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IPSec and VPN

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IPsec provides the capability to secure communications across a LAN, across private and public WANs, and across the Internet. Examples of its use include:
Secure branch office connectivity over the Internet
Secure remote access over the Internet
Establishing extranet and intranet connectivity with partners
Enhancing electronic commerce security

Published in: Education

IPSec and VPN

  1. 1. IPSEC AND VPN Presented by : Abdullaziz Tagawy Course : Computer Security 1 March / 2016
  2. 2. Resources  Materials  IPSec Tutorial by Scott Cleven- MulcahyItem (paper is taken from the GIAC directory of certified professionals)  IPSec—An Overview; (Presented by Somesh Jha) University of Wisconsin.  The Cryptography of the IPSec and IKE Protocols; (presented by Hugo Krawczyk), Technion & IBM Research.  INTERNET KEY EXCHANGE PROTOCOL ; (Presented by PRATEEK SINGH BAPNA).  IP Security (IPSec); (Presented by Thomas Lee ), Chief Technologist –QA .  Technical Development Program - VPN basics (Presented by Martín Bratina) 2014 AT&T Intellectual Property.  Book(s)  Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice – 6th Ed (William Stallings)  Cryptography and Network Security by Forouzan (2007)  Google search  http://www.slideshare.net 2
  3. 3. IPSec Contents  IP Security Overview  Applications of Ipsec  Benefits of Ipsec  IPsec Documents  IPsec Services  Transport and Tunnel Modes  IP Security Policy  Security Associations  Security Association Database  Security Policy Database  IP Traffic Processing 3
  4. 4. IPSec Contents  Encapsulating Security Payload  ESP Format  Encryption and Authentication Algorithms  Padding  Anti-Replay Service  Transport and Tunnel Modes  Combining Security Associations  Authentication Plus Confidentiality  Basic Combinations of Security Associations 4
  5. 5. IPSec Contents  Internet Key Exchange  Key Determination Protocol  Header and Payload Formats  All Together  VPN  What is a VPN?  Types of VPNs.  Commonly used VPNs  IPSec VPN Benefits 5
  6. 6. IP Security Overview  IPsec provides the capability to secure communications across a LAN, across private and public WANs, and across the Internet. Examples of its use include:  Secure branch office connectivity over the Internet  Secure remote access over the Internet  Establishing extranet and intranet connectivity with partners  Enhancing electronic commerce security Applications of Ipsec:- 6
  7. 7. IP Security Overview  Some of the benefits of IPsec:-  When IPsec is implemented in a firewall or router, it provides strong security that can be applied to all traffic crossing the perimeter.  IPsec in a firewall is resistant to bypass.  IPsec is below the transport layer (TCP, UDP) and so is transparent to applications.  IPsec can be transparent to end users.  IPsec can provide security for individual users if needed. Benefits of Ipsec:- 7
  8. 8. IP Security Overview  IPsec encompasses three functional areas:  authentication,  confidentiality,  key management.  The latest version of the IPsec document roadmap, which as of this writing is RFC 6071.  The documents can be categorized into the following groups:  Architecture: Covers the general concepts, security requirements, definitions, and mechanisms defining IPsec technology “RFC 4301[Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol.]”.  Authentication Header (AH):RFC 4302[IP Authentication Header] Note that the use of AH is deprecated. It is included in IPsecv3 for backward compatibility but should not be used in new applications.  Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP):The current specification is RFC 4303, [IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)]. IPsec Documents:- 8
  9. 9. IP Security Overview  IPsec encompasses three functional areas:  authentication,  confidentiality,  key management.  The latest version of the IPsec document roadmap, which as of this writing is RFC 6071.  The documents can be categorized into the following groups:  Internet Key Exchange (IKE): RFC 5996, [Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol], but there are a number of related RFCs.  Cryptographic algorithms: This category encompasses a large set of documents that define and describe cryptographic algorithms for encryption, message authentication, pseudorandom functions (PRFs), and cryptographic key exchange.  Other: There are a variety of other IPsec-related RFCs, including those dealing  with security policy and management information base IPsec Documents:- 9
