Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on


Published in: Education, Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Mazoun Electro-Mechanical Engineering Company organizes Seminar on Water Development Join ANSYS for a 1/2 day event on electromechanical applications. The seminar will focus on how engineering simulation technology can accelerate product design, model system-level performance, reduce prototype expense and optimize product design. ANSYS, a global leader in structural, fluid, electromechanical and system simulation software, asssists countless companies “electrify” their products. The agenda will touch on the following topics: • ANSYS Electromechanical Tools Overview with ANSYS 14.5 Product Update • Coupled Electromagnetic and CFD Thermal Analysis for High Power Electric Machines • Unified Electromagnetic Field and Circuit Approach for the Design of Power Electronics • ANSYS Motor Design Kit
  2. 2. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Mazoun Electro-Mechanical Engineering Company (MEMCO), a driving force in the Sultanate's water resource industry cemented their commitment to professional engineering services in the region by organising the first ever 'Seminar on Water Development' at the Crowne Plaza Hotel. Adnan Al-Nabulsi, Managing Partner - MEMCO said, "MEMCO's vision has been to develop and establish excellence in the utilities sector with specific emphasis on the water industry. We are pleased to witness the widespread interest and support for the first edition of the seminar on water development in Oman." Through the duration of discussions, the day-long seminar saw comprehensive conversations around the water industry in Oman - the key challenges, the strides that have been made, the current scenario and the vision for the years to come. Adnan Al Nabulsi added, "Having established a solid presence in the Sultanate through a multitude of successful projects, we are confident of gaining a competitive advantage in the Omani market and this seminar is a critical part of our foresight for the future." MEMCO have been engaged in the construction of an additional tanker filling station in the Sharqiyah region. This five pump station ensures that water is transferred to across the numerous sub-areas within the wider districts. Also accredited with providing a water supply design to Al Qurayat, MEMCO played a major role as a consultant to the main contractor. Other commendable projects include the central desalination plant at Sur Water Scheme and the water conductivity and monitoring systems on the Barka Pumping Stations. Since their inception in 2006, MEMCO have been committed to provide professional engineering services to the various players in the industry - be it the government or private firms engaged in developing the Omani infrastructure. Their varied experience in electromechanical engineering is demonstrated through the wide number of projects they have been involved in, throughout the expanse of the Sultanate. The day-long seminar also drew a congregation of major suppliers, contractors and international companies who have invested actively in the sector. Participating companies and partners included leading power and automation giant - ABB who have a globally renowned reputation ranging from deep-sea activities to space satellite technologies. Also participating at the event were some of the world's largest manufacturers and suppliers of flow management solutions such as Flowserve, and Sewerin, a pioneer in advanced leak detection and locator equipment in the oil & gas and water industry. Additionally, Toray Membranes - displayed their revolutionary product, the "MEMBRAY" uses reverse osmosis to enhance the efficiency of waste water treatment. Commenting on the success of the seminar, Amer Al Habal - Corporate Support Manager, MEMCO said, "We would like to take this opportunity to thank all our attendees and partners in organising the inaugural seminar on water development. MEMCO been successful in obtaining and executing major projects for the Public Authority of Electricity and other major bodies in the sector; we look forward to grow into a full-fledged total facilities
  3. 3. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 management company introducing cutting edge technologies in various fields." Overall, it is evident that MEMCO is becominga well-known name in Oman; A company that their clients want to work with, customers can rely on and employees are proud to work for. Mul-T-Lock is offering a series of seminars to introduce locksmiths and professional security installers to its electronic security products. The company says this is necessary to help security experts understand its ever-growing range of products and new service concepts. It will also help installers realise new sales opportunities through product upgrades and development of new sectors. Taking place at the purpose-built training academy at ASSA ABLOY headquarters, Mul-T-Lock has developed a seminar programme dedicated to the newly introduced CLiQ Remote and CLiQ key concepts, Smartair all-in-one wirefree access control system and Code-It electronic door handle. All three product platforms are part of Mul-T-Lock‟s intelligent locking innovation strategy to develop tiered solutions providing end users with convenience and high quality security, based on combining quad-technology in mechanical, electromechanical, electronic and GSM systems. Hosted by Lee Howard, Mul-T-Lock‟s new dedicated sales manager for access control, two successful seminars have already been held, attended by 24 locksmiths with a calendar established for 2012. Mul-T-Lock CLiQ electromechanical lock system
  4. 4. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Says Lee: “Access control is becoming an increasingly popular choice for business and commercial property owners due to their flexibility in use and potential for 24/7 controlled security. Plus, the potential to attract residential homeowners, with electromechanical solutions already popular in Europe, access control offers significant business opportunities with higher value products. “The new seminars from Mul-T-Lock aim to take attendees through the features and benefits of each of our electromechanical solutions, alongside technical training to ensure users are really comfortable with each product. By using the state of the art facilities of the ASSA ABLOY Academy, we can also have live product demonstrations and hold open discussions on the market potential for each platform.” Tom Clarke of City Lock & Safe, who attended the seminar added: “The open style discussion of the seminar was really useful from my perspective as it was a great opportunity not only to understand the technical side of the products, but also see where each one can fit in the market. I can already see the potential to offer „day and night‟ high quality security systems, and full audit trails whilst maintaining the assurance of a high quality, mechanical system as and when required. Very useful seminar.” With Mul-T-Lock‟s regional business development team in attendance, the seminar also presents an insight into Mul-T-Lock‟s new „Combined Solutions‟ concept, to demonstrate how Mul-T-Lock as a whole will be working to provide access control sales support to locksmiths and promote Mul-T- Lock‟s innovative access control product portfolio to end users. Steve Ross, Mul-T-Lock‟s Managing Director concluded: “Innovative functionality, increased flexibility and greater convenience is what our new line of access control products is all about. With Lee now on board together with our „Combined Solutions‟ unveiled, we were able to create this dedicated seminar series to help and support our customers‟ to stand out from the crowd, thus increasing chances of success, even in a tough market.” May 16, the Eighth Indonesia - China Machinery and Electronic Products Trade Fair in Jakarta International Exhibition Center grand opening, as a representative of the industry-leading level of professional CNC equipment manufacturer, Jinan GANGER CNC delegation. In this exhibition, the company exhibited a variety of advanced equipment, represents the highest level of domestic engraving machines and technology, the majority of customers have been received and applauded.
  5. 5. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 During the exhibition, the company with numerous domestic and foreign customers and industry professionals to exchange in-depth study, carried out various forms of technical cooperation. Indonesia - China Machinery and Electronic Products Trade Fair through seventh course of development, has become the largest in Indonesia and Southeast Asia the Chinese mechanical and electronic products exhibition, but also in Indonesia, currently China's largest trade event. High level of the previous show exhibitors, exhibits a strong degree of specialization, turnover effective, exhibitions effect is significant, market response.
  6. 6. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 The UK Engineering Subcontractor Exhibition in Shifnal is a trade fair for subcontractors in mechanical engineering. Visitors will find machines, products and processes they need to stay ahead of the competition. This exhibition is communication and information platform in the industry and offers the exhibiting companies the opportunity to present to an audience of experts here. Visitors can find in depth and comprehensive information here about the latest developments, trends, products and services in various fields. China Harbin International Economic and Trade Fair (Harbin Trade Fair) is a large-scale national level international fair approved by the Chinese government. The fair is sponsored by the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China, National Development and Reform Commission, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, the People’s Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People’s Government of Zhejiang Province, the People’s Government of Harbin Municipality, and co- sponsored by governmental departments and trade promotional institutions from over 10 countries including Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation, and the Association of the Promotion of International Trade of Japan.
