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Education system of Pakistan

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A short report on education system of Pakistan.

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Education system of Pakistan

  1. 1. Education System of Pakistan
  2. 2. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. TABLE OF CONTENTS S.No Contents Page # 1. Executive Summery: 1 2. Hypothesis 2 3. Introduction 2 4. Objectives 3 5. Explanation 3 i. Formal Education 3 ii. Informal Education. 9 iii. Religious Education. 11 iv. Career Counseling 13 6. Research Methodology 13 7. Sampling 14 8. Education NGOs In Pakistan 14 9. Conclusion. 16 10. Critical Analysis 17 11. Recommendations 18 12. Bibliography. 19 13. Teacher’s Remarks 19
  3. 3. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. Executive summery. The education system of Pakistan is not in good condition there is very low literacy rate in Pakistan mostly people do not aware from education the advantages of education. In Pakistan the poverty rate is very high so most of parents want that their children do any type of job to earn money and financially help them out. Government policies are not in the favor of education. The conflict arise that in Pakistan there is two types of education system first one is “Government education system” and the second one is “Private education system” and there is allot of difference between these two systems. Government education system is not costly, poor people can also afford this system but the standard of government education is very low but the Private education system is very costly every citizen can not afford private education. Only the children of rich people can afford private education. The main problem of inequality of public and private education system from the last few years there is increase in the growth of private educational institutes which have caused of discrimination among the students. Regional disparity is an other problem Schools of Balochistan is not as groomed as the schools of Punjab. Technical education is also not concerning in Balochistan. Technical education is not provide on that level which is required. Educational funds are very low. Ghost schools and untrained teachers cause flaws in education system of Pakistan. All these issues are the cause of very low literacy rate in Pakistan. Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Ministry of Education of the Government of Pakistan as well as the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development. Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law. Page # 01
  4. 4. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. Hypothesis. The major reasons of distressed education system of Pakistan which I discussed with friends and with educational authorities. They suggest these problems if we overcome these problems then our education system will be change.  Poverty  Government policies  Lack of awareness in parents and students  Lack of training  Lack of knowledge  Lack of opportunities  Adequate facilities  Low teaching standard  Media can play its role  Schools must be at proper places  Feudalism must be eradicated  Free education  Control the corruption  Women awareness  No politics in the educational sector  Importance of education  Educational system must be changed  Follow our Urdu language in place of English Introduction. First we should aware from the word education. What does it means it is the act or process of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills, as for profession. We can also say that the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university is said to be education. The concept of education in Islam is not only getting decent earnings but practicing it in real life for the betterment of the others. It was as a result of application of knowledge that Muslims were the superpower of the world for twelve centuries. Knowledge is the most important thing in one’s life. There are two kinds of knowledge: Religious knowledge and Secular knowledge..both kinds of knowledge’s are very important for a human being. Secular for this day to day dwelling and religious for his smooth life on earth and hereafter. Page # 02
  5. 5. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala has commenced the revelation of the Holy Qur’an by mentioning regarding the importance of Knowledge, “Read and your Lord is Most Honorable, who taught (to write) with the pen, who taught man what he knew not.”(Qur’an, 96-3-5) To seek knowledge is a sacred duty; it is obligatory on every Muslim, male and female. The first word revealed of the Quran was “IQRA” means READ. “Are those equal, those who know and those who do not know?” (Al-Zumr, ayah 9) Central Idea. Education system is the backbone of every country similarly it plays very important role in Pakistan. It provides knowledge to the students that what is good in our education system and what is bad in our education system. Students should aware that is the standard of education in the country and specially in the Provence of Balochistan. Objectives.  To provide instruction that maximizes students' learning.  To understand and support the developmental needs of pupils.  To aware people about the weaknesses of education system in Pakistan.  To create awareness about different aspects of education in Pakistan.  To develop an educational environment that supports students' motivation.  To provide solutions to educational problems. Explanation. Formal Education: In formal education system, there are a number of stages, which are illustrated in the diagram and are described briefly below: Page # 03