  10. 10. IP Security Overview  IPsec provides security services at the IP layer (AH , ESP) by enabling a system to select required security protocols, determine the algorithm(s) to use for the service(s), and put in place any cryptographic keys required to provide the requested services.  Access control  Connectionless integrity  Data origin authentication  Rejection of replayed packets (a form of partial sequence integrity)  Confidentiality (encryption)  Limited traffic flow IPsec Services:- 10
  11. 11. IP Security Overview  Access Control  IPSec provides access control indirectly, using a Security Association Database (SAD), When a packet arrives at a destination and there is no Security Association already established for this packet, the packet is discarded.  Message Integrity  A digest of data is created and sent by the sender to be checked by the receiver.  Entity Authentication  The Security Association and the keyed-hash digest of the data sent by the sender authenticate the sender of the data IPsec Services:- 11
  12. 12. IP Security Overview  Confidentiality  The encryption of the message in ESP provides confidentiality. AH, however, does not provide confidentiality. If confidentiality is needed, one should use ESP instead of AH.  Replay Attack Protection  The replay attack is prevented by using sequence numbers and a sliding receiver window. Each IPSec header contains a unique sequence number when the Security Association is established. The number starts from 0 and increases until the value reaches 232 − 1. When the sequence number reaches the maximum, it is reset to 0 and, at the same time, the old Security Association (see the next section) is deleted and a new one is established. To prevent processing duplicate packets, IPSec mandates the use of a fixed-size window at the receiver. The size of the window is determined by the receiver with a default value of 64. IPsec Services:- 12
  13. 13. IP Security Overview  Both AH and ESP support two modes of use: transport and tunnel mode. Transport and Tunnel Modes:- 13
  14. 14. IP Security Overview Transport and Tunnel Modes:- Transport Mode Transport and Tunnel Modes:- Tunnel Mode 14
  15. 15. IP Security Overview Transport and Tunnel Modes:- Transport Mode Transport and Tunnel Modes:- Tunnel Mode 15
  16. 16. IP Security Overview  Transport mode is normally used when we need host-to- host (end-to-end) protection of data.  The sending host uses IPSec to authenticate and/or encrypt the payload delivered from the transport layer.  The receiving host uses IPSec to check the authentication and/or decrypt the IP packet and deliver it to the transport layer.  The new IP header, has different information than the original IP header.  Tunnel mode is normally used between two routers, between a host and a router, or between a router and a host.  The entire original packet is protected from intrusion between the sender and the receiver, as if the whole packet goes through an imaginary tunnel. Transport and Tunnel Modes:- Transport Mode Transport and Tunnel Modes:- Tunnel Mode 16
  17. 17. IP Security Overview Transport and Tunnel Modes:- Transport Mode Transport and Tunnel Modes:- Tunnel Mode 17
  18. 18. IP Security Overview  The IPSec layer comes between the transport layer and the network layer.  The flow is from the network layer to the IPSec layer and then back to the network layer again. Transport and Tunnel Modes:- Transport Mode Transport and Tunnel Modes:- Tunnel Mode 18
  19. 19. IP Security Policy  Security Policy (SP): This is important aspect of IPSec which defines the type of security applied to a packet when it is to be sent or when it has arrived.  IPsec policy is determined primarily by the interaction of two databases, the security association database (SAD) and the security policy database (SPD). 19
  20. 20. IP Security Policy 20
  21. 21. IP Security Policy  It is a key concept that appears in both the authentication and confidentiality mechanisms for IP.  It is a contract between two parties; it creates a secure channel between them.  Alice needs to unidirectionally communicate with Bob.  If they are interested only in the confidentiality aspect of security, they can get a shared secret key between themselves.  That is mean there are two SA’s between Alice and Bob; one outbound SA and one inbound SA. Security Associations:- Idea of Security Association 21