  7. 7. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Since its first session in 1990, 1.9 million exhibitors and visitors from more than 80 countries and regions attended the fair with over US$100 billion contract volume concluded. Harbin Trade Fair has become an international platform for trade and investment cooperation for exhibitors and visitors from home and abroad. The Harbin Trade Fair has the following exhibition areas: High Tech Exhibition Area: New material, new energy, energy efficient technology, biomedical technology, advanced manufacturing and informatization technology, agricultural innovation, elaborate and deep manufacturing technology, environmental friendly technology and public security technology, etc. Modern Agricultural Exhibition Area: Agricultural science and technology promotion, organic food, green food, pollution-free agricultural products, special deep processing agricultural products, etc. Construction Materials Exhibition Area: Construction hardware and fittings, steel structure, color coated steel sheet, decoration boards and plates, paving materials, energy efficient and heat insulating material, windows & doors, decoration materials and household goods, etc. Light Industry Exhibition Area: Packing and printing materials, household electric appliances, office stationery, clocks and watches, toys, sports and outdoor goods, tourism and recreation products, etc. Machinery and Electric Products Pavilion: Woodwork machinery, foodstuff processing machinery, packing machinery, plastic machinery, water treatment equipment, power machinery, mechanical equipment and fittings, printing equipment, hardware & hand tools, electrical equipment, auto fittings (exhibited in outdoor exhibition tent); large scale engineering machinery, agriculture and forestry machinery, large scale vehicles, passenger vehicles, etc. (exhibited on the square) Foreign Countries Exhibition Area:
  8. 8. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Promotion for Investment Environment and Projects, tourism and local customs, special exhibits from foreign countries. Furniture Pavilion: Panel furniture, children’s furniture, office furniture, soft furniture, rattan furniture, steel-wood furniture, etc. Industrial equipment, technologies and components. Componentry and industrial equipment components. Energy- saving technologies. Engineering materials. Engineering, consulting, leasing. Industrial waste disposal. Cutting, forming and abrasive tools. Bending, forming and sheet-forming equipment. Band saws. Surface technology and equipment. Pumps and compressors In 2010 the tradeshow MECHANICAL ENGINEERING - International Trade Exhibition served as a presentation platform for 151 exhibitors. These tradeshow exhibitors presented their companies and services on a total of 2379 sqm at MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. 13500 visitors came to MECHANICAL ENGINEERING to inform themselves on the latest trends and innovations in the following main exhibit sectors: Industrial equipment, technologies and components. Componentry and industrial equipment components. Energy-saving technologies. Engineering materials. Engineering, consulting, leasing. Industrial waste disposal. Cutting, forming and abrasive tools. Bending, forming and sheet-forming equipment. Band saws. Surface technology and equipment. Pumps and compressors. In general the following kind of visitors are welcome at MECHANICAL ENGINEERING: Trade visitors and public. The frequency, at which MECHANICAL ENGINEERING is held, is biennial. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING is hosted by the trade show organizers MinskExpo, JSC, Repraesentanz MinskExpo GAG. The trade show JIMEX - International Machines and Electro-Mechanical Equipment Exhibition takes place in Amman, Jordan. The frequency of the trade show is annual. In 2011 114 exhibitors seized the trade show JIMEX as a presentation platform for their products and services. With their trade show participation exhibitors occupied 3143 sqm. 2584 visitors attended JIMEX to inform themselves on innovations and trends in their business. The main exhibit sectors of the trade show JIMEX are: Energy, Renewable Energy, Industrial Machinery, automation, electricity, installation, water technology, gas applications, metal construction, HVAC and industrial supplies. Jordan Engineers Association, National Energy Research Center, Golden Gate Est. for Exhibitions Organization and Conferences Services are the trade show organizers in charge of JIMEX. Energy, Renewable Energy, Industrial Machinery, automation, electricity, installation, water technology, gas applications, metal construction, HVAC and industrial supplies
  9. 9. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 7th International trade fair for Motion, Drive and Automation (Hydraulics & Pneumatics, Electro Mechanical Transmission) Motion, Drive and Automation is the platform where the innovative products available on the global market for Electrical and Mechanical Power Transmission, Hydraulics and Pneumatics are displayed. The exhibition will feature domestic and international companies, who will display peerless state-of-the-art technology and services to the user industry. ONE STOP SHOP for the Automotive and Transport, Agriculture and Construction Equipment Manufacturers, Infrastructure, Manufacturing, Mining, Steel, Capital Goods and Food Processing sectors. MDA India : Exhibit Profile COLLAPSE ALL EXPAND ALL Linear Drives, Gears, Motors and Mechanical Transmission Systems Bearings Hydraulics and Pneumatics Pumps and Valves, Pipes and Tubes Sealing Technology and Lubrication Production Equipment Services and Software for Drives, Gears, Hydraulics, Pneumatics Compressed Air and Vacuum Technology Seminars & Conferences: MDA FORUM: Organized along with the German Engineering Federation (VDMA), the MDA Forum is the perfect place for presentations dedicated to the latest developments, world-wide trends and burning issues of interest to the industry. It also serves as a platform for exchanging ideas and networking with visitors from across the globe.
  10. 10. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 combined with many years experience in the field of electro-mechanical products, ensures your potential customers can be made aware of product advantages, simply and effectively. Both B2B and end-user customers can be targeted in a strategic mix of innovative, high-performance and successful marketing campaigns. Product Marketing Specialist (m/w) for electro-mechanical products Main Responsibilities: >Support the supplier and product management team >Support the line management of our strategic suppliers > Material and supplier relevant data integrity, improvement and development in SAP and intranet > Maintenance and improvement of the promotional material data in SAP (stock packages, master quotes, sales promotions). >Prepare data & presentations for Business reviews, take & circulate agreed actions and ensure follow up & completion. > Coordinate the centralized quoting for various EMEA regions and global customers in multiple locations > Responsibility for internal reporting to the European Marketing Management >Support the Marketing Management in the creation of business plans including marketing strategies and prognoses. Requirements: >Preferably degree educated or demonstrate either a technical background and/or commercial experience >Some previous experience of electronics components would be advantageous
  11. 11. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 >Ability to communicate professionally with customers, suppliers and colleagues >Ability to work under pressure, meet deadlines and manage multiple activities effectively. > Team player and be prepared to take responsibility. > Confident, decisive, pragmatic and flexible. > Communicate effectively in German and English (written and oral). > Good computer skills (MS Office, ERP-systems, SAP knowledge preferred). The Characteristics of Innovative, Mechanical Products* Matthew N. Saunders1 and Carolyn C. Seepersad2 Product, Process and Materials Design Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Texas Austin, Texas Katja Hölttä-Otto3 Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Massachusetts ABSTRACT Many new products fail upon introduction to the marketplace, but a few products are exceptionally successful, earning innovation awards and other benchmarks of success. To better understand the features of those innovative products, 197 award-winning products are analyzed to identify the characteristics that distinguish those products from the competition. For the analysis, a set of product-level characteristics are identified and organized into categories, which included functionality, architecture, external interactions, user interactions, and cost. Based on
  12. 12. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 their innovation award citations, the products are analyzed with respect to the set of characteristics, and results are tabulated. Several award-winning products are also compared to competitive products on the shelves of major retail stores. On average, award-winning products display multiple characteristics of innovation. Overall, a vast majority (more than two-thirds) of the award-winning products exhibit enhanced user interactions, with a similar percentage displaying enhanced external interactions, compared with approximately one-third of products * This is a revised version of Paper Number DETC2009 -87382, published in the ASME IDETC Design Theory and Methodology Conference. 1 Email: 2 Corresponding Author. Email: Phone: (512) 471-1985 3 katja.holtta-otto@umassd.edu2 offering an additional function and approximately half displaying innovative architectures. The award-winning products also exhibit an average of approximately two more characteristics than their competitors on retail shelves, along with significantly higher rates of innovative architecture, external interactions, and user interactions. The analysis concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for engineering design methods. 1 INTRODUCTION On average, approximately half of new product development projects are successful [1]. A large number of products fail upon introduction to the marketplace, with the failure rate of new products varying from about 30% to 90% depending on the novelty of the market, the product category, and the industry [2-4]. In contrast, a small fraction of new products are very successful and conquer the competition with significantly larger market shares, greater profit margins, or better brand recognition.