  6. 6. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. Pre Primary Schooling: Pre-primary education is functional and managed in schools through out country. Public schools provide pre-primary education as part of socialization process. The students attending pre-primary class are called Kachi. National Education EFA Action Plan Policy, 1998-2010 provided recognition to Kachi class as proxy for early childhood education. According to National Education Policy, 1998-2010, the Kachi class will be introduced as formal class in the primary schools. The age group for pre-primary is 3-5. Presently, this sector of education accommodates about 46 million students Primary Education This stage consists of five classes I-V and enrolls children of age 5-9 years. Since independence, the policy makers pronounced to make primary education free and compulsory. According to Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) 1998- 99, the gross participation rate was 71 percent in 1999, for male it was 80 percent and for female it was 61 percent. For urban female it was 92 and for rural it was 50 percent. The lowest participation rate observed for rural female in Sindh Province that was 33 percent. The net enrolment rate was 42 percent, for urban male it was 47 percent and 37 percent for rural female. Currently this level has 34% of the total students. Middle Education The middle schooling is of three years duration and comprised of class VI, VII and VIII. The age group is 10-12 years. The participation rate at middle school was about 34 percent during 2000-2001. Males were 36 percent and females were 33 percent. This level accommodates 25% of the total students. High Schooling. The high school children stay for two years in classes IX and X. The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education conducts the examination. A certificate of Page # 04
  7. 7. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. secondary school is awarded to the successful candidates. The participation rate at high school was about 22 percent in 2000-2001 of which, 24 percent were males and 20 percent were females. Vocational Education is normally offered in high schooling. There are varieties of trades offered to the students and after completion of the course they get jobs as carpenters, masons, mechanics, welders, electrician, refrigeration and similar other trades. There are 498 vocational institutions with an enrolment of about 88 thousand in 2001-2002. This level accommodates about 20% of the total students. Vocational education is normally offered in high schooling. Higher Secondary Education: The higher secondary stage is also called the “intermediate stage” and is considered a part of college education. Higher Secondary Education consists of classes XI to XII. During two years stay in this cycle of education, a student at the age of 16 years in this stage can opt for general education, professional education or technical education. The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) conducts the examination and awards a Certificate of Higher Secondary School Education (HSSC). According to 1979 Education Policy, all schools were to be upgraded to higher Secondary Schools. Middle sections of high schools were to be linked with primary schools (designating elementary education). This system has limited success and some problems were experienced. Keeping in view the problems this system is being introduced gradually. This level accommodates 15% of the total students. Higher Education. To obtain a degree, 4 years of higher education after 10 years of primary and secondary schooling is required. Students who pass their first-degree stage are awarded a Bachelor’s degree in arts or science, typically at the age of 19 years. In Page # 05
  8. 8. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. order to complete an honors course at Bachelor’s degree level an additional one year’s study is required. Further, a two years course is required for Master’s degree who have completed two years Bachelors’ degree. A doctoral degree requires normally 3 years of study after the completion of a master’s degree course. This level accommodates 06% of the total students. Professional and Technical Education. The duration of post secondary education varies in technical and professional fields. The polytechnic diploma is a three-year course. A bachelor’s degree in medicine (MBBS) requires 5 years of study after intermediate stage (12 years of schooling). Similarly, a bachelor’s degree course both in engineering and veterinary medicine is of 4 years’ duration after the intermediate examination. Examinations are conducted by respective university authorities. This level accommodates 06% of the total students. Examination. Examinations are usually held annually, which are the main criterion to promote the students to higher classes or to retain them in the same class. However, recently a system of automatic promotion up-to grade-III has been introduced in some schools. In the primary classes, examinations are conducted by the respective schools. However, at the end of the fifth year of the primary stage a public examination is held by the education department for promotion to the next grade. Another examination is held for the outstanding students to compete for the award of merit scholarships. Similarly, the examination in Middle Schools are held by the individual schools but there is a public examination at the end of grade VIII conducted by the Education Department for awarding of scholarships. The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) conducts the examinations of Page # 06
  9. 9. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. Secondary and Higher Secondary. The degree level examinations are conducted by the respective universities. Literacy Rate In Pakistan According To Provence . Province Literacy Rate[29] 1972 1981 1998 2012[1] Punjab 20.7% 27.4% 46.6% 71% Sindh 30.2% 31.5% 45.3% 69% Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa 15.5% 16.7% 35.4% 60% Balochistan 10.1% 10.3% 26.6% 50% Page # 07
  10. 10. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. Literacy rate It needs tobe highlighted that from census to census the definition of literacy has been undergoing a change, resultantly the literacy figure has vacillated irregularly during the last 5 census. An update of the five censuses is as under Year of census[29] Male[29] Female[29] Total[29] Urban[30] Rural[30] Definition of being "literate"[29] Age group[30] 1951 19.2%[31] 12.2%[31] 16.4% -- -- One who can read a clear print in any language All Ages 1961 26.9%[31] 8.2%[31] 16.3% 34.8% 10.6% One who is able to read with understanding a simple letter in any language Age 5 and above 1972 30.2% 11.6% 21.7% 41.5% 14.3% One who is able to read and write in some language with understanding Age 10 and Above 1981 35.1% 16.0% 26.2% 47.1% 17.3% One who can read newspaper and write a simple letter Age 10 and Above 1998 54.8% 32.0% 43.9% 63.08% 33.64% One who can read a newspaper and write a simple letter, in any language Age 10 and Above 2004 66.25% 41.75% 54% 71%[32] 44%[32] 2012[1] 79% 55% 69.66% 84% 58% Page # 08