  22. 22. IP Security Policy  The Security Association can be more involved if the two parties need message integrity and authentication.  It needs other data such as the algorithm for message integrity, the key, and other parameters.  It can be much more complex if the parties need to use specific algorithms and specific parameters for different protocols, such as IPSec AH or IPSec ESP.  Each of them stores the value of the key in one variable and the name of the encryption/ decryption algorithm in another.  Alice uses the algorithm and the key to encrypt a message to Bob; Bob uses the algorithm and the key when he needs to decrypt the message received from Alice. Security Associations:- Idea of Security Association (con..) 22
  23. 23. IP Security Policy  A security association is uniquely identified by three parameters.  Security Parameters Index (SPI): A 32-bit unsigned integer assigned to this SA and having local significance only. The SPI is carried in AH and ESP headers to enable the receiving system to select the SA under which a received packet will be processed.  IP Destination Address: This is the address of the destination endpoint of the SA, which may be an end-user system or a network system such as a firewall or router.  Security Protocol Identifier: This field from the outer IP header indicates whether the association is an AH or ESP security association. Security Associations:- 23
  24. 24. IP Security Policy  We need a set of SAs that can be collected into a database.  We need a set of SAs that can be collected into a database.  The database can be thought of as a two-dimensional table with each row defining a single SA.  There are two SADs, one inbound and one outbound Security Association Database:- 24
  25. 25. IP Security Policy  Security Parameter Index: A 32-bit value selected by the receiving end of an SA to uniquely identify the SA. In an SAD entry for an outbound SA, the SPI is used to construct the packet’s AH or ESP header. In an SAD entry for an inbound SA, the SPI is used to map traffic to the appropriate SA.  • Sequence Number Counter: A 32-bit value used to generate the Sequence Number field in AH or ESP headers, (required for all implementations).  • Sequence Counter Overflow: A flag indicating whether overflow of the Sequence Number Counter should generate an auditable event and prevent further transmission of packets on this SA (required for all implementations). Security Association Database:- 25
  26. 26. IP Security Policy  Anti-Replay Window: Used to determine whether an inbound AH or ESP packet is a replay, (required for all implementations).  • AH Information: Authentication algorithm, keys, key lifetimes, and related parameters being used with AH (required for AH implementations).  • ESP Information: Encryption and authentication algorithm, keys, initialization values, key lifetimes, and related parameters being used with ESP (required for ESP implementations). Security Association Database:- 26
  27. 27. IP Security Policy  Lifetime of this Security Association: A time interval or byte count after which an SA must be replaced with a new SA (and new SPI) or terminated, plus an indication of which of these actions should occur (required for all implementations).  • IPsec Protocol Mode: Tunnel, transport, or wildcard.  • Path MTU: Any observed path maximum transmission unit (maximum size of a packet that can be transmitted without fragmentation) and aging variables (required for all implementations). Security Association Database:- 27
  28. 28. IP Security Policy  When a host needs to send a packet that must carry an IPSec header, the host needs to find the corresponding entry in the outbound SAD to find the information for applying security to the packet.  when a host receives a packet that carries an IPSec header, the host needs to find the corresponding entry in the inbound SAD to find the information for checking the security of the packet. Security Association Database:- 28
  29. 29. IP Security Policy  Each entry in an inbound SAD is selected using a triple index:  Security parameter index (a 32-bit number that defines the SA at the destination).  Destination address.  Protocol (AH or ESP). Security Association Database:- 29