  13. 13. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Successful products are typically described as products that satisfy customer needs in particularly innovative or unexpected ways. From the perspective of the Kano diagram [5] in Figure 1, successful products delight customers. In a Kano diagram, standard ―must-have‖ features are so common that customers are disappointed unless they are implemented expertly. Baseline features satisfy customers with their presence, and the level of satisfaction typically depends on the degree of functionality. The most successful products, on the other hand, tend to incorporate features that delight the customer, by performing beyond his or her expectations. Since the delightful features exceed the customer’s expectations, it is unusual for a customer to articulate these needs in a typical interview or survey.3 [INSERT FIGURE 1 [5]] The development of a new product typically starts with identifying customer needs. Unfortunately, the typical needs articulated by a customer fall under the ―baseline‖ or ―musthave‖ needs in the Kano diagram, and fulfilling these needs is not enough to create an innovative product. How could one create a ―delight‖? In this paper, a set of innovative products is identified from major innovation award lists and analyzed with respect to a set of product-level characteristics. The focus is specifically on product-level characteristics that describe observable features of a product itself, such as functionality and architecture, rather than enterprise- or market-level characteristics, such as profit or market share. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether specific characteristics are more prevalent in award-winning products, relative to their competitors, and to identify any trends that could be important for engineering innovation. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Numerous underlying factors can influence the success of a product. Cooper [6] classified these factors into the following categories: market, synergy of product and firm’s skills, characteristics of the product venture, execution of development, the product itself, and
  14. 14. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 information found during development. Within these categories, 18 dimensions of success were identified from related literature. The same list has been modified and supported by numerous researchers [7-10], and similar lists have been suggested by additional studies [11-14]. Despite the fact that different categories may be more or less applicable to different markets and cultures 4 [6,7,10,15], there seems to be general agreement that factors ranging from the market to the firm to the product itself affect product success. With the abundance of factors influencing product success, it is difficult to draw a linear relationship between technical innovation and product success, but the majority of research suggests that innovation and competitive advantage are leading factors in product success [6- 8,10,16,14]. For the sake of this study, an innovative product is defined as a product that changes or has the potential to change the nature of the marketplace by satisfying a new (or latent) customer need or by satisfying customer needs in a significantly new way. In contrast, a breakthrough product is defined as an innovative product that has already experienced commercial success in the context of numerous market and business influences. While numerous factors influence the success of a product, a product’s level of innovation is affected most directly at the product design stage. Designers are currently told to innovate, but few tools are provided to help a designer maximize the likelihood of product success. Should the designer add an additional function, reduce product size, make the product easier to use, or pursue other options? What are the characteristics of innovative products? The dilemma begins with the difficulty of gathering customer needs to create innovative products. Several sources suggest that the creation of highly innovative or breakthrough products cannot be done with traditional customer needs analysis because the needs are latent, or not yet articulated [17,18,12,19,20]. Some customer analysis tools, such as voice of the customer (VOC) [21] and the lead user method [17], claim to result in more successful products than other methods; however, product success is far from guaranteed. In some instances, engineers are
  15. 15. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 tasked with incorporating design requirements forced upon the product from large retailers just 5 to get the product on the shelf [22]. These tradeoffs in a design not only hinder potential innovation, but also may lead to decreased commercial success [23]. The difficulty of creating innovative products is further exacerbated by apparent differences in customer evaluation and acceptance of innovative products based on their similarity to related products [18,24]. The more successful products seem to be difficult for customers to categorize because they do not fit neatly into preexisting product categories. Customers spend more time analyzing innovative products, and cannot make quick decisions based on previous experiences. Customers’ evaluations of innovative products often demonstrate lack of familiarity, irrationality, user-product interaction problems, uncertainty, and fixation on seemingly trivial details of the product [25]. These non-functional concerns are important to customers’ purchasing decisions, but they are difficult for engineers to evaluate in the early stages of development because they require research into potential consumer behavior and responses to the design [26]. Furthermore, several studies support that product development and management differ greatly for different levels of innovation [27-30,16,31,32]. It is not only challenging to extract useful information from customers, but it is also difficult to characterize the appropriate target level of innovation. In a comparison of innovation factors cited in the literature, Garcia and Calantone [33] identified more than 15 constructs of innovation with 51 attributes. They merged existing terminology and distinguished incremental, really new, and radical forms of innovation to clarify and unify the theories of innovation. Incremental innovation is the classical approach of utilizing customer needs analysis to create slight generational improvements to an existing product. Radical innovations cause disruption of the marketplace by introducing a breakthrough technology. Really new innovation can be any combination of factors between incremental and radical. These classifications are supported with 6 s-curves [34,35], in which products experience slow evolution in their initial development,
  16. 16. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 followed by an accelerated series of improvements, only to level off into a final period of slow development. In this way, the evolution of a product follows an ―S‖ shaped pattern of improvement on a plot of quality or functionality over time. Discontinuities in improvement, or jumps, create new curves of higher quality. Garcia and Calantone [33] suggested that the market of a product also follows an s-curve and that radical innovation is defined by causing jumps on both a product’s technology and market curves. Really new innovation is characterized by a jump in either curve, but not both. Incremental innovation is classified as movement along existing curves. Innovation should therefore be viewed as a relative property as suggested by Dewar and Dutton [36] because it is inherently based on the degree to which one product distinguishes itself from preceding and competing products. Based on these classifications, the literature suggests that radical innovation is rare and occurs in less than 20% of innovations, while incremental innovation is much more widespread [33]. Despite all of this research on innovation, engineering design tools provide very little guidance on the product-level characteristics of innovative products. Available product attribute checklists, including categories for decomposing product specifications and checklists for embodying concepts [37-39], do not directly encourage innovation for the sake of potential market success. These lists are normally used throughout the design process to ensure that all aspects of a product’s development cycle are considered, but they do not provide guidance for competitive advantage or innovation. While the majority of the characteristics of innovation developed in this study correlate with items on these lists (e.g., function, layout, energy, ergonomics, and costs), their importance is lost with the inclusion of so many other engineering factors of product design (e.g., production, quality control, assembly, transport, and scheduling)7 in the lists. They do not help differentiate and distinguish one concept from another at the state of ideation, which is a promising time to evaluate concepts for potential innovation and success according to Goldberg et al. [13]. A few design tools are available for this critical early stage of
  17. 17. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 development. The creation of a project mission statement [39], for example, encourages identification of potential areas of innovation at the beginning of a design project, but no guidelines are provided to examine potential areas thoroughly. Also, there are many creativity and brainstorming tools that help create as many ideas as possible. Examples include 6-3-5 [40,38], C-sketch [41], TRIZ [42], Design by Analogy[43], Design Through Transformation [44], and Biomimetic Concept Generation [45]. Similarly, there are numerous tools for selecting the concept that best meets customer requirements (e.g., [46-48]). Interestingly, however, Cooper [1] finds that many concept selection methods are designed to select mediocre concepts, because the methods do not use ―product superiority‖ as a criterion and therefore do not lead to breakthrough products. Additionally, benchmarking the competition [39,49] is an important part of the House of Quality [21] for comparing a product to leading competitors and connecting customer needs with engineering specifications; however, this tool, as well as adaptations of it [50], may suffer from the challenges of extracting customer needs effectively and moving beyond incremental innovation. The aforementioned tools, from customer needs analysis to the House of Quality, are available to all designers, but somehow only a fraction of products can truly claim to be breakthrough products. What is it that makes a product stand out from the competition? It has been shown that factors such as development of a clear product strategy and willingness to take risks [1] contribute to good business performance from the management point of view, but what about the engineering design process? It would be helpful to document the types of product-8 level characteristics typically embodied by innovative products, so that those criteria can be used to drive the design process and evaluate resulting designs. 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A research methodology was developed to establish a set of product-level characteristics of innovative products and to use those characteristics for analyzing trends among award-winning,
