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Effective Executives<br />                   ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT<br />		XAVIER GRADUATE SCHOOL<br />
Peter Drucker<br />
Peter Drucker<br />was a writer, management consultant, and self-described “social ecologist.” His books and scholarly and...
Effectiveness Can Be Learned<br />The Effective Executive follows practices that can be learned and must be learned. It is...
Why We Need Effective Executives?<br />The absence of executives in yesterday's organizatons<br />In recent times, the maj...
Today's large knowledge organizations<br />The center of gravity has shifted to the knowledge worker, the man who puts to ...
Who Is An Executive?<br />Every knowledge worker in modern organization is an “executive” if, by virtue of his position or...
Executive Realities<br />The executive in organization is in an entirely different posi- tion. In his situation there are ...
The Promise Of Effectiveness<br />
Types of needs and available people<br />A senior executive, should have:<br /> extraordinary abilities as an analyst and ...
Effectiveness: needed by organizations and executives<br />Effectiveness thus deserves high priority because of the needs ...
But Can Effectiveness Be Learned?<br />
Effectiveness: not from birth: If effectiveness were a gift people were born with, the way they are born with a gift for m...
The 5 practices of effectiveness<br /><ul><li>Time management
Focus on outward contribution
Build on strengths
Concentrate on a few major areas
Make effective decisions</li></li></ul><li>Know thy Time<br />Effective executives, do not start with their tasks. They st...
The Time Demands On The Executive<br />Constant Pressures Toward Unproductive and Wasteful Time-Use<br />The knowledge wor...
Executive must manage their time<br />For all these reasons, the demands of the organization, the demands of people, the t...
Time-Diagnosis<br />Recording time usage -one has to record time before one can know where it goes and before<br />Systema...
Pruning the time wasters<br />3 diagnostic questions deal with unproductive and time-consuming activities over which every...
Consolidating "Discretionary Time"<br />Time Available for Big Tasks Is Not Going to Be Much<br />The executive who record...
Need to Consolidate Time Into Large Units<br />He needs large chunks of time and that small driblets are no time at all<br...
What Can I Contribute?<br />
The effective executive focuses on contribution<br />turns the executive’s attention away from his own specialty, his own ...
Every organization needs performance in three major areas<br />Direct results<br />Commitment to Values and Their Constant...
How To Make The Specialist Effective<br />output has to be put together with the output of other specialists before it can...
The Effective Meeting<br />Why are we having this meeting?<br />Do we want a decision?<br />do we want to inform?<br />do ...
Making Strength Productive<br />Staffing From Strength<br /> effective executive fills positions and promotes on the basis...
Impact of Not Staffing From Strength<br />he will only get the impact of what a man cannot do, of his lacks<br />his weakn...
Four Rules for Staffing for Strength<br />Guard Against the "Impossible" Job, the Job That Simply Is Not for Normal Human ...
How Do I Manage My Boss?<br />The effective executive accepts that the boss is human <br />Has strength <br />Limitations<...
Making Yourself Effective<br />Effective executives lead from strength in their own work. They make productive what they c...
First Things First<br />Effectiveness Requires Contentration and one thing at a time<br />The Need to Concentrate—There Is...
Priorities And Posteriorities<br />Decision Options: Go With the Pressures or Executive's Choice<br />If the Pressures Are...
The Elements of Decision-making<br />to make decisions is the specific executive task<br />to make decisions that have sig...
Feedback Has to Be Built Into the Decision to Provide Continuous Testing of the Expectations That Underlie the Decision.<b...
Effective Decisions<br />A decision is a judgment<br />Effective decisions know that one does not start with facts. One st...
Unless one has considered alternatives, one has a closed mind.<br />Create Dissension and Disagreement, Rather Than Consen...
Three Main Reasons for the Insistence on Disagreement<br />Safeguard Against the Decision-Maker's Becoming the Prisoner of...
Is a decision really necessary?<br />One alternative is always the alternative of doing nothing.<br />One has to make a de...
Decision-Making And The Computer<br />The Computer Will Force Executives to Make, as True Decisions, What Are Today Mostly...
Conclusion: Effectiveness Must Be Learned<br />The executive is paid for being effective. He owes effectiveness to the org...