  30. 30. IP Security Policy  The means by which IP traffic is related to specific SAs (or no SA in the case of traffic allowed to bypass IPsec) is the nominal Security Policy Database (SPD).  its simplest form, an SPD contains entries, each of which defines a subset of IP traffic and points to an SA for that traffic.  In more complex environments, there may be multiple entries that potentially relate to a single SA or multiple SAs associated with a single SPD entry.  Each SPD entry is defined by a set of IP and upper- layer protocol field values, called selectors.  These selectors are used to filter outgoing traffic in order to map it into a particular SA. Security Policy Database:- 30
  31. 31. IP Security Policy  Outbound processing obeys the following general sequence for each IP packet: 1) Compare the values of the appropriate fields in the packet (the selector fields) against the SPD to find a matching SPD entry, which will point to zero or more SAs. 2) Determine the SA if any for this packet and its associated SPI. 3) Do the required IPsec processing (i.e., AH or ESP processing). Security Policy Database:- 31
  32. 32. IP Security Policy  The following selectors determine an SPD entry:  Remote IP Address: This may be a single IP address, an enumerated list or range of addresses, or a wildcard (mask) address. The latter two are required to support more than one destination system sharing the same SA (e.g., behind a firewall).  Local IP Address: This may be a single IP address, an enumerated list or range of addresses, or a wildcard (mask) address. The latter two are required to support more than one source system sharing the same SA (e.g., behind a firewall).  Next Layer Protocol: The IP protocol header (IPv4, IPv6, or IPv6 Extension) includes a field (Protocol for IPv4, Next Header for IPv6 or IPv6 Extension) that designates the protocol operating over IP. This is an individual protocol number, ANY, or for IPv6 only, OPAQUE. If AH or ESP is used, then this IP protocol header immediately precedes the AH or ESP header in the packet.  Name: A user identifier from the operating system. This is not a field in the IP or upper-layer headers but is available if IPsec is running on the same operating system as the user.  Local and Remote Ports: These may be individual TCP or UDP port values, an enumerated list of ports, or a wildcard port. Security Policy Database:- 32
  33. 33. IP Security Policy Security Policy Database:- 33
  34. 34. IP Security Policy  IPsec is executed on a packet-by- packet basis.  Each outbound IP packet is processed by the IPsec logic before transmission.  Each inbound packet is processed by the IPsec logic after reception and before passing the packet contents on to the next higher layer IP Traffic Processing:- 34
  35. 35. IP Security Policy Outbound Packets:- 35
  36. 36. IP Security Policy Inbound Packets:- 36
  37. 37. IP Security Policy 37 SPD and SADB Example From To Protocol Port Policy A B Any Any AH[HMAC-MD5] Tunnel Mode Transport Mode C A’s SPD From To Protocol SPI SA Record A B AH 12 HMAC-MD5 key A’s SADB From To Protocol Port Policy Tunnel Dest Any Any ESP[3DES] D C’s SPD From To Protocol SPI SA Record ESP 14 3DES key C’s SADB D A B
  38. 38. Authentication Header (AH)  It is designed to authenticate the source host and to ensure the integrity of the payload carried in the IP packet.  The protocol uses a hash function and a symmetric (secret) key to create a message digest; the digest is inserted in the authentication header.  The AH is then placed in the appropriate location, based on the mode (transport or tunnel). 38
  39. 39. Authentication Header (AH) 39
  40. 40. Authentication Header (AH) Authentication Data Sequence Number Security Parameters Index (SPI) Next header Payload length Reserved Old IP header (only in Tunnel mode) TCP header New IP header Authenticated Data Encapsulated TCP or IP packet Hash of everything else 40
  41. 41. Authentication Header (AH)  Before applying AH 41
  42. 42. Authentication Header (AH) Transport Mode (AH Authentication) Tunnel Mode (AH Authentication) 42
  43. 43. Authentication Header (AH) 43
  44. 44. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP)  ESP can be used to provide :  Confidentiality  Data origin authentication  connectionless integrity  An anti-replay service (a form of partial sequence integrity)  And (limited) traffic flow confidentiality. 44