  18. 18. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 innovative products. The research proceeded in a series of four steps: (1) developing a comprehensive list of product-level characteristics of innovation, (2) selecting innovative products to be analyzed, (3) analyzing the products with respect to the characteristics identified in the first step, and (4) comparing a subset of the award-winning products to non-awardwinning competitors available in major retail stores. A subsection is devoted to describing each of the steps. 3.1 Developing a Set of Product-Level Characteristics of Innovation The goal of this step was to compile a set of product-level characteristics that describe innovative products. Product-level characteristics are those that describe observable features of the product itself, such as architecture or functionality, rather than enterprise- or market-level characteristics such as market share or profitability. The product-level characteristics are selected to be domain-independent, comprehensive, and mutually independent. A domainindependent characteristic can be used to describe various types of products, rather than a specific product (e.g., material flow versus miles per gallon). The characteristics in a mutually independent set should not overlap; in other words, it should be possible to identify a product that exhibits one specific characteristic without exhibiting the remaining characteristics. A 9 comprehensive set of characteristics should be sufficient for describing any innovation in the domain of interest. The mechanical domain, including mechanical, electro-mechanical, and thermo-mechanical products, was the focus of this study; innovations that are purely chemical, electrical, or materials-related, without a mechanical component, were not considered in the study. With these requirements in mind, the characteristics of innovative products were compiled by reviewing published award citations of award-winning, innovative products (selected according to the procedure described in Section 3.2), along with relevant design methodology tools and terminology. While reviewing each product, the researchers asked, ―What features made the product more innovative than competing products at the time of its
  19. 19. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 release?‖ The review was conducted from the perspective of the customer, rather than the manufacturer or the designer. For example, customers cited a product’s compact size as innovative, rather than the advances in material processing and manufacturing that enabled it; therefore, improved size was identified as a potential characteristic of innovative products. Characteristics were added to the set as necessary to accurately describe the differences between products. The set was refined for comprehensiveness, mutual independence, and domainindependence. For validation purposes, characteristics were developed independently by two of the authors and then critically evaluated and merged into a unified set. The names and definitions of several characteristics were informed by standard terminology from functional modeling and product architecture literature (cf. [51-53]). Also, the final set was compared with other lists of 10 product criteria, such as the requirements list checklist provided by Pahl and Beitz [52] to verify its completeness. 4 As shown in Table 1, five major categories of innovation were identified: functionality, architecture, external interactions, user interactions, and cost. The first category is used to evaluate whether the breakthrough product offers a significant new function, relative to competitive products. The second category is used to evaluate whether there are any architectural innovations (related to size, layout, or usage context) in the breakthrough products that are not generally found in competitive products. The external interactions category addresses modified flows of material, energy, or information into or out of a functional model [1] of the product. A modification includes a change in the type of flow (e.g., electrical energy replaced by solar energy in a solar-powered device) or in the magnitude of the flow (e.g., a more fuel-efficient vehicle). The external interactions category also includes product interactions with pre-existing infrastructure, such as data formats, standardized connectors, or other types of pre-existing hardware, software, services, or networks. The user interactions category is used to evaluate
  20. 20. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 whether the innovative products are more user-friendly than competitive products. For example, the physical demands characteristic refers to innovations that make the product easier to use under various physical conditions, including permanent or temporary physical disabilities. The sensory demands characteristic includes innovations that enhance ease of use for sensoryimpaired persons or persons with temporary sensory impairment (e.g., a cell phone user at a loud concert). The modified cognitive demand characteristic refers to innovations that make it easier to understand a product, including its assembly, operation, and/or inputs/outputs. Finally, cost is 4 It should be emphasized that these characteristics were compiled by the authors, based on a careful review of the design methodology literature and award-winning innovative products. Accordingly, they do not necessarily match all of the judging criteria for the innovation awards cited in this paper. 11 included as a secondary characteristic that sometimes accompanies other characteristics (e.g., a change in design enables both modified material flows and reduced operating costs). [INSERT TABLE 1] The sample products in Table 2 illustrate several of the innovation characteristics. The Vicks Forehead Thermometer, illustrated in Figure 2, is a thermometer designed to eliminate the difficulty of taking a child’s temperature by accurately measuring temperature from the forehead rather than the standard mouth, ear, rectal, or armpit methods. It also displays a background color based on the grade of the fever, ranging from green for no fever to red for high fever. Relative to competing, home-use thermometers, the color-coded display increases the amount of information displayed, as recorded in the ―Modified Information Flow‖ column of Table 2. It also makes it easier for the user to determine if a fever exists without having to memorize appropriate temperature ranges, as classified by the ―Modified Cognitive Demands‖ column in Table 2. The thermometer also embodies ―Modified Physical Demands‖ because it is physically easier to
  21. 21. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 measure a child’s temperature on the forehead, relative to other locations. [INSERT TABLE 2] [INSERT FIGURE 2 [54]] [INSERT FIGURE 3 [55]]12 The Nike+ is a jogging pedometer attachment for Apple iPod digital music players. A small piezoelectric measuring unit placed in or on a jogger’s shoe collects pace data, and communicates it wirelessly to an iPod attachment, which broadcasts current and average workout pace through the iPod headphones. When connected to a computer, the device sends data from previous workouts to an online account that helps runners track their distance, pace, and running routes. These features justify marks in the ―Additional Function‖ and ―Modified Information Flow‖ columns in Table 2. The connection between the pedometer and an iPod and a computer is an advantageous ―Interaction with Infrastructure.‖ In this sense, the infrastructure interaction is manifested both geometrically, by attaching to the iPod, and digitally, by exchanging data between the shoe-based module and the iPod. Compared to competing, one-piece pedometers, the Nike+ is both smaller in size (―Modified Size‖) and modular (―Modified Physical Layout‖). The use of a piezoelectric accelerometer in the foot unit is considered a ―Modified Energy Flow‖ because competing products used springs and lever arms at the time of its release, which require more energy. The Nike+ also provides ―Modified Sensory Demands‖ by allowing users to hear their data over the iPod headphones in addition to tracking it visually. [INSERT FIGURE 4 [56]] The Oliso Frisper is a home vacuum sealer that punctures a tiny hole in any closable plastic bag, removes the air, and then heat-seals the hole to ensure a vacuum. As opposed to traditional vacuum sealers that require specialized bags, this method of sealing allows a variety of bags to be continually reused, and it is not required to span the full length of the bag to operate properly. The puncturing and resealing mechanism is considered a ―Modified Energy Flow,‖ and it allows 13
  22. 22. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 the Oliso Frisper to be considerably more compact than the competition, as recorded in the ―Modified Size‖ column in Table 2. The Oliso Frisper also exhibits improved ―Interaction with Infrastructure‖ because it can be used with existing household sealable bags. The product also earns a reduced ―Cost‖ designation because the customer can use any sealable plastic bag (rather than expensive, specialized bags) and reuse the original bag countless times without loss of function. 3.2 Selecting Innovative Products for Analysis Products were selected from three published lists of innovative products: Time magazine’s Inventions of the Year, Popular Science magazine’s Best of What’s New, and Industrial Designers Society of America’s (IDSA) International Design Excellence Awards (IDEA). Products were selected from these lists, rather than personal research by the authors, to avoid any researcher bias in the selection of products. The lists also provided a wide assortment of products to support a relatively broad analysis of innovation, with the Time list oriented towards the general public, the Popular Science list towards scientific-minded readers, and IDEA towards industrial designers and other professionals. As shown in Table 3, a set of criteria was developed for selecting products from the published lists. Since the purpose of this study was to investigate mechanical innovation, products with no significant mechanical component were eliminated (e.g., new software, materials, or chemicals). The innovation also needed to be function-related, rather than a purely cosmetic or aesthetic change. This criterion eliminated fashion and most clothing, except for a few that demonstrated mechanical innovation. Also, products were required to be commercially available; prototypes were eliminated to ensure design feasibility. Only end consumer products 14 were considered, rather than components (e.g., engines, transmissions). Since products were evaluated from a consumer perspective, it was difficult to evaluate components that were isolated from a parent product. The ability of a product to change or potentially change a marketplace
  23. 23. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 was a significant criterion, which most of the products met by virtue of appearing on one of the innovation lists. Finally, it was necessary for the product to be relevant to the United States market, rather than international markets, so that the U.S.-based researchers could evaluate the product relative to competing products. [INSERT TABLE 3] The selection criteria were used to extract products from the published parent lists. After analyzing the 2003-2008 editions of each parent list, 197 products were obtained. Although additional products could be obtained from earlier editions of the lists, the product count was hypothesized to be large enough to provide significant insights on innovation. (This hypothesis is revisited in Section 4.) Overall 45, 104, and 80 products were extracted from the Time, Popular Science, and IDSA lists, respectively, with 29 of those products receiving awards from multiple lists. 3.3 Analyzing Award-Winning Innovative Products Each of the 197 products was analyzed with respect to the innovation characteristics in Table 1. A sample analysis is illustrated in Table 2. Analysis was based on the description of the product in the award list. Each product was analyzed with respect to a comparative product. The comparative product was selected by identifying the product class that a customer would 15 most likely consider purchasing, instead of the innovative product, at the time the innovation award was issued. For example, an iPod® would be compared to other digital music players, rather than a compact disc player. 3.4 Comparing Award-Winning Innovative Products to Non-Award-Winning Competitors Available in Major Retail Stores For this analysis, the 2007 and 2008 editions of the award lists were analyzed to identify the subset of products that were available on the in-store shelves of major national or regional retail stores, including Target, Best Buy, Frys, Sears, and HEB (a regional Texas grocery chain).
