Fasting and Praying: In the Polar cities                            Submitted to: Dr. Professor Saad Siddiqi              ...
Fasting and Praying: In the Polar citiesContents      Introduction           o About topic           o Purpose of study  ...
Introduction                            o       About topic:                                    If we go above 66ᴼ north o...
Place of Salat and Sawm in Islam   Etymology of Salah:    "Salah" is an Arabic word whose basic meaning is "connection"....
O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you,that ye may (learn) self-restraint...
Sulaiman b. Buraida narrated it on the authority of his                                  father that a person asked the Ap...
clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands. For Allah doth blot out sins andforgive again and again.1313 ...
Conditions of FastingIntention (Niyyah):        Narrated Umar bin Al-Khattab: I heard Allahs Apostle saying, ―The reward o...
Fasting and praying: in polar Cities           o Observations of sun:List of some polar cites:Estimated dates when you can...
Where: - -When:Bodø                           4 June - 8 JulySvolvær                        28 May - 14 JulyHarstad       ...
Methodology for Praying:Ahnaf:       Because prayer is bounded in time so, if sun rises suddenly after sunset, then there ...
Methodology for Fasting:Ahnaf:Because fasting is bounded in time such as: Month of Ramadan and days and nights both comesi...
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Fasting

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How we fast at polar cities?

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Fasting

  1. 1. Fasting and Praying: In the Polar cities Submitted to: Dr. Professor Saad Siddiqi Submitted by: Abdullah Kelani M. Phil, 2nd Semester, 19-11 Department of Islamic studies University of Punjab, Lahore Date: 23rd April, 2012 Undertaking: I did this work without any others help, there is no plagiarism in this regard
  2. 2. Fasting and Praying: In the Polar citiesContents  Introduction o About topic o Purpose of study o Possible hypotheses o Pervious work o Targets of study o Available literature  Place of Salat and Sawm in Islam o Etymology of Salat o Etymology of Sawm o Definition of Praying o Definition of Fasting o Importance of Praying  In the Quran  In the Hadith o Importance of Fasting  In the Quran  In the Hadith  Conditions of Praying. o Intention (Niyyah). o Time dependency. o Directed to Qibla. o Purification.  Conditions of Fasting. o Intention (Niyyah) o Time dependency  Month of Ramadan  Fajer and night  Fasting and praying: in polar Cities o Observations of sun. o List of some polar cites o Case study: Svalbard, Norway o Methodology for Praying o Methodology for Fasting  Conclusions  References
  3. 3. Introduction o About topic: If we go above 66ᴼ north of the equator (Arctic Circle; e.g. Iceland, Norway, Siberia Sweden, Northern Canada, northern Russia, Greenland, Alaska) or below 66ᴼ south of the equator (Antarctic Circle; e.g. Stewart Island, Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope), the length of days and nights increase more than 24 hours; which we call mid night sun and polar nights respectively. Then what about the Fasting and Praying, how these religious services could be offered. This the main point of the topic.o Purpose of study: 1. To understand the guidance of Islamic Fiqah for prays and fasting, when a Muslim lives on polar sides. 2. To answer the person who raises the question about the universality of Islam. 1o Possible hypotheses: 1. The people of polar cities will follow the time of the nearest temperate city. 2. They will follow holy city of Makah. 3. They will obey the timings of ‗social day‘. 4. They will estimate their timings. 5. They will complete their fasting in spring or fall (Qada). 6. They will feed the poor as an alternative of fasting (redemption). 7. Fasting is not their duty, as the conditions of fasting are not fulfilled.o Pervious work: Ulama e Pakistan, Ulama e Hejaz and Ulama e Egypt have done much work on this topic by using Islamic Fiqah.o Targets of study: I will study the topic scientifically and religiously to understand all about the topic.o Available literature: 1. Islamic books 2. Religious sites on net 3. Scientific sites on net 4. Islamic software 5. Moaraful Quran1 Wikislam.com
  4. 4. Place of Salat and Sawm in Islam Etymology of Salah: "Salah" is an Arabic word whose basic meaning is "connection". Etymology of Sawm: Ṣawm is derived from Syriac ṣawmā. Literally, it means "to withdraw".2 Definition of Pray: Salah is the practice of formal worship in Islam. Definition of Fasting: Muslims are prohibited from eating, drinking and engaging in sexual intercourse fromfajr to night. Importance of Praying o In the Quran: It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces towards East or West; but it is righteousnessto believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; tospend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for thewayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer, and practiceregular charity, to fulfill the contracts which ye have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (orsuffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, theGod-fearing.3In the Hadith: Narrated Samura bin Jundab :The Prophet said in his narration of a dream that he saw, ―He whose head was being crushedwith a stone was one who learnt the Quran but never acted on it, and slept ignoring thecompulsory prayers‖.4 Importance of Fasting o In the Quran:2 muslimliving.org3 Al Baqara, 1774 Al Bukhari, vol. # 1, H # 1085 retrieved from compsi.com/AQFS