  45. 45. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP)  Can optionally provide the same authentication services as AH  Supports range of ciphers, modes, padding:  incl. DES, Triple-DES, RC5, IDEA, CAST etc  CBC & other modes  Padding needed to fill block size, fields, for traffic flow. 45
  46. 46. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP)  ESP adds a header and trailer.  Note that ESP’s authentication data are added at the end of the packet, which makes its calculation easier. 46
  47. 47. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP)  Security Parameters Index (32 bits): Identifies a security association.  Sequence Number (32 bits): A monotonically increasing counter value; this provides an anti- replay function, as discussed for AH.  Payload Data (variable): This is a transport-level segment (transport mode) or IP packet (tunnel mode) that is protected by encryption.  Padding (0–255 bytes):  Pad Length (8 bits): Indicates the number of pad bytes immediately preceding this field.  Next Header (8 bits): Identifies the type of data contained in the payload data field by identifying the first header in that payload (e.g., an extension header in IPv6, or an upper-layer protocol such as TCP).  Integrity Check Value (variable): A variable- length field (must be an integral number of 32-bit words) that contains the Integrity Check Value computed over the ESP packet minus the Authentication Data field. ESP Format:- 47
  48. 48. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP)  Two additional fields may be present in the payload:  An initialization value (IV): or nonce, is present if this is required by the encryption or authenticated encryption algorithm used for ESP.  Traffic flow confidentiality (TFC) : The IPsec implementation may add padding after the Payload Data and before the Padding field ESP Format:- 48
  49. 49. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP)  The Payload Data, Padding, Pad Length, and Next Header fields are encrypted by the ESP service.  If the algorithm used to encrypt the payload requires cryptographic synchronization data, such as an initialization vector (IV), then these data may be carried explicitly at the beginning of the Payload Data field.  If included, an IV is usually not encrypted, although it is often referred to as being part of the ciphertext. Encryption and Authentication Algorithms:-  If included, an IV is usually not encrypted, although it is often referred to as being part of the ciphertext.  The ICV field is optional.  The ICV is present only if the integrity service is selected .  The ICV is provided by either a separate integrity algorithm or a combined mode algorithm that uses an ICV  The ICV is computed after the encryption is performed. 49
  50. 50. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP)  The Padding field serves several purposes:  If an encryption algorithm requires the plaintext to be a multiple of some number of bytes (e.g., the multiple of a single block for a block cipher), the Padding field is used to expand the plaintext (consisting of the Payload Data, Padding, Pad Length, and Next Header fields) to the required length. Padding:-  The ESP format requires that the Pad Length and Next Header fields be right aligned within a 32-bit word. Equivalently, the ciphertext must be an integer multiple of 32 bits. The Padding field is used to assure this alignment.  Additional padding may be added to provide partial traffic-flow confidentiality by concealing the actual length of the payload. 50
  51. 51. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP)  A replay attack is one in which an attacker obtains a copy of an authenticated packet and later transmits it to the intended destination. The receipt of duplicate, authenticated IP packets may disrupt service in some way or may have some other undesired consequence.  The Sequence Number field is designed to thwart such attacks. Anti-Replay Service:- 51
  52. 52. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) Anti-Replay Service:- 52
  53. 53. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) Anti-Replay Service:- 53
  54. 54. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP)  Transport-level security:  A virtual private network via tunnel mode: Transport and Tunnel Modes:- 54
  55. 55. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) Transport Mode ESP :- 55