  24. 24. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 In selecting the comparison products, the objective was to identify the non-award-winning products that a customer would most likely consider purchasing instead of the award-winning product. To provide a standardized means of selecting non-award-winning products that offered a fair and challenging comparison to the award-winning products, a set of selection criteria were devised. First, the authors considered only products on the same in-store retail shelves as the award-winning product; product offerings from other retailers, including on-line retailers, were excluded from consideration. Second, each comparison product was required to exhibit similar basic functionality and similar levels of innovation characteristics as the award-winning product, relative to the most basic products on the shelf. For example, the Vicks Forehead Thermometer, described in Section 3.1 and Figure 2, was compared to several non-award-winning baby thermometers on the shelves of its retail store. All of the comparison products offered similar basic functionality of measuring and displaying the body temperature of a child, but they also offered noticeable enhancements in functionality, architecture, or user or external interaction characteristics, relative to the most basic oral, armpit, ear, or rectal baby thermometers. For example, one competing product was offered in the form of a pacifier, a modified architectural 16 characteristic (layout), and several products offered color-coded temperature readings, a userinteraction (modified cognitive demand) and external interaction (modified information flow) characteristic. Each award-winning product was analyzed for innovation characteristics by comparing it to the non-award-winning products in its comparison set. Similarly, each non-award-winning product was analyzed by comparing it to the award-winning product and to the other non- awardwinning products in the set. Only features that were unique to a specific product earned innovation characteristics. For example, several baby thermometers offered color-coded temperatures, including the Vicks Forehead Thermometer, so none of them earned innovation characteristics for that feature. However, only one product was offered in the form of a pacifier,
  25. 25. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 a unique architectural feature that earned a "modified layout" characteristic for that non-awardwinning product. 3.5 Analyzing Repeatability The repeatability of the analysis was assessed with inter-rater agreement, which measures the degree to which two judges assign the same ratings to each alternative [57]. Specifically, Cohen’s *58+ kappa coefficient, K, and standard percent agreement were used to calculate interrater agreement. Kappa coefficient values range from -1, which represents complete disagreement, to 0, which represents chance agreement, to 1, which represents perfect agreement. Generally, inter-rater agreement of 0.40 or less is considered ―poor‖ agreement; 0.4 to 0.75 is considered ―fair to good‖ agreement; and 0.75 and above is considered ―excellent‖ [59,60]. Percent agreement was calculated as the direct proportion of agreements to the total possible number of agreements. In this evaluation, judges were considered to agree if both 17 indicated that a product satisfied (or did not satisfy) an innovation characteristic. Initially, lists of approximately 10 sample products were evaluated by two of the authors independently. Differences were discussed as a means of training the judges and clarifying the definitions of the characteristics in Table 1. The procedure was repeated until an acceptable level of inter-rater agreement was achieved for the sample products. Initial inter-rater agreement fell in the 0.65 K, or 85% agreement, range between authors, but discussion and clarification of the innovation characteristics and their definitions raised the level to 0.75 K, or 90% agreement, for new samples of independently analyzed products. Then, 49 products, or 25% of the total number of products, were analyzed independently by two of the authors. A high inter-rater agreement was observed in the form of Cohen’s kappa and percent agreement levels of 0.68 and 88%, respectively, and the two authors differed in their analysis of the number of products in each innovation category by less than 8%. 4 RESULTS After all of the award-winning products were evaluated, the results were analyzed by
  26. 26. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 characteristics and overarching categories as shown in Table 4. The first column lists all of the characteristics of innovation identified in Section 3, with category headings highlighted in bold. The second column indicates the percentage of products that displayed each characteristic. The third column indicates the percentage of products with at least one characteristic in each category. For example, 60.9% of the products exhibited at least one characteristic in the architecture category. [INSERT TABLE 4]18 Modified Physical Demands and Modified Energy Flow were the most frequently displayed characteristics, with 48.7% and 41.6% of products surveyed, respectively. Similarly, their parent categories, user interactions and external interactions, were the most frequently cited categories, with 68.5% and 80.2% of products, respectively, exhibiting at least one characteristic in each category. In contrast, the percentage of products that granted the user an additional function was much lower at 38.1%. There are at least two potential explanations for the differences between categories. First, the results suggest that mechanical innovation may be more closely associated with a product’s external and user interactions than with additional functionality alone, at least from the customer’s perspective. The lower percentage of products with additional functions could also indicate that additional functions or functional shifts are more difficult to integrate into products. Finally, the external and user interaction categories are quite broad, as indicated by the number of characteristics associated with them. The breakdown in characteristics may also encourage the researcher to think more carefully about these categories and thereby identify more products that exhibit them. Overall, neither the average number of characteristics per product nor the distribution of characteristics across categories differed substantially when compared across award lists or award list years. For example, the percentage of products with at least one characteristic in each
  27. 27. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 category, as documented in Table 4, differed by less than 4% per category between the set of products in the 2003-2005 award lists and those in the 2006-2008 award lists. Also, the IDEA products were expected to display more user interaction characteristics than the other award lists based on IDSA’s origins in industrial design, but this hypothesis proved not to be the case. Also, 19 no statistically significant differences were observed between products that appeared on multiple award lists and those that appeared on only one. These results indicate that the trends in innovation characteristics were consistent across the award lists and years investigated in this study. [INSERT TABLE 5] On average, award-winning products displayed multiple characteristics of innovation. The 197 products in the study averaged approximately three innovation characteristics per product. Approximately 75% of the products exhibited at least 3 innovation characteristics, and approximately 95% exhibited at least two. These results suggest that innovative products often exhibit multiple innovative advantages over comparative products. To further investigate these findings, the authors compared a subset of the award-winning products to their competitors on the in-store shelves of major retailers, as described in Section 3.4. Specifically, fourteen products from the 2007 and 2008 award lists were found on the instore shelves of major retail stores: Logitech MX Air Mouse, Vicks Forehead Thermometer, Polaroid PoGo Zink Pocket Printer, Eye Fi Wireless SD Card, Yamaha YSP-series Digital Sound Projector, GearWrench X-beam Wrench, Chef’n PalmPeeler, One Touch Can Opener, Stanley MaxLife TriPod Flashlight, Belkin Compact Surge Protector, Oliso Frisper, Cub Cadet ZForce Zero Turn Riding Mower, Oral-B Triumph Smart Series Electric Toothbrush, and the iPhone. Each product was compared with at least two non-award-winning products, with an average of approximately four non-award-winning comparison products per award-winning product. Of the 14 products investigated, all but 4 displayed more innovation characteristics than their 20