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Effective executive report

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Effective executive report

  1. 1. Effective Executives<br /> ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT<br /> XAVIER GRADUATE SCHOOL<br />
  2. 2. Peter Drucker<br />
  3. 3. Peter Drucker<br />was a writer, management consultant, and self-described “social ecologist.” His books and scholarly and popular articles explored how humans are organized across the business, government and the nonprofit sectors of society. He is one of the best-known and most widely influential thinkers and writers on the subject of management theory and practice. His writings have predicted many of the major developments of the late twentieth century, including privatization and decentralization; the rise of Japan to economic world power; the decisive importance of marketing; and the emergence of the information society with its necessity of lifelong learning. In 1959, Drucker coined the term “knowledge worker" and later in his life considered knowledge work productivity to be the next frontier of management.<br />
  4. 4. Effectiveness Can Be Learned<br />The Effective Executive follows practices that can be learned and must be learned. It is not talent or genius.<br />Effectiveness is not “inborn”, for 45 years of work I have not come across a single “Natural executive who was born effective.<br />Drucker points out that there is no magic formula you’ve got to work at it and not expect to get everything perfect overnight. <br />
  5. 5. Why We Need Effective Executives?<br />The absence of executives in yesterday's organizatons<br />In recent times, the major problem of organization was efficiency in the performance of the manual worker who did what he had been told to do. Knowledge workers were not predominant in organization.<br />Their lack of effectiveness concerned only themselves and affected only themselves.<br />
  6. 6. Today's large knowledge organizations<br />The center of gravity has shifted to the knowledge worker, the man who puts to work what he has between his ears rather than the brawn of his muscles or the skill of his hands. Increasingly, the majority of people who have been schooled to use knowledge, theory, and concept rather than physical force or manual skill work in an organization and are effective insofar as they can make a contribution to the organization.<br />
  7. 7. Who Is An Executive?<br />Every knowledge worker in modern organization is an “executive” if, by virtue of his position or knowledge, he is responsible for a contribution that materially affects the capacity of the organization to perform and to obtain results.<br />
  8. 8. Executive Realities<br />The executive in organization is in an entirely different posi- tion. In his situation there are four major realities over which he has essentially no control.<br />The executive's time tends to belong to everybody else<br />Executives are forced to keep on "operating" unless they take positive action<br />Being within an "organization" pushes the executive toward ineffectiveness<br />The executive is "within" an organization<br />
  9. 9. The Promise Of Effectiveness<br />
  10. 10. Types of needs and available people<br />A senior executive, should have:<br /> extraordinary abilities as an analyst and as a decision-maker.<br />He should be good at working with people and at understanding organization and power relations, <br />be good at mathematics, and have artistic insights and creative imagination. <br />
  11. 11. Effectiveness: needed by organizations and executives<br />Effectiveness thus deserves high priority because of the needs of organization. It deserves even greater priority as the tool of the executive and as his access to achievement and performance.<br />Increasing effectiveness=Increase of executive performance<br />
  12. 12. But Can Effectiveness Be Learned?<br />
  13. 13. Effectiveness: not from birth: If effectiveness were a gift people were born with, the way they are born with a gift for music or an eye for painting, we would be in bad shape. For we know that only a small minority is born with great gifts in any one of these areas. <br />Effectiveness is a habit; that is, a complex of practices. And practices can always be learned, practices one learns by practicing and practicing and practicing again.<br />
  14. 14. The 5 practices of effectiveness<br /><ul><li>Time management
  15. 15. Focus on outward contribution
  16. 16. Build on strengths
  17. 17. Concentrate on a few major areas
  18. 18. Make effective decisions</li></li></ul><li>Know thy Time<br />Effective executives, do not start with their tasks. They start with their time. And they do not start out with planning. They start by finding out where their time actually goes. <br />Effective executives know that time is the limiting factor. one cannot rent, hire, buy, or otherwise obtain more time.<br />Time is totally irreplaceable, we can use more knowledge or more brawn. But there is no substitute for time.<br />Nothing else, perhaps, distinguishes effective executives as much as their tender loving care of time.<br />
  19. 19. The Time Demands On The Executive<br />Constant Pressures Toward Unproductive and Wasteful Time-Use<br />The knowledge worker must be focused on the results and performance goals of the entire organization to have any results and performance at all. This means that he has to set aside time to direct his vision from his work to results<br />
  20. 20. Executive must manage their time<br />For all these reasons, the demands of the organization, the demands of people, the time demands of change and innovation, it will become increasingly important for executives to be able to manage their time. But one cannot even think of managing one’s time unless one first knows where it goes.<br />