  56. 56. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) Transport Mode ESP :- Operation : 1) At the source, the block of data consisting of the ESP trailer plus the entire transport-layer segment is encrypted and the plaintext of this block is replaced with its ciphertext to form the IP packet for transmission. Authentication is added if this option is selected. 2) The packet is then routed to the destination. Each intermediate router needs to examine and process the IP header plus any plaintext IP extension headers but does not need to examine the ciphertext. 3) The destination node examines and processes the IP header plus any plaintext IP extension headers. Then, on the basis of the SPI in the ESP header, the destination node decrypts the remainder of the packet to recover the plaintext transport-layer segment. 56
  57. 57. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) Transport Mode ESP :- Operation : 57
  58. 58. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) Tunnel Mode ESP:- 58
  59. 59. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) Tunnel Mode ESP:- Operation 1) The source prepares an inner IP packet with a destination address of the target internal host. This packet is prefixed by an ESP header; then the packet and ESP trailer are encrypted and Authentication Data may be added. The resulting block is encapsulated with a new IP header (base header plus optional extensions such as routing and hop-by-hop options for IPv6) whose destination address is the firewall; this forms the outer IP packet. 2) The outer packet is routed to the destination firewall. Each intermediate router needs to examine and process the outer IP header plus any outer IP extension headers but does not need to examine the ciphertext. 59
  60. 60. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) Tunnel Mode ESP:- Operation 3) The destination firewall examines and processes the outer IP header plus any outer IP extension headers. Then, on the basis of the SPI in the ESP header, the destination node decrypts the remainder of the packet to recover the plaintext inner IP packet. This packet is then transmitted in the internal network. 4) The inner packet is routed through zero or more routers in the internal network to the destination host. 60
  61. 61. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) Tunnel Mode ESP:- Operation 61
  62. 62. Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) Tunnel Mode ESP:- Transport Mode ESP :-  Tunnel mode encrypts entire IP packet  Add new header for next hop  Good for VPNs, gateway to gateway security  Transport mode is used to encrypt & optionally authenticate IP data  Data protected but header left in clear  Can do traffic analysis but is efficient  Good for ESP host to host traffic 62
  63. 63. Combining Security Associations  SA’s can implement either AH or ESP  To implement both need to combine SA’s  Form a security association bundle  May terminate at different or same endpoints  Combined by  Transport adjacency  Iterated tunneling  Issue of authentication & encryption order 63
  64. 64. Combining Security Associations64
  65. 65. Internet Key Exchange65
  66. 66. Internet Key Exchange  Used for Key Management in IPSec Networks.  The IPsec Architecture supports two types of key management:  Manual: A system administrator manually configures each system with its own keys and with the keys of other communicating systems. This is practical for small, relatively static environments.  Automated: An automated system enables the on- demand creation of keys for SAs and facilitates the use of keys in a large distributed system with an evolving configuration.  The default automated key management protocol for IPsec is referred to as ISAKMP/Oakley 66 Overview :
  67. 67. Internet Key Exchange  Creates SAs for use by IPSec.  Negotiates security parameters for the SA  Key Exchange: share keys between parties  Manages SAs: create, refresh, maintain, delete.  IKEv1 (1998):  ISAKMP for management.  Oakley is a key exchange protocol.  IKEv2 (2003): IKE specifies it all 67 Overview :
  68. 68. Internet Key Exchange  Oakley Key Determination Protocol: Oakley is a key exchange protocol based on the Diffie- Hellman algorithm but providing added security. Oakley is generic in that it does not dictate specific formats.  Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP): ISAKMP provides a framework for Internet key management and provides the specific protocol support, including formats, for negotiation of security attributes. 68 IKE History
