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  1. 1. Schizophrenia one of the most disabling and emotionally devastating illnesses known BY Muhammad Abdullah Khizar National Textile University Faisalabad Pakistan 1
  2. 2. History of Schizophrenia • Schizophrenia was actually first identified in 1887, but can be traced back to thousands of years ago, which means that it has been recurring throughout history. • Schizophrenia was coined in 1911 by the Swiss psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler • The word schizophrenia comes from Greek roots, schizo meaning split and phrenia meaning mind, to describe the fragmented thinking of people with the disorder. 2
  3. 3. Information on Schizophrenia • The symptoms of Schizophrenia usually begin between 15 and 25 years old for males, with females develop it later (around age 30). • It is rare for a person to develop Schizophrenia before 10 years of age and after 40 years of age. • Schizophrenia occurs in all societies regardless of class, color, religion, culture, etc. 3
  4. 4. What Is Schizophrenia? • • • • • • Schizophrenia is defined as functional psychotic condition characterized by disturbances in thinking, emotion, volition and perception in presence of clear consciousness, which usually leads to social withdrawal Schizophrenia is a psychological disorder It is classified separately from other disorders because it is not easily categorized as an anxiety or mood disorder Schizophrenia is characterized by the inability to separate reality from and a non-reality Schizophrenia patients often experience non-existent stimuli that create perceptions of things that do not exist, such as voices Symptoms may include: flat effect (exhibiting no emotion), delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking 4
  5. 5. Causes of Schizophrenia • • • • • No one knows the exact cause of schizophrenia, but multiple possible factors have been discovered Genetics appear to play a part; someone is more likely to develop schizophrenia if they have an identical twin with schizophrenia than if they have a fraternal twin with schizophrenia It occurs in 1 percent of the general population, but is seen in 10 percent of people with a first-degree relative (a parent, brother, or sister) with schizophrenia Women infected with the influenza virus during their pregnancy are more likely to give birth to children who will develop the disorder Schizophrenics’ brains also contain larger fluid-filled areas than their healthy brain counterparts 5
  6. 6. Research Indications • Schizophrenia is a disorder of the neurochemicals that transmit messages between neurons in the brain and quantity of synapses • There are physical differences in the brain • There are differences in the cognitive processing of information • MRIs show significant changes in brain functioning for those with schizophrenia • Genetic markers that can increase a person's risk for schizophrenia 6
  7. 7. Epidemiology:  Affects 1 % of the general population.  8% in siblings of affected subjects.  12% in offsprings of one affected parent.  40% in offsprings of two affected parents.  47% in subjects of affected monozygotic twins. 7
  8. 8. Different Perspectives • • • Biological View – Genetic Factors – Biochemical Abnormalities – Abnormal Brain Structure – Viral Problems Psychological Views – Psychodynamic – Cognitive Sociocultural View – Social Labeling – Family Dysfunctioning 8
  9. 9. Major Divisions of Symptoms  Positive Symptoms This group is characterized as a pathological excess because the symptoms in this group add to a person’s behavior rather than subtract from a person’s behavior  Negative Symptoms These symptoms inhibit a person’s behavior significantly and include poverty of speech (alogia), blunt and flat affect characterized by blunted emotional responses or no emotional response, loss of volition (avolition), and social withdrawal  Psychomotor Symptoms symptoms entail awkward movements, repeated gestures, and even catatonia 9
  10. 10. Types of Schizophrenia There are five types of schizophrenia: • Catatonic – little to no movement, possibly a vegetative state •Disorganized – common archetype of schizophrenia; disorganized thinking, flat effect, inappropriate emotions or behavior •Paranoid – common archetype of schizophrenia; delusions, hallucinations, false beliefs of grandeur • Residual – long-term schizophrenia where most symptoms have disappeared, negative symptoms (detractions from normal behavior) often remain such as flat effect or a refusal to talk • Undifferentiated – does not fit in one of the above categories because the patient suffers from symptoms of multiple types 10
  11. 11. Schizophrenic Delusions • A delusion is a false belief Some common schizophrenic delusions include: • Being cheated • Being harassed • Being poisoned • Being spied upon • Being plotted against • Most delusions are very grandiose and involve the patient at the center of some large plot or scheme 11
  12. 12. Schizophrenic Hallucinations • . A hallucination is a nonexistent stimulus that is perceived as real • The most common schizophrenic hallucination is hearing voices, however the patient may also have visual hallucinations where they see a person or object that does not exist • Hallucinated voices often interact with the patient: • By commenting on their behavior • By ordering them to do things • By warning of impending dangers • By talking to other voices about the patient 12
  13. 13. Methods of Treatment  Institutional Care  Antipsychotic Drugs  Psychotherapy  The Community Approach 13
  14. 14. Treating Schizophrenia • • • • • Antipsychotic drugs have been effective in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia Unfortunately, these drugs can also have some mild side effects including drowsiness, weight gain, jitters, movement problems, and muscle contractions A possible long-term side effect of antipsychotic drugs is a condition called tardive dyskinesia where patients will develop uncontrollable movements Another treatment is atypical antipsychotic drugs which have less side effects and can better treat patients not treated effectively by the normal drugs Therapy and counseling are also effective in improving behavior as well as creating a system of support for the patient in their family and friends 14
  15. 15. Psychosocial Therapies  Social Skills Training Family-Oriented Therapies Group Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Personal Therapy 15
  16. 16. Barriers To Recovery • Lack of Education • Lack of Access to Effective Health Care • Lack of funding for Schizophrenia and related diseases • Hopelessness and shame 16
  17. 17. How Do People Live With Schizophrenia? • • • • Many people diagnosed with schizophrenia are still able to live normal, happy lives For those diagnosed with the disorder, it is very important that they continue to take their medication and abstain from drugs and drinking One man diagnosed with schizophrenia presents this optimistic picture of living with his disorder: " Those early years when you are first diagnosed are very hard. Many people are very surprised by the illness and don't know what to do. Many refuse medicines. But as time goes on, most people learn what works. They find their best medication. They find a way to live that is satisfying and doesn't stress them too much. They learn not to drink too much alcohol, and to take care of themselves. The find a good doctor, and often others help them, such as friends, priest, or counselor. People make a decent life for themselves. They find love, ,they find gets better. The key is to stick with the medication, and to never give up." 17
  18. 18. Famous People With Schizophrenia • John Nash – Nobel Prize winner • Syd Barret – guitarist for Pink Floyd • Mary Todd Lincoln – wife of Abraham Lincoln 18
  19. 19. In our society How we treat these patients 19
  20. 20. A Beautiful Mind The movie • A Beautiful Mind , was created based on the life of schizophrenic John Nash • The movie drew the audience into Nash’s delusions, with the imagined people and conspiracies seeming to be completely real 20
  21. 21. Common Misconceptions… 21
  22. 22. Conclusion • “If you talk to God, • • you are praying; if God talks to you, • you have schizophrenia” 22
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