  11. 11. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. Informal Education. There are millions of people in Pakistan who have no access to formal education system. It is not possible for the formal system to meet educational needs of the rapidly growing population. Non-formal Basic Education School scheme has been introduced for those who have no access to formal education. This scheme is very cost-effective. Under this scheme primary education course is taught in forty months. Non-formal schools are opened in those areas where formal schools are not available. Government provides teacher’s salary and teaching material whereas community provides school building/room. There are 6371 NFBE schools functioning in the country. It is very simple to understand Informal Education as informal means unofficial and it is called informal education because;  No regular curriculum  Not obligatory  No formal certification The Government can or can not support the whole program as it is mostly refer to the social base programs. Mostly education/training or awareness for this purpose is organized outside of the formally school. Most typically, the term or phrase in- formal education is used to refer to adult literacy and continuing education for adults. Structure In Pakistan, where the government has failed to raise the level of literacy and education of its people, new hope is coming from the private sector. "Baithak" schools have cropped up around the country for the past few years. These schools teach basic literacy skills to children. There is no fee for admission. All it requires is for a community to provide a place to hold the class (i.e. in a home, a room in a community center, etc.) and the organizers of the Baithak Page # 09
  12. 12. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. system will send a part-time teacher for the children. There are currently about 6371 such schools in Pakistan. The Baithak system is ideal for poorer communities in rural areas, as well as for children whose parents expect them to work to support their families. These schools teach children the basic literacy they need. In some cases, the curriculum of Baithak schools is even better than that found in government or private schools. Pakistan has a dismal literacy rate of 38 percent. If you divide it up by gender, males have a 50 percent literacy rate while for females it's 24.4 percent. The 38 percent literacy rate also takes into account all those individuals who can even write their name. In addition, the total expenditure out of the National Budget spend on education is a meager 2.5%. The government has tried to eradicate illiteracy, but government projects for mass literacy have become administrative and bureaucratic nightmares. This is one of the reasons why Pakistan hasn't been able to attain its literacy level. But between the cities and the villages, it is the rural population that suffers the most. Pakistan's rural population has been largely ignored by efforts at improving mass literacy. The educational facilities provided by the Pakistani government have been of a substandard quality with no thought to the people's needs or advancement. One can help by paying a Baithak schoolteacher's monthly salary, which comes out to about $20 US. For $100 one can sponsor five schools, for $200 10 schools, etc. In this way one will be helping eradicate the sicknesses of literacy from Pakistani society in a concrete way. Or one can help provide the location for the school. If he/she know of a village where few children go to school because they must help support their families by working, then pay for the establishment of a room or building where these classes take place. Of course, there is nothing wrong with supporting an existing organization that is establishing Baithak schools. In fact, this would be a better idea since one could bypass all of the organizational and managerial costs one would incur if he/she was doing this on his/her own. Page # 10
  13. 13. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. One organization at the forefront of the Baithak school movement is the Karachi- based Society for Educational Welfare. They have a network of schools in three provinces: Sindh, Punjab and NWFP. On their website, they have an online donation process. Another way one can help is by becoming a teacher in one of Baithak schools. In fact, SEW encourages individuals to not only help out financially, but also to teach in their schools or better yet, join their team in Pakistan. Promoting Informal Education Mostly this sort of Education, Programs, training needs cost and mostly are being supported by international organization like World Bank, UNICEF, Red Cross, etc. Now there is a problem as these organization has their own philosophy and according to the World Bank, they emphasis that formal education is most essential and thus illiteracy can be eliminated in a generation or next coming one. According to others they think that there is more need to work on In-formal Education because deprived families and children can be accommodated through the informal education programs. And it will help to reduce illiteracy's percentage. Religious Education Also known as “Madrassah Education”. Side by side with modern education system there is also religious education system, which provides Islamic education. These institutions have their own management system without interference from either the provincial or federal governments. However, grants- in-aid are provided to these institutions by the government. During 2000 there were 6761 religious institutions with an enrollment of 934,000, of which 132,000 were female students in 448 institutions. Efforts have been made by the present government to bring the Madrassah in the mainstream under Education Sector Reforms. The main purpose of mainstreaming Madrassah is to enlarge employment opportunities for their Page # 11