  69. 69. Internet Key Exchange  When a peer needs to send an IP packet, it consults the Security Policy Database (SPD) to see if there is an AS for that type of traffic. If there is no SA, IKE will called to establish one.  IKE operates in two phases:  IKE Phase 1  Uses Main or Aggressive mode exchange  Negotiates IKE SA  Only established once between two end points 69 How It Works:
  70. 70. Internet Key Exchange  IKE operates in two phases:  IKE Phase 2  Uses quick mode exchange.  Negotiates IPSec SAs.  Occurs multiple times.  Both phases use Diffie-Hellman key exchange to establish a shared key. 70 How It Works:
  71. 71. Internet Key Exchange  When A wants to talk to B under protection of IPSec, and they do not have an established SA:  A invokes IKE to signal B its request for an SA  IKE is run between A and B: result is a shared SA (services to be applied and fresh shared keys)  Negotiated parameters stored locally at A and B (SAD)  SPI (sec. parameters index): pointer to SA included in the IPSec header of each packet  Architectural separation: IKE writes to SAD, IPSec reads from SAD. 71 How It Works:
  72. 72. Internet Key Exchange 72 How It Works:
  73. 73. Internet Key Exchange  Algorithm for secure key exchange over unsecured channels.  Based on the difficulty of finding discreet algorithms.  Used to establish a shared secret between parties (usually the secret keys for symmetric encryption or HMACs). 73 Diffie-Hellman Algorithm:
  74. 74. Internet Key Exchange  General overview: Key Exchange establishes a shared secret between two parties that can be used for secret communication for exchanging data over a public network. The following conceptual diagram illustrates the general idea of the key exchange by using colors instead of very large numbers. 74 Diffie-Hellman Algorithm:
  75. 75. Internet Key Exchange  The parties agree on two non-secret numbers, g (generator), and p (modulus), where g is small and p is very large  Each party generates a random secret X  Based on g, p, and X, each party generates a public value Y=𝒈 𝑿 mod p  Peers then exchange public values 75 Diffie-Hellman Algorithm:
  76. 76. Internet Key Exchange 76 Diffie-Hellman Algorithm: APrivate Value, X Public Value, Y Private Value, X Public Value, Y B𝒀 𝑨 = 𝒈 𝑨 𝑿 mod p 𝒀 𝑩= 𝒈 𝑩 𝑿 mod p𝒀 𝑨 𝒀 𝑩 𝒀 𝑩 = 𝒀 𝑨 = 𝒈 𝑿(𝑩) 𝑿(𝑨) 𝒎𝒐𝒅 𝒑 (Shared Secret)
  77. 77. Internet Key Exchange  There are a number of weaknesses to Diffie-Hellman, as pointed out in [HUIT98].  It does not provide any information about the identities of the parties.  It is subject to a man-in-the-middle attack, in which a third party C impersonates B while communicating with A and impersonates A while communicating with B. Both A and B end up negotiating a key with C, which can then listen to and pass on traffic. The man-in-the-middle attack proceeds as 77 Diffie-Hellman Algorithm:
  78. 78. Internet Key Exchange 78 Diffie-Hellman Algorithm: This is how does Diffie-Hellman work: This is how does the man-in- the-middle attack work in Diffie- Hellman:
  79. 79. Internet Key Exchange  There are a number of weaknesses to Diffie-Hellman, as pointed out in [HUIT98].  It is computationally intensive. As a result, it is vulnerable to a clogging attack,in which an opponent requests a high number of keys. The victim spends considerable computing resources doing useless modular exponentiation rather than real work.  IKE key determination is designed to retain the advantages of Diffie-Hellman, while countering its weaknesses. 79 Diffie-Hellman Algorithm:
  80. 80. Internet Key Exchange 1. It employs a mechanism known as cookies to thwart clogging attacks. 2. It enables the two parties to negotiate a group; this, in essence, specifies the global parameters of the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. 3. It uses nonces to ensure against replay attacks. 4. It enables the exchange of Diffie-Hellman public key values. 5. It authenticates the Diffie-Hellman exchange to thwart man-in-the-middle attacks. 80 Features of IKE key determination:
  81. 81. Internet Key Exchange  An IKE session runs over UDP (source and destination port 500).  IKE session establishment results in the creation of IKE Sas.  IKE then establishes all requested IPSec SAs on demand. 81 IKE Protocol:
  82. 82. Internet Key Exchange  The IKEv2 protocol involves the exchange of messages in pairs.  The goal of using four messages to establish the first SA for general use. 82 IKE v2 Exchanges:
  83. 83. Internet Key Exchange  The first two pairs of exchanges are referred to as the initial exchanges.  the two peers exchange information concerning cryptographic algorithms and other security parameters they are willing to use along with nonces and Diffie-Hellman (DH) values. 83 IKE v2 Exchanges:
  84. 84. Internet Key Exchange  The result of this exchange is to set up a special SA called the IKE SA.  This SA defines parameters for a secure channel between the peers over which subsequent message exchanges take place. 84 IKE v2 Exchanges:
  85. 85. Internet Key Exchange  all subsequent IKE message exchanges are protected by encryption and message authentication. 85 IKE v2 Exchanges:
  86. 86. Internet Key Exchange  The second exchange, the two parties authenticate one another and set up a first IPsec SA to be placed in the SADB and used for protecting ordinary (i.e. non-IKE) communications between the peers. 86 IKE v2 Exchanges:
  87. 87. Internet Key Exchange  The CREATE_CHILD_S A exchange can be used to establish further SAs for protecting traffic. 87 IKE v2 Exchanges:
  88. 88. Internet Key Exchange  The informational exchange is used to exchange management information, IKEv2 error messages, and other notifications. 88 IKE v2 Exchanges:
  89. 89. Internet Key Exchange  IKE defines procedures and packet formats to establish, negotiate, modify, and delete security associations.  As part of SA establishment, IKE defines payloads for exchanging key generation and authentication data.  These payload formats provide a consistent framework independent of the specific key exchange protocol, encryption algorithm, and authentication mechanism. 89 Header and Payload Formats:
  90. 90. Internet Key Exchange 90 Header and Payload Formats:
  91. 91. Internet Key Exchange 91 Header and Payload Formats:
  92. 92. All Together92
  93. 93. 93 filtersfilters How Components Interacts?  Internet Key Exchange (IKE) - Identity Protect Mode – defined in RFC 2409  Phase 1 “Main Mode” establishes IKE SA – trusted channel between systems, negotiation establishes encrypted channel, mutual trust, and dynamically generates shared secret key (“master” key)  Phase 2 “Quick Mode” establishes IPSec SAs – for data protection, one SA for each direction identified by packet label (SPI), algorithms and packet formats agreed, generates shared “session” secret keys derived from “master” key NIC TCPIP Application Server or Gateway IPSec Driver IPSec PolicyAgentIKE (ISAKMP) IPSec Driver IPSec Policy Agent IKE (ISAKMP) NIC TCPIP Application/Service client “IKE Responder”“IKE Initiator” UDP port 500 negotiation 1 IKE SA 2 IPSec SAs IP protocol 50/51
  94. 94. VPN94
  95. 95. VPN  Establish a connection between networks over an untrusted network provided via a tunnel 95 What is a VPN? Internet Site A Site B VPN
  96. 96. VPN 96  RFC 4308 defines two cryptographic suites for establishing virtual private networks.  Suite VPN-A matches the commonly used corporate VPN security used in older IKEv1 implementations at the time of the issuance of IKEv2 in 2005.  Suite VPN-B provides stronger security and is recommended for new VPNs that implement IPsecv3 and IKEv2.
  97. 97. VPN 97
  98. 98. VPN 98  Note that for symmetric cryptography:  VPN-A relies on 3DES and HMAC.  while VPN-B relies exclusively on AES.  Three types of secret-key algorithms are used:  Encryption: For encryption, the cipher block chaining (CBC) mode is used.  Message authentication: For message authentication, VPN-A relies on HMAC with SHA-1 with the output truncated to 96 bits. VPN-B relies on a variant of CMAC with the output truncated to 96 bits.  Pseudorandom function: IKEv2 generates pseudorandom bits by repeated use of the MAC used for message authentication.
  99. 99. VPN 1. Site to Site 2. Remote Access 99 Types of VPNs:
  100. 100. VPN 100 Types of VPNs: Site to Site Internet Site A Site B Data A-B Data A-BData A-B Data A-BData A-B Data A-B
  101. 101. VPN 101 Types of VPNs: Remote Access Internet Site A User 1 User 2 User n
  102. 102. VPN  L2 VPNs  L2TP  MPLS VPN. VPLS  L3 VPNs  IPSec  MPLS VPN. Routed  GRE  L5/L6 VPNs  SSL-TLS 102 Commonly used VPNs:
  103. 103. VPN  IPSec VPN Benefits:  Anti Replay  Confidentiality  Integrity  Authentication 103 IPSec VPN Benefits:
  104. 104. THANK YOU104

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