  28. 28. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 competitors. As shown in Table 5, the award-winning products exhibited an average of 2.9 characteristics per product, compared with 0.5 characteristics per non-award-winning product. The difference was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.00003, based on a t-test of the null hypothesis that the average numbers of characteristics were equal for the two groups. The award-winning products also exhibited a higher average number of characteristics in each innovation category. As shown in Table 5, the differences between award-winning and nonaward- winning products were statistically significant for all innovation categories at a p-value of 0.1. The architecture and external and user interaction categories were statistically significant for p-values of 0.05. Those three categories were also the most frequently exhibited categories in the larger parent study summarized in Table 4. The significance of these differences between award-winning and non-award-winning products is remarkable for several reasons. First, it provides evidence that the innovation characteristics are more prevalent in award-winning products than in their non-award-winning competitors. This trend suggests that innovators may be wise to focus on multiple characteristics, when attempting to design innovative products. Second, even though the awardwinning products had been available for two or more years in the marketplace, their competitors had not yet managed to replicate all of their innovative features. In some cases, such as the Vicks Forehead Thermometer, a low-cost competitor had already launched a competing product with identical features, such as color-coding and forehead readings. In most cases, however, the award-winning product's distinguishing features were still unique on the retailer's shelves. For example, the Cub Cadet Zero Turn Riding Mower was the only consumer riding lawn mower on its retailer's shelves that offered a zero turn radius with a standard steering wheel, rather than a series of levers, resulting in innovation characteristics such as reduced physical and cognitive 21 demands. Third, since each product was compared to an average of four non-award-winning products, there were ample opportunities for the non-award-winning products to exhibit
  29. 29. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 distinguishing characteristics, but they did so with a much smaller frequency than the awardwinning products. Often, the award-winning product (or another competing product) already embodied the non-award-winning products’ advantageous features. For example, the Oliso Frisper was compared to three products on its retailer’s shelves: the Tilia Foodsaver Freshsaver Handheld Vacuum System, the Rival Seal-a-Meal, and the Tilia Foodsaver Vacuum Packaging System. Two of the competing products (the Rival Seal-a-Meal and the Tilia Foodsaver Vacuum Packaging System) advertised their hands-free, one-touch operation. Since both of those products (and the Oliso Frisper) offered that feature, none of the products earned a ―modified physical demand‖ characteristics for that feature because they did not offer an advantage relative to their competitors. The remaining product (the Tilia Foodsaver Freshsaver Handheld Vacuum System) cited its handheld size as an advantage relative to the larger systems, but the Oliso Frisper offered that feature as well. However, all of the vacuum sealing products required proprietary bags, except the Oliso Frisper, which utilized standard Ziploc bags and earned ―modified cost‖ and ―interacting with infrastructure‖ characteristics for that feature. 5 CLOSURE An empirical study was conducted of 197 consumer products that received innovation awards from Time, Popular Science, and the Industrial Design Society of America between 2003 and 2008. Based on their award citations, the products were analyzed with respect to several innovation criteria in the categories of architecture, external interactions, user interactions, functionality, and cost. One of the interesting findings of the study was the frequency with 22 which different types of innovations were exhibited. Of the products analyzed in the study, 68.5% and 80.2% exhibited enhanced user and external interactions, respectively, compared to 38.1% with additional functions and 60.9% with innovative architectures. Furthermore, when the innovation categories were partitioned into more specific characteristics (e.g., the user interactions category was partitioned into three characteristics: modified physical demands,
  30. 30. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 modified sensory demands, and modified cognitive demands), the average product exhibited approximately three characteristics. Of the 197 award-winning products, approximately 75% exhibited at least 3 different characteristics of innovation and 95% exhibited at least 2. These results were reinforced by an in-store empirical study in which a subset of the award-winning products were compared to competing products on the shelves of major retailers. On average, those award-winning products exhibited 2.9 characteristics per product, a statistically significant increase over the 0.5 characteristics exhibited, on average, by their competitors. The awardwinning products also exhibited enhanced architecture and external and user interactions at a significantly greater rate than their competitors. These findings stress the need for engineering design methodologies that focus on improving product interactions. Tools are available for considering function, architecture, and external interactions during the design process. These tools include an abundance of recent research on functional modeling, product architecture, and green design. While more research and industrial applications are certainly needed in those areas, there appears to be a significant gap between current design methodology and the need to incorporate innovative user interaction features as part of many successful products. There are several emerging engineering design techniques that focus on customer interactions with a product, as a source of innovations. For example, Von Hippel and coauthors 23 [17,61,62] conduct customer interviews with lead users—customers who push a product to its limits, experience needs prior to the general population, and benefit significantly from having those needs fulfilled. In related work, the authors have developed techniques for helping ordinary customers serve as lead users by interacting with a product under extreme conditions [63,64]. Other techniques, such as empathic design [65], articulated use [39], bodystorming [66], and contextual needs analysis [67] are also aimed at helping designers better understand, or even experience, how customers interact with products. For example, Ford engineers developed a
  31. 31. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 simulation suit with goggles, ear plugs, thick gloves, and arm and leg weights and motion restrictors to help their young engineers understand the challenges faced by older drivers [68]. These principles have also been reflected in universal design studies that encourage designers to target broader sections of the population [69,70]. Based on the results of this study as well as literature that suggests a design shift towards a product’s interactions *71+, it appears that these types of techniques may become increasingly important. Cagan and Vogel [72], for example, introduce an integrated new product development approach that focuses specifically on usercentered design. In addition to the broad research opportunities motivated by this study, there are several opportunities for expanding and refining the study itself. First, it could be helpful to further decompose some of the innovation characteristics to differentiate, for example, between changes in type and changes in magnitude of energy, material, and information flows. It could also be helpful to expand the list of characteristics to capture aspects of product value that are broader than innovation, which was the focus of this study. For example, Cagan and Vogel [72] define a set of attributes that contribute to the overall value of a product, some of which overlap with the innovation characteristics defined in this study. For example, ergonomics and impacts, as 24 defined by Cagan and Vogel [72], are reflected in the user interaction and external interaction characteristics defined in this study. Other attributes, such as quality, clearly contribute to the long-term value of a product, but they are not included in the innovation characteristics because they were not highlighted in the innovation award citations from which they were derived. It would also be interesting to compare the results of this study with a series of customer interviews probing the reasons for purchasing an innovative product over the competition. Specifically, it would be informative to poll representative customers for their opinions on the characteristics of innovative products and to compare the results to the characteristics compiled by the authors. In addition, it could be very revealing to investigate the designers and design