  21. 21. Time-Diagnosis<br />Recording time usage -one has to record time before one can know where it goes and before<br />Systematic time management -One has to find the nonproductive, time-wasting activities and get rid of them if one possibly can.<br />This requires asking oneself a number of diagnostic questions<br />First one tries to identify and eliminate the things that need not be done at all<br /> Which of the activities on my time log could be done by somebody else?<br />The time of others that he himself wastes<br />
  22. 22. Pruning the time wasters<br />3 diagnostic questions deal with unproductive and time-consuming activities over which every executive has some control:<br />identifying the time-wasters which follow from lack of system or foresight.<br />Recurrent “crisis,” the crisis that comes back year after year.<br /> Time-wastes often result from overstaffing.<br />Malorganization <br />Malfunction in Information<br />
  23. 23. Consolidating "Discretionary Time"<br />Time Available for Big Tasks Is Not Going to Be Much<br />The executive who records and analyzes his time and then attempts to manage it can determine how much he has for his important tasks. <br />How much time is there that is “discretionary,” that is, available for the big tasks that will really make a contribution?<br />Senior Executive Time Availability<br />Senior executives rarely have as much as one quarter of their time truly at their disposal<br />The higher up an executive, the larger will be the proportion of time that is not under his control and yet not spent on contri- bution.<br />
  24. 24. Need to Consolidate Time Into Large Units<br />He needs large chunks of time and that small driblets are no time at all<br />Even one quarter of the working day, if consolidated in large time units, is usually enough to get the important things done.<br />Effective executives control their time management perpetually<br />The effective approach<br />Deadlines for important activities<br />Time is the scarcest resource, and unless it is managed, nothing else can be managed. <br />
  25. 25. What Can I Contribute?<br />
  26. 26. The effective executive focuses on contribution<br />turns the executive’s attention away from his own specialty, his own narrow skills, his own department, and toward the performance of the whole<br />It turns his attention to the outside, the only place where there are results<br />The great majority of executives tend to focus downward<br />They are occupied with efforts rather than with results<br />they are conscious above all of the authority they “should have.” <br /> As a result, they render themselves ineffectual.<br />The Executive's Own Commitment<br />Looking outward toward results<br />To ask, “What can I contribute?” is to look for the unused potential in the job.<br />Executives who do not ask themselves, “What can I contribute?” are not only likely to aim too low, they are likely to aim at the wrong things<br />
  27. 27. Every organization needs performance in three major areas<br />Direct results<br />Commitment to Values and Their Constant Reaffirmation<br />Developing people for a different and better tomorrow<br />If deprived of performance in any one of these areas, it will decay and die.<br />Commitment to contribution is commitment to responsible effectiveness<br />Without it, a man shortchanges himself, <br />deprives his organization, <br />and cheats the people he works with<br />Changed demands of a new position<br />
  28. 28. How To Make The Specialist Effective<br />output has to be put together with the output of other specialists before it can produce results.<br />The Right Human Relations<br />Relationships that are productive is the only valid definition of “good human relations.”<br />Focus on Contribution Supplies the 4 Basic Requirements of Effective Human Relations<br />communications; <br />Teamwork<br />Self-development<br />Development of Others<br />
  29. 29. The Effective Meeting<br />Why are we having this meeting?<br />Do we want a decision?<br />do we want to inform?<br />do we want to make clear to ourselves what we should be doing?<br />. To focus on contribution is to focus on effectiveness<br />
  30. 30. Making Strength Productive<br />Staffing From Strength<br /> effective executive fills positions and promotes on the basis of what a man can do<br />Whoever tries to staff an organization to avoid weakness will end up at best with mediocrity or incompetence.<br />Strong people always have strong weaknesses too.<br />Avoiding weakness is a weakness<br />Subordinates Are Paid to Perform and Not to Please Their Superiors<br />
  31. 31. Impact of Not Staffing From Strength<br />he will only get the impact of what a man cannot do, of his lacks<br />his weaknesses <br />his impediments to performance and effectiveness. <br />To Try to Build Against Weakness Frustrates the Purpose of Organization<br />Organization is the specific instrument to make human strengths redound to performance while human weakness is neutralized and largely rendered harmless.<br />
  32. 32. Four Rules for Staffing for Strength<br />Guard Against the "Impossible" Job, the Job That Simply Is Not for Normal Human Beings<br />Make Each Job Demanding and Big<br />Start With What a Man Can Do Rather Than With What a Job Requires<br />To Get Strength One Has to Put Up With Weaknesses<br />
  33. 33. How Do I Manage My Boss?<br />The effective executive accepts that the boss is human <br />Has strength <br />Limitations<br />To build on his strengths, <br />to enable him to do what he can do, will make him effective and will make the subordinate effective.<br />Focus on Strength and What He Can Do<br />requires building on strength to make weaknesses irrelevant<br />