  5. 5. O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you,that ye may (learn) self-restraint.5 o In the Hadith: Narrated Sahl bin Sad :The Prophet said, "Paradise has eight gates, and one of them is called Ar-Raiyan through whichnone will enter but those who observe fasting." The Prophet also said, ―If a person spends twodifferent kinds of something (for Allahs Cause), he will be called from the gates of Paradise.‖6End result of Salah: Remembering Allah7 : "Verily, I am Allah: there is no god but I: so serve thou Me (only), andestablish regular prayer for celebrating My praise.End result of Sawm: Guarding against evil8 : O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it wasprescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint, Conditions of PrayingIntention (Niyyah): Narrated Umar bin Al-Khattab: I heard Allahs Apostle saying, ―The reward of deedsdepends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he hasintended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigrationwas for what he emigrated for‖.9Time dependency: When ye pass (congregational) prayers, celebrate Allahs praises, standing, sitting down,or lying down on your sides; but when ye are free from danger, set up regular prayers: for suchprayers are enjoined on Believers at stated times. 105 Al Baqara, 1836 Al Bukhari, vol. # 2, H # 499 retrieved from compsi.com/AQFS7 Ta Ha, 148 Al Baqara, 1839 Al Bukhari, vol. # 1, H # 1 retrieved from compsi.com/AQFS10 An Nisa, 103
  6. 6. Sulaiman b. Buraida narrated it on the authority of his father that a person asked the Apostle of Allah (May peace be upon him) about the time of prayer. Upon this he said: Pray with us these two, meaning two days. When the sun passed the meridian, he gave command to Bilal who uttered the call to prayer. Then he commanded him and pronounced Iqama for noon prayer. (Then at the time of the afternoon prayer) he again commanded and Iqama for the afternoon prayer was pronounced when the sun was high, white and clear. He then commanded and Iqama for the evening prayer was pronounced, when the sun had set. He then commanded him and the Iqama for the nightprayer was pronounced when the twilight had disappeared. He then commanded him and theIqama for the Morning Prayer was pronounced, when the dawn had appeared. When it was thenext day, he commanded him to delay the noon prayer till the extreme heat had passed and hedid so, and he allowed it to be delayed till the extreme heat had passed. He observed theafternoon prayer when the sun was high; delaying it beyond the time he had previously observedit. He observed the evening prayer before the twilight had vanished; he observed the night prayerwhen a third of the night had passed; and he observed the dawn prayer when there was cleardaylight. He (the Holy Prophet) then said: Where is the man who inquired about the time ofprayer? He (the inquirer) said: Messenger of Allah I here I am. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Thetime for your prayer is within the limits of what you have seen11 .Directed to Qibla: We see the turning of thy face (for guidance) to the heavens: now shall We turn thee to a Qibla that shall please thee. Turn then thy face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque: wherever ye are, turn your faces in that direction. The people of the Book know well that that is the truth from their Lord, nor is Allah unmindful of what they do. 12Purification: O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understandall that ye say, nor in a state of ceremonial impurity (except when travelling on the road), untilafter washing your whole body. If ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from officesof nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves11 Al Muslim, vol. # 1, H # 1386 retrieved from compsi.com/AQFS12 Al Baqara, 144
  7. 7. clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands. For Allah doth blot out sins andforgive again and again.1313 An Nisa, 43
