G/L account with open item management without selecting the “Line item display” option. 4. G/L accounts that are managed in local currency can only be posted to in this currency. Answer: False G/L accounts in local currency can be posted to in any currency. 5. G/L accounts that are managed in a foreign currency can only be posted to in this foreign curren cy. Answer: True If you select a foreign currency as the account currency, you can only post amounts in this foreign currency to this account. 6. Because the company codes use different operational charts of accounts, you cannot carry out cross-company code controlling. Answer: True You can carry out cross-company code controlling if each company code uses the same operational chart of accounts. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 71
  80. 80. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Define and use a chart of accounts • Describe the structure of a general ledger account • Control the format of a general ledger account • Name and describe different types of general ledger accounts • Create, maintain, and control general ledger accounts • Describe how you can change several general ledger accounts at the same time • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of group and country charts of accounts 72 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  81. 81. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Lesson Overview You will be introduced into the master records of customers and vendors accounts. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Describe the structure of customer and vendor accounts • Discuss the similarities and differences between general ledger and customer and vendor accounts • Control and maintain customer and vendor accounts • Explain relationships between customer and vendor accounts Business Example The accounting manager is looking for similarities and differences between the general ledger accounts and the subledger accounts. He is interested in the structure of the customer and vendor accounts. Above all, he wants to know what options the search help gives him. Figure 40: The Accounting View of the Customer/Vendor Account 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 73
  82. 82. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Just like general ledger accounts, customer and vendor accounts also have two segments: • One segment at client level, that contains general data. This data can be accessed throughout the whole organization. • A segment at company code level, that contains company code-specific data. Any company code that wishes to do business with a specific customer or vendor has to create a company code segment for this customer or vendor. This also creates a customer or vendor account. Using reports RFBIDE10/RFBIKR10, you can transfer customer/vendor master data maintained in a source company code into another company code. Figure 41: The Sales View of the Customer Account Because the sales and distribution department also stays in contact with a customer and has to know specific data about this customer, a .sales area segment can be created for each customer. Any sales area that wants to do business with a customer has to create a sales area segment first. The sales area segment contains sales area-specific data. 74 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  83. 83. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 42: The MM View of the Vendor Account Just as there is a sales area segment for customers, there are purchasing organization segments for vendors. Any purchasing organization that wants to do business with a vendor has to create a purchasing organization segment first. The purchasing organization segment contains purchasing organization-specific data. Figure 43: The Complete Customer Account A complete customer account consists of the following three segments: • General data at the client level • Company code segment • Sales area segment 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 75
  84. 84. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Usually, the sales area segment must at least be created for the sales area assigned to the company code. Note: There may be other sales areas doing business with the customer as well. The account number is assigned to the customer at the client level. This ensures that the account number for a customer is the same for all company codes and sales areas. Figure 44: The Complete Vendor Account A complete vendor account consists of the following three segments: • General data at the client level • Company code segment • Purchasing organization segment Usually at least the purchasing organization segment for the purchasing organization assigned to the company code must be created. There may be other purchasing organizations doing business with the vendor as well. The account number is assigned to the vendor at the client level. This ensures that the account number for a vendor is the same for all company codes and purchasing organizations. 76 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  85. 85. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 45: Centralized Versus Decentralized Maintenance (AR) The system offers separate functions for maintaining customer master records depending on the requirements of your organization. These data records can be maintained centrally for all areas or separately for Financial Accounting and Sales and Distribution. For the rest of this course we will focus on the maintenance of customer master records in Financial Accounting. Hint: When implementing both Accounts Receivable and Sales and Distribution, members of both of these implementation teams must work together to decide how to configure customer master records and who will be responsible for their maintenance. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 77
  86. 86. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 46: Centralized Versus Decentralized Maintenance (AP) As for customer master records, vendor master records can be maintained centrally for all areas or separately for Financial Accounting and Materials Management. For the rest of this course we will focus on the maintenance of vendor master records in Financial Accounting. Hint: When implementing both Accounts Payable and Materials Management, members of both of these implementation teams must work together to decide how to configure vendor master records and who will be responsible for their maintenance. 78 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  87. 87. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 47: Compare Master Data If you use the components Purchasing Management and/or Sales order management customers and vendors must be maintained for both components. It is easiest to create customer/vendor master records centrally to ensure that they are set up correctly. However, in some cases, Purchasing Management/Sales Order Management create their own segments of the master record and Accounting creates its own segments. In this case, there is the risk of creating incomplete or duplicate master records. To find and correct these incomplete accounts, you can run report RFDKAG00, Customer Master Data Comparison, or RFKKAG00, Vendor Master Data Comparison, and make the necessary corrections. You can then correct the accounts. You can prevent the creation of duplicate accounts as follows: • Use the matchcode before you create a new account • Activate the automatic duplication check 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 79