  34. 34. Making Yourself Effective<br />Effective executives lead from strength in their own work. They make productive what they can do.<br />Making strengths productive is equally important in respect to one’s own abilities and work habits.<br />Making Strength Productive Is as Much an Attitude as It Is a Practice<br />
  35. 35. First Things First<br />Effectiveness Requires Contentration and one thing at a time<br />The Need to Concentrate—There Is Always a Time Deficit<br />Performance Requires Concentration<br />Doing One Thing at a Time<br />Sloughing off Yesterday<br />The first rule for the concentration of executive efforts is to slough off the past that has ceased to be productive.<br />Today is always the result of actions and decisions taken yesterday<br />“Is this still worth doing?”<br />effective executive will slough off an old activity before he starts on a new one.<br />Systematic sloughing off of the old is the one and only way to force the new<br />
  36. 36. Priorities And Posteriorities<br />Decision Options: Go With the Pressures or Executive's Choice<br />If the Pressures Are Allowed to Make the Decision, the Important Tasks Will Predictably Be Sacrificed<br />leaving control of priorities to the pressures is that the work of top management does not get done at all.<br />Setting a posteriority is also unpleasant. Every posteriority is somebody else’s top priority.<br />Concentration—Only Hope of Becoming the Master of Time and Events Instead of Their Whipping Boy<br />
  37. 37. The Elements of Decision-making<br />to make decisions is the specific executive task<br />to make decisions that have significant impact on the entire organization<br />Effective executives, therefore, make effective decisions.<br />Effective executives do not make a great many decisions. They concentrate on the important ones. <br />The Elements Of The Decision Process<br />Is this a generic situation or an exception?<br />. What are the objectives the decision has to reach? <br />One has to start out with what is right rather than what is acceptable <br />Converting the decision into action<br />Who has to know of this decision? <br />What action has to be taken? <br />Who is to take it? <br />what does the action have to be so that the people who have to do it can do it? <br />
  38. 38. Feedback Has to Be Built Into the Decision to Provide Continuous Testing of the Expectations That Underlie the Decision.<br />Go Oneself and Look Is the Only Reliable Feedback<br />
  39. 39. Effective Decisions<br />A decision is a judgment<br />Effective decisions know that one does not start with facts. One starts with opinions.<br />Effective executive encourages opinions<br />“What do we have to know to test the validity of this hypothesis?” <br />” “What would the facts have to be to make this opinion ten- able?”<br />Effective decision-maker assumes that the traditional measurement is not the right measurement. <br />to go out and look for the “feedback”<br />It Is a Risk-Taking Judgment. Requires Alternatives<br />therefore insist on alternatives of meas- urement—so that they can choose the one appropriate one.<br />
  40. 40. Unless one has considered alternatives, one has a closed mind.<br />Create Dissension and Disagreement, Rather Than Consensus<br />The first rule in decision-making is that one does not make a decision unless there is disagreement<br />Alfred P. Sloan's process<br />the right decision demands adequate disagreement.<br />Effective U.S. Presidents had his own method of producing the disagreement he needed in order to make an effective decision.<br />
  41. 41. Three Main Reasons for the Insistence on Disagreement<br />Safeguard Against the Decision-Maker's Becoming the Prisoner of the Organization<br />Disagreement Alone Can Provide Alternatives to a Decision<br />Disagreement is needed to stimulate the imagination<br />The effective decision-maker, therefore, organizes disagreement<br />protects him against being taken in by the plausible but false or incomplete<br />gives him the alternatives so that he can choose <br />so that he is not lost in the fog when his decision proves deficient <br />it forces the imagination—his own and that of his associates<br />Disagreement converts the plausible into the right and the right into the good decision<br />
  42. 42. Is a decision really necessary?<br />One alternative is always the alternative of doing nothing.<br />One has to make a decision when a condition is likely to degenerate if nothing is done<br />Conditions will take care of themselves even if nothing is done<br />The great majority of decisions will lie between these extremes<br />There is no formula for the right decision here<br />Act if on balance the benefits greatly outweigh cost and risk<br />Act or do not act; but do not “hedge” or compromise<br />Executives are not paid for doing things they like to do. They are paid for getting the right things done<br />
  43. 43. Decision-Making And The Computer<br />The Computer Will Force Executives to Make, as True Decisions, What Are Today Mostly Adaptations<br />Computer Strengths vs. Human Strengths<br />Computerizing require rules and policies<br />The computer has the same impact on strategic decisions. <br />
  44. 44. Conclusion: Effectiveness Must Be Learned<br />The executive is paid for being effective. He owes effectiveness to the organization for which he works. <br />Effectiveness can be learned is the second premise.<br />Recap of the five areas of special effort<br />Time management<br />Focus on contribution<br />Making strength productive<br />First things first<br />Effective decisions<br />
  45. 45. Self-development of the effective executive is central to the development of the organization<br />Executive effectiveness is our one best hope to make modern society productive economically and viable socially.<br />
  46. 46. Effectiveness must be learned.<br />
  47. 47. Thanks for listening<br />

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