  8. 8. Conditions of FastingIntention (Niyyah): Narrated Umar bin Al-Khattab: I heard Allahs Apostle saying, ―The reward of deedsdepends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he hasintended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigrationwas for what he emigrated for‖.14Time dependency: a. Month of Ramadan Ramadan is the month in which was sent down the Quran, as a guide to mankind, alsoClear (Signs) for guidance and judgment So every one of you who is present during that monthshould spend it in fasting, but if anyone is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period by days later.Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put you to difficulties. He wants you tocomplete the prescribed period and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance yeshall be grateful.15 b. Fajer to night And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread; then complete your fast till the night appears; but do not associate with your wives while ye are in retreat in the mosques. Those are limits of Allah: approach not nigh thereto. Thus doth Allah make clear His Signs to men: that they may learn self-restraint.1614 Al Bukhari, vol. # 1, H # 1 retrieved from compsi.com/AQFS15 Al Baqara, 18516 Al Baqara, 187
  9. 9. Fasting and praying: in polar Cities o Observations of sun:List of some polar cites:Estimated dates when you can see the midnight sun
  10. 10. Where: - -When:Bodø 4 June - 8 JulySvolvær 28 May - 14 JulyHarstad 25 May - 18 JulyBardufoss 23 May - 19 JulyAndenes 22 May - 21 JulyTromsø 20 May - 22 JulyBossekopp 19 May - 24 JulyVardø 17 May - 26 JulyHammerfest 16 May - 27 JulyBerlevåg 15 May - 28 JulyThe North Cape 14 May - 29 JulyLongyearbyen (Svalbard) 20 April - 22 AugustCase study: Svalbard, Norway:These are statistics of Svalbard 171 Jan 2012-Down all day-1 Feb 2012-Down all day-16 Feb 2012 – 1h 21m 32s1 Mar 2012—7h 35m 53s1 Apr 2012--15h 45m 21s16 Apr 2012-21h 30m 26s1 Jun 2012-Up all day1 Jul 2012-Up all day26 Aug 2012---21h 10m 31s1 Sep 2012---18h 27m 11s1 Oct 2012---10h 19m 59s25 Oct 2012---1h 48m 00s1 Nov 2012-Down all day1 Dec 2012-Down all day17 Datetime.com
  11. 11. Methodology for Praying:Ahnaf: Because prayer is bounded in time so, if sun rises suddenly after sunset, then there is noneed to offer Eisha18 . If there is a 6 month-day, there are only 5 prayers in 6 months19 .Shafi: All five prayers would be offered within 24 hours by estimation of time. The reason is this hadith.20 An-Nawwas b. Saman reported that Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) made amention of the Dajjal one day in the morning. …. We said: Allahs Messenger, how long wouldhe stay on the earth ?He said.. For forty days, one day like a year and one day like a month andone day like a week and the rest of the days would be like your days. We said: AllahsMessenger, would one days prayer suffice for the prayers of day equal to one year? Thereuponhe said: No, but you must make an estimate of time (and then observe prayer). 21 Others: Ahmad Sabhi Mansoor: Fasting would be replaced by feeding the poor throughredemption.22 Fasting would be completed after Ramadan.23 Types of estimations: By clock By nearest city, where day and nights are discrete According to social day18 Muhammad Shafi, Mufti, Molana; Muaariful Quran, vol. 1 page# 450; Idara al Muaarif Karachi.19 Muhammad Shafi, Mufti, Molana; Muaariful Quran, vol. 1 page# 450; Idara al Muaarif Karachi.20 Atya Saqar, Mufti, Al Azhar University, May, 1997. Retrieved from Shamila version 2nd21 Muslim, vol. 3, H # 3782 retrieved from compsi.com/AQFS22 http://www.ahl-alquran.com/site/arabic/show_fatwa.php?main_id=82623 http://www.islamweb.net/fatwa/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=9648
  12. 12. Methodology for Fasting:Ahnaf:Because fasting is bounded in time such as: Month of Ramadan and days and nights both comesimultaneously. If one of them misses then fasting would not be duty for the Muslims. 24 So atthese cities, Muslims will not be offering there fasting. 25Shafi: All rituals would be offered within 24 hours by estimation of time. The reason is this hadith.26 An-Nawwas b. Saman reported that Allahs Messenger (May peace be upon him) made amention of the Dajjal one day in the morning. …. We said: Allahs Messenger, how long wouldhe stay on the earth ?He said... For forty days, one day like a year and one day like a month andone day like a week and the rest of the days would be like your days. We said: AllahsMessenger, would one days prayer suffice for the prayers of day equal to one year? Thereuponhe said: No, but you must make an estimate of time (and then observe prayer). 27 Types of estimations: By clock By nearest city, where day and nights are discrete According to social dayConclusion:Islam is applicable for all spheres of space and time.References:Al Quran Al KareemAtya Saqar, Mufti, Al Azhar University, May, 1997. Retrieved from Shamila version 2 ndcompsi.com/AQFSDatetime.comMuhammad Shafi, Mufti, Molana; Muaariful Quran, vol. 1 page# 450; Idara al Muaarif Karachi.muslimliving.orgWikipedia.comWikislam.com24 Muhammad Shafi, Mufti, Molana; Muaariful Quran, vol. 1 page# 450; Idara al Muaarif Karachi.25 Muhammad Shafi, Mufti, Molana; Muaariful Quran, vol. 1 page# 450; Idara al Muaarif Karachi26 Atya Saqar, Mufti, Al Azhar University, May, 1997. Retrieved from Shamila version 2 nd27 Muslim, vol. 3, H # 3782 retrieved from compsi.com/AQFS

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