  88. 88. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 48: Pages of the Customer/Vendor Account If you want to change or display an account, you can go directly to every page by selecting it on the initial screen. Important fields are: • Search terms: You can enter an abbreviation for the customer/vendor name in these fields. The format is defined by company guidelines and practices. • Corporate Group: Customers or vendors who belong to one corporate group can be grouped together by a user-defined group key. This group key can be used for running reports, transaction processing, or for matchcodes. • Accounting clerk: The name of the accounting clerk must be saved under an ID. You can enter this code in the customer/master records for which the clerk concerned is responsible. The name of the clerk is then printed on correspondence automatically. You can also use this ID for sorting dunning and payment proposal lists. You can enter explanatory texts in every segment. Line item display and open item management are configured as standard for every customer/vendor account. You can also create new customer and vendor master records with reference to an existing master record. Only data that does not refer directly to the customer/vendor is copied from the reference account to the new account, that is, no address information, and so on. The data that was copied should be checked and changed, if necessary, before the record is saved. We recommend that you create a reference account for every account group. 80 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  89. 89. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 49: IBAN (International Bank Account Number) The IBAN (International Bank Account Number) is an internationally recognized, unique identification number for a certain bank account. IBANs were designed by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and ECBS (European Committee for Banking Standards) to facilitate handling of international payment transactions. The IBAN contains a maximum of 34 alphanumeric characters and is structured differently in every country. It usually contains the country code, bank key, and account number. The SAP system uses the IBAN in addition to the standard country-specific bank details. You can enter an IBAN as part of the bank details for customer/vendor master data, and in the Customizing settings for your house bank. The IBAN can only be entered in a vendor or customer master record if the business partner provides his or her IBAN and requests the entry. For this reason, you cannot automatically generate and save the IBANs for several master records. You have to enter the IBAN manually in each master record. For certain countries, the system generates a proposal. When you enter an IBAN for new bank details, the system can generate the country-specific bank details for certain countries. If necessary, make sure that the payment medium programs used can also output the IBANs. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 81
  90. 90. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 50: Account Groups for Customers/Vendors When you create customer/vendor master records, enter the account group on the initial screen. In Financial Accounting, once the customer/vendor account has been created, you can no longer change the account group. However, if you use partner roles in Sales and Distribution, in some cases the account group can be changed from, for example, an ordering address to a ship-to address. For more information see the SAP Library in Sales and Distribution. Figure 51: Number Ranges for Customers/Vendors There are separate number ranges for customer and vendor accounts. The range of possible account numbers is divided into smaller number ranges. Number ranges must not overlap. 82 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  91. 91. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts For each number range you can define whether the number assignment is internal or external. Internal numbers are assigned by the system, whereas external numbers are entered by the user who creates the record. External numbers may be alphanumeric. With internal number assignment, the system always assigns the next number available in the range to a new account. If you want to know how many numbers are left in a specific number range, you can display the Current Number. With external number assignment, the user chooses the account number. Numbers do not have to be assigned in sequence; therefore, a current number cannot be displayed. Each number range can be assigned to one or more account groups. Figure 52: Normal Account or One-Time Account For all customers or vendors with whom you rarely do business, create a special customer and a special vendor master record. These master records contains receivables and payables for one-time customers/vendors (one-time accounts). In contrast to other master records, a one-time account master record does not contain any information about a specific customer/vendor since this account is used for more than one customer/vendor. Therefore, the customer-/vendor-specific fields should be hidden. You enter the customer-/vendor-specific data for one-time customers/vendors in the document during posting. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 83
  92. 92. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 53: Status of the Fields in the Master Record The account group is used to control the fields displayed in the master record. For example, to ensure that all correspondence has complete address information, change the field status so that all address fields are marked as "required entry". Figure 54: Controlling the Field Status 84 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  93. 93. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts The layout of customer/vendor master data screens can be affected by several factors: Account group-specific control: Usually, the field status is controlled only by the account group. This means that all accounts of one account group have the same screen layout. Transaction-specific control: The field status can be dependent on the master data transaction ("Create", "Change" or "Display"). The transaction-dependent field status should be set to “display” for the “change” transaction if the field is not to be changed after it has been created, such as the “reconciliation account” field, for example. Company code-specific control: You have already seen the account group-specific and the transaction-specific field status with the general ledger account groups. You can control the field status for fields in the company code segment of customer and vendor master records via the company code-specific screen layout. You can hide fields that are not used in a specific company code, but enter values in these fields in other company codes. For example, if a company code does not want to use the dunning program, hide the relevant fields for this company code. The account group-specific field status, the transaction-specific field status and the company code-specific field status are compared, and the field status with the highest priority is used. Fields that are accessed with the “display” transaction are always either displayed or suppressed, since you cannot make an entry in a “display” transaction. If you do not want to use the transaction-specific or company code-specific control, set the field status for all fields to optional. Since this field status has the lowest priority, the account group-specific control is always used. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 85
  94. 94. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 55: Dual control principle You now can define that one person makes changes to customer or vendor master data while another person is responsible for confirming the changes, usually for critical customer/vendor changes. First you have to define the fields for dual control in the customer/vendor master records in the IMG. If you define a field in the customer/vendor master record as “sensitive”, the corresponding customer/vendor is blocked for payment if the entry is changed. The block is removed when a second person with authorization checks the change and confirms or rejects it. The confirmation for the changes can be made for a single customer/vendor or you can get a list. This list can be restricted by: • Customer/vendor • Company Code • Accounts not yet confirmed • Accounts rejected • Accounts to be confirmed by me • You can display the customer or vendor master record for all accounts using reports RFDABL00 or RFKABL00. 86 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  95. 95. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 56: Customer/Vendor Clearing If a customer is also a vendor, or vice versa, the payment and the dunning program can clear open items against each other. The open items of the assigned account can also be displayed in the line item display and the open item selection screens. To clear open items, you have to carry out the following steps: • You have to enter the vendor account number in the customer account, or vice versa. • Each company code can decide separately whether it wants to clear open items between customers and vendors. If clearing is to be used, you have to select the field "Clearing with Vendor" in the customer account or the corresponding field in the vendor account. If you set the indicator Account Control and Status in the area Additional Selections in the report for the customer or vendor list (RFDKVZ00 or RFKKVZ00), when you print the report you can see the partner relationships for the respective customer or vendor. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 87

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