  32. 32. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 processes behind award-winning products and specifically to research the factors that drove the product designers to incorporate specific characteristics in their designs. It would also be interesting to quantitatively track the market success of the award-winning products in this study, relative to non-award-winning products, and to link that success to various characteristics of the market, firm, and product itself. Finally, the innovation characteristics developed in this study could be adapted as evaluation tools for analyzing the results of innovation studies. The comparison of awardwinning and non-award-winning products provides evidence that some of the innovation characteristics are more prevalent in award-winning products. Accordingly, those characteristics should be useful as tools for predicting whether a product has the potential for innovative success. 25 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Kristin L. Wood of The University of Texas at Austin for helpful comments on a draft of this paper. The authors would also like to acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI- 0825461/0825713. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. REFERENCES 1. Cooper, R., 2005, Product Leadership, Basic Books, New York. 2. Association of National Advertisers, 1984, Prescription for New Product Success, New York. 3. Lori, D., 2002, ―Learning from Failure: Knowing What Went Wrong in Past Product Launches Can Be Key to Future Success,‖ Stagnito's New Products Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 18. 4. Berkowitz, D., Wren, B. and Grant, S., 2007, ―Predicting New Product Success or Failure: A Comparison of U.S. and U.K. Practices (Report),‖ Journal of Comparative International
  33. 33. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Management, (June) 2007. 5. Kano, N., 1984, ―Attractive Quality and Must-Be Quality,‖ The Journal of the Japanese Society for Quality Control, (April), pp. 39-48. 6. Cooper, R., 1979, ―The Dimensions of Industrial New Product Success and Failure,‖ Journal of Marketing, Vol. 43, (August), pp. 93-103. 7. Cooper, R., and de Brentani, U., 1991, ―New Industrial Financial Services: What Distinguishes the Winners,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 75-90. 8. Kleinschmidt, E., and Cooper, R., 1991, ―The Impact of Product Innovation on Performance,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 240-251. 9. Parry, M., and Song, X., 1994, ―Identifying New Product Successes in China,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management Science, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 15-30. 10. Song, X., and Parry, M., 1994, ―The Dimensions of Industrial New Product Success and Failure in State Enterprises in the People's Republic of China,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 105-118. 11. Ali, A., Krapfel, R. and LaBahn, D., 1995, ―Product Innovativeness and Entry Strategy: Impact on Cycle Time and Break-even Time,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 54-69. 12. Lynn, G., Morone, J. and Paulson, A., 1996, ―Marketing and Discontinuous Innovation: The Probe and Learn Process,‖ California Management Review, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 8-37. 13. Goldenberg, J., Lehmann, D., and Mazursky, D., 1999, ―The Primacy of the Idea Itself as a Predictor of New Product Success,‖ Marketing Science Institute Working Paper. 14. Astebro, T., and Michela, J., 2005, ―Predictors of the Survival of Innovations,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 322-335.26 15. Mishra, S., Kim, D. and Lee, D., 1996, ―Factors Affecting New Product Success: Cross
  34. 34. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Country Comparisons,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 530- 550. 16. Souder, W., and Song, M., 1997, ―Contingent Product Design, and Marketing Strategies Influencing New Product Success, and Failure in US, and Japanese Electronic Firms,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 21-34. 17. Von Hippel, E., 1986, ―Lead Users: A Source of Novel Product Concepts,‖ Management Science, Vol. 32, No. 7, pp. 791-805. 18. Deszca, G., Munro, H. and Noori, H., 1991, ―Developing Breakthrough Products: Challenges and Options for Market Assessment,‖ Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 613-630. 19. Colarelli O' Connor, G., 1998, ―Market Learning and Radical Innovation: A Cross Case Comparison of Eight Radical Innovation Projects,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 151-166. 20. Song, X., and Parry, M., 1999, ―Challenges of Managing the Development of Breakthrough Products in Japan,‖ Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 665-688. 21. Hauser, J., and Clausing, D., 1988, ―The House of Quality,‖ Harvard Business Review, pp. 63-73. 22. Williams, N., Azarm, S., and Kannan, P., 2008, ―Engineering Product Design Optimization for Retail Channel Acceptance,‖ Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 130, No. 6, pp. 081010. 23. Michalek, J., Ceryan, O., Papalambros, P., and Koren, Y., 2006, ―Balancing Marketing and Manufacturing Objectives in Product Line Design,‖ Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 128, No. 6, pp. 1196-1204. 24. Olshavsky, R., and Sprend, R., 1996, ―An Exploratory Study of the Innovation Evaluation Process,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 512-529. 25. Veryzer, R., 1998, ―Key Factors Affecting Customer Evaluation of Discontinuous New
  35. 35. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Products,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 136-150. 26. Crilly, N., Moultrie, J., and Clarkson, P., 2009, ―Shaping things: intended consumer response and the other determinants of product form,‖ Design Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 224-254. 27. Lawton, L., and Parasuraman, A., 1980, ―The Impact of the Marketing Concept on New Product Planning,‖ Journal of Marketing, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 19-25. 28. More, R., 1982, ―Risk Factors in Accepted and Rejected New Industrial Products,‖ Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 11, pp. 9-15. 29. Lee, M., and Na, D., 1994, ―Determinants of Technical Success in Product Development When Innovative Radicalness is Considered,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 62-68. 30. Olson, E., Walker, O. and Ruekert, R., 1995, ―Organizing for Effective New Product Development: the Moderating Role of Product Innovativeness,‖ Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 48-62. 31. Schmidt, J., and Calantone, R., 1998, ―Are Really New Product Development Projects Harder to Shut Down?‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 111- 123. 32. Song, M., and Montoya-Weiss, M., 1998, ―Critical Development Activities for Really New Versus Incremental Products,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 124-135.27 33. Garcia, R., and Calantone, R., 2002, ―A Critical Look at Technological Innovation Typology and Innovativeness Terminology: A Literature Review,‖ Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 110-132. 34. Foster, R., 1986, Innovation, the Attacker's Advantage, Summit, New York. 35. Betz, F., 1993, Strategic Technology Management, McGraw-Hill, New York.
  36. 36. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 36. Dewar, R., and Dutton, J., 1986, ―The Adoption of Radical and Incremental Innovations: An Empirical Analysis,‖ Management Science, Vol. 32, No. 11, pp. 1422-1433. 37. Franke, H., 1975, ―Methodische Schritte beim Klaren konstruktiver Aufgabenstellugen,‖ Konstruktion, Vol. 27, pp. 395-402. 38. Pahl, G., and Beitz, W., 1996, Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach, SpringerVerlag, New York. 39. Otto, K., and Wood, K., 2001, Product Design: Techniques in Reverse Engineering: Systematic Design, and New Product Development, Prentice-Hall, New York. 40. Rohrbach, B., 1969, ―Kreativ Nach Regeln -- Methode 635, Eine Neue Technik Zum Losen Von Problemen,‖ Absatzwirtschaft, Vol. 12, pp. 73-75. 41. Shah, J., 1998, "Experimental Investigation of Progressive Idea Generation Techniques in Engineering Design," ASME DETC Design Theory and Methodology Conference, Atlanta, GA. 42. Altshuller, G. S., 1984, Creativity as an Exact Science, Gordon and Breach, Luxembourg. 43. Linsey, J. S., Murphy, J.T., Markman, A.B., Wood, K.L., and Kurtoglu, T., 2006, "Representing Analogies: Increasing the Probability of Innovation," ASME DETC Design Theory and Methodology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, Paper Number: DETC2006-99383. 44. Singh, V., Skiles, S., Krager, J., Wood, K., Jensen, D., and Sierakowski, R., 2009, ―Innovations in Design Through Transformation: A Fundamental Study of Transformation Principles,‖ Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 131, No. 8, pp. 081010. 45. Chiu, I., and Shu, L. H., 2007, ―Biomimetic Design through Natural Language Analysis to Facilitate Cross-Domain Information Retrieval,‖ Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 45-59. 46. Keeney, R., and Raiffa, H., 1976, Decisions with Multiple Objectives: Preferences and Value Tradeoffs, John Wiley and Sons, New York. 47. Saaty, T., 1980, The Analytical Hierarchy Process, McGraw-Hill, New York.
  37. 37. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 48. Pugh, S., 1990, Total Design, Addison-Wesley, New York. 49. Thevenot, H., and Simpson, T., 2009, ―A Product Dissection-Based Methodology to Benchmark Product Family Design Alternatives,‖ Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 131, No. 4, pp. 041002. 50. Leary, M., and Burvil, C., 2007, ―Enhancing the Quality Function Deployment Conceptual Design Tool,‖ Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 129, No. 7, pp. 701-708. 51. Ulrich, K., 1995, ―The Role of Product Architecture in the Manufacturing Firm,‖ Research Policy, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 419-440. 52. Pahl, G. and W. Beitz, 1996, Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach, Springer-Verlag, New York. 53. Stone, R. B. and K. L. Wood, 2000, ―Development of a Functional Basis for Design,‖ ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 122, pp. 359-370. 54. Industrial Design Society of America, International Design Excellence Awards, 2008, Vicks Forehead Thermometer. 55. Popular Science, Best of What's New, 2006, Recreation: Nike+iPod Sports Kit.28 56. Popular Science, Best of What's New, 2007, Home Tech: Oliso Frisper. 57. Tinsley, H., and Weiss, D., 2000, "Interrater Reliability and Agreement," Handbook of Applied Multivariate Statistics and Mathematical Modeling, Academic Press, New York, pp. 95-124. 58. Cohen, J., 1960, ―A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales,‖ Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 37-46. 59. Landis, J., and Koch, G., 1977, ―The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data,‖ Biometrics, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 159-174. 60. Fleiss, J., 1981, Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  38. 38. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 61. Von Hippel, E., 2005, Democratizing Innovation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 62. Lettl, C., 2007, ―User Involvement Competence for Radical Innovation,‖ Journal of Engineering Technology Management, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 53-75. 63. Hannukainen, P., and Hölttä-Otto, K., 2006, "Identifying Customer Needs -- Disabled Persons as Lead Users," ASME DETC Design Theory and Methodology Conference, Las Vegas, NV, ASME, Paper Number: DETC2006-99043. 64. Lin, J., and Seepersad, C., 2007, "Empathic Lead Users: The Effects of Extraordinary User Experiences on Customer Needs Analysis and Product Redesign," ASME DETC Design Theory and Methodology Conference, Las Vegas, NV, ASME, Paper Number: DETC2007- 35302. 65. Leonard, D., and Rayport, J., 1997, ―Sparking Innovation through Empathic Design,‖ Harvard Business Review, pp. 102-113. 66. Kelley, T., 2001, The Art of Innovation, Doubleday, New York, NY. 67. Green, M. G., J. S. Linsey, C. C. Seepersad and K. L. Wood, 2006, "Frontier Design: A Product Usage Context Method," ASME IDETC/CIE Design Theory and Methodology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, Paper Number: DETC2006-99608. 68. The Center for Universal Design, 2002, Ford Drives a Mile in an Older Person's Suit, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. 69. Story, M., Mueller, J. and Mace, R., 1998, The Universal Design File: Designing for People of All Ages & Abilities, The Center for Universal Design, NC State University, Raleigh, NC. 70. Preiser, W., and Ostroff, E., 2001, Universal Design Handbook, McGraw-Hill Professional, New York. 71. Redström, J., 2006, ―Towards User Design? On the Shift from Object to User as the Subject of Design,‖ Design Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 123-139. 72. Cagan, J. and C. M. Vogel, 2002, Creating Breakthrough Products: Innovation from
  39. 39. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Product Planning to Program Approval, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.29 List of Figures Figure 1. Kano Diagram [5] Figure 2. Vicks Forehead Thermometer [54] Figure 3. Nike+ Apple iPod Pedometer Attachment [55] Figure 4. Oliso Frisper Home Vacuum Sealer [56] List of Tables Table 1. Characteristics of Innovation Table 2. Sample products that illustrate characteristics of innovation Table 3. Product Selection Criteria Table 4. Award-Winning Product Analysis by Innovation Characteristics and Categories Table 5. Results of In-Store Comparison of Award-Winning Versus Non-Award-Winning Products30 Figure 1. Kano Diagram [5] Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Baseline Functionality Delights Must-haves31 Figure 2. Vicks Forehead Thermometer [54]32 Figure 3. Nike+ Apple iPod Pedometer Attachment [55]33 Figure 4. Oliso Frisper Home Vacuum Sealer [56]34 Table 1. Characteristics of Innovation Functionality
  40. 40. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013  Additional Function- Allows the user to solve a new problem or perform a new function while still performing the function of the comparison product. Architecture  Modified Size- The physical dimensions during operation or storage have changed in expansion or compaction beyond subtle or incremental differences.  Modified Physical Layout- The same elements of the product are still present, but the physical architecture has changed.  Expanded Usage Physical Environment- The product can now be used in more usage environments with different resource availability or different physical characteristics. External Interactions  Modified Material Flow- Accepts or creates different materials or uses materials in new ways.  Modified Energy Flow- Utilizes new sources of energy or converts to a different form of energy than previously used.  Modified Information Flow- Different types or amounts of information are being gathered, processed, or output/displayed.  Interaction with Infrastructure- The product interacts with previously owned infrastructure. User Interactions  Modified Physical Demands- The product is easier to use physically beyond subtle or incremental differences.  ModifiedSensory Demands- The product is easier to use from a sensory stand point beyond subtle or incremental differences.  Modified Mental Demands- The product is easier to use mentally beyond subtle or incremental differences. Cost (Secondary Characteristic)
  41. 41. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013  Purchase Cost- Purchase cost is significantly different.  Operating Cost– Operating and/or maintenance costs are significantly different. 35 Table 2. Sample Products that Illustrate Characteristics of Innovation Product Vicks Forehead Thermometer Nike+ Oliso Frisper Comparative Product children digital thermometer running pedometer home vacuum sealer Function Additional Function x Architecture Modified Size x x Modified Physical Layout x
  42. 42. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Expanded Usage Environment x External Interactions Modified Material Flow Modified Energy Flow x x Modified Information Flow x x Interaction with Infrastructure x x User Interactions Modified Physical Demands x Modified Sensory Demands x Modified Cognitive Demands x Cost Purchase Maintenance x36 Table 3. Product Selection Criteria  The innovative product must be mechanical or hardware-related.  The innovation must be related to the functionality of the product, rather than its aesthetics alone.
  43. 43. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013  The product must be successful or potentially successful in the marketplace.  The product must be available in the marketplace (i.e., no prototypes).  The product must be an end consumer product, rather than a component.  The product must have changed or have the potential to change the marketplace.  The product must be relevant to the US market.37 Table 4. Award-Winning Product Analysis by Innovation Characteristics and Categories Percent of products with each criterion (%) Percent of products with at least 1 criterion for each category (%) Function - 38.1 Additional Function 38.1 Architecture - 60.9 Modified Size 23.4 Modified Physical Layout 36.0 Expanded Usage Environment 26.9 External Interactions - 80.2 Modified Material Flow 10.2
  44. 44. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 Modified Energy Flow 41.6 Modified Information Flow 34.5 Interaction with Infrastructure 20.8 User Interactions - 68.5 Modified Physical Demands 48.7 Modified Sensory Demands 14.2 Modified Cognitive Demands 15.7 Cost - 9.1 Purchase 2.5 Maintenance 7.138 Table 5. Results of In-Store Comparison of Award-Winning Versus Non-Award-Winning Products (P-values are based on a t-test of the null hypothesis that the average numbers of characteristics are equal for the two groups.) Average Number of Characteristics Per Product P-Value AwardWinning Products Non-AwardWinning Products OVERALL 2.9 0.5 0.00003 Function 0.3 0.07 0.058 Architecture 1.0 0.2 0.001 External Interactions 0.8 0.1 0.004
  45. 45. LIGHT MIDDLE EAST 2013 User Interactions 0.6 0.09 0.008 Cost 0.1 0.0 0.08