  14. 14. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. graduates. Pakistan Madrassah Education Boards are established to regulate the Madaris activities. Definitions Madrasah (Arabic: ‫,ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ‬ madrasah pl. ‫,ﻣﺪارس‬ madāris) is the Arabic word (of Semitic origin; viz Hebrew midrash) for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion). Madrasah ʿāmmah (Arabic: ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻣﺪرﺳ‬ ‫)ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ translates as "public school". Madrasah ḫāṣṣah (Arabic: ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻣﺪرﺳ‬ ‫)ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ translates as "private school". Madrasah dīniyyah (Arabic: ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻣﺪرﺳ‬ ‫)دﯾﻨﯿﺔ‬ translates as "religious school". Madrasah ʾIslāmiyyah (Arabic: ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻣﺪرﺳ‬ ‫)إﺳﻼﻣﯿﺔ‬ translates as "Islamic school". Madrasah ǧāmiʿah (Arabic: ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻣﺪرﺳ‬ ‫)ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ translates as "university". Madrassahs provide free religious education, boarding and lodging and are essentially schools for the poor. A madrassah student learns how to read, memorize and recite the Quran properly. Madrassahs issue certificates of various levels. A madrassah systems university is called Dar Ul Ulum, (usually having hundreds of students) a primary school a Maktab, (up to fifty students) and an integrated school with various levels is simply called a Madrassah. The graduating students are called Huffaz-e-Quran (those who memorize the Arabic text of the Quran) or Qaris (those who can recite Quranic verses with proper Arabic pronunciation); or those with advanced theological training are known as Ulema (Religious Scholar). All madrassahs provide free education and also offer free boarding and lodging to students who come mainly from the poorer strata of society and not necessarily from the communities they are based in. Some rich and middle class families also send their children to madrassahs for Quranic lessons and memorization where they are usually day students. Page # 12 Page # 12
  15. 15. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. Career Counseling: Today biggest problem in Pakistan is that student doesn’t know what to do next in his life so he goes to undirected path and fails in life. There should be people for career counseling of children so that they could get to know that what they have to do in future. These people should be appointed in both Govt. and private sectors. Parents should also understand what a child wants to do in life and they should not impose their decisions on children. Lets suppose sometimes a child wants to be a doctor but parents try to impose that he should must become an engineer or sometimes Child wants to become an Engineer but parents impose that he should become Doctor. In such cases child loses his heart and stops hard work and passion in his studies and Try to start Cramming and at the end of the day he becomes a failed person. Research Methodology. In Pakistan the education system is in very bad situation from the beginning the government of Pakistan did not take any serious action on the improvement of education and the education system becomes the most horrible with the passage of time. According to the UNESCO the international organization of United Nations completed their survey in that survey Pakistan ranks 113th among 120 countries which are registered with United Nations regarding literacy rate, which is projected to reach 60 percent till 2015 from the existing 55 percent in 2013. Comparison between the literacy rate of Pakistan and India according to the UNESCO. Page # 13
  16. 16. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. 1. India's overall schooling rate of 67.4% exceeds Pakistan's 61.9% in 15 and over age group. 2. Pakistan's primary schooling rate of 21.8% is slightly higher than India's 20.9% of 15+ age group 3. India has a big edge with its secondary enrollment of 40.7% over Pakistan's 34.6%, but India's completion rate at this level is a dismal 0.9% versus Pakistan's 22.5% of the population of 15+ age group. 4. India's tertiary education enrollment rate of 5.8% is higher than Pakistan's 5.5%, but Pakistan's college and university graduation rate of 3.9% is higher than India's 3.1% of 15+ age group. 5. Pakistan's combined graduation rate at all three levels is 45.7% versus India's 22.9% among the population age group of 15 years or older. 6. UNESCO's Global Education Digest shows that, as of 2009, nearly 16% of Pakistan's adult population has completed higher education, higher than the figures of 12% for India and 8% for Indonesia among emerging markets. Sampling. I discussed education system of Pakistan with many people mostly people are disappointed from the education system specially students even that many people left their studies due to disappointment and in Punjab one student committed suicide on September 13,2014 after the result of Fsc. I have done a questionnaires survey from different people in which there are some dull students and some bright students in which there are some government teachers and private teachers in which there are principal or head of the institute the most important person I visited is previous vice chancellor of the University of Balochistan retired Brigadier Gull and his wife who is the principal of Army Public School and collage. I have visited different NGO’s who are working on education. Education NGOs In Pakistan (National Education Foundation)  Mountain and Glacier Protection Organization (MGPO)  The Health, Education and Luminous Pakistan (The HELP)  Diya Pakistan Regd.  Hamdam Foundation  Minhaj Welfare Foundation Page # 14
  17. 17. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA.  The Education Service Welfare Association (TESWA).  Donate Pakistan  READ Foundation  HOME® (House of Multiple Education®)Quetta  Save The People (STP) Education NGOs In Pakistan (InternationalEducation Foundation)  UNESCOUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization  UNHCRUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugees  USAIDU.S. Agency for International Development  WASS (Well-Founded Altruistic and Saviours’ Society)  UNICEFUnited Nations International Children's Emergency Fund The ministry is also tasked with the administration and regulation of several attached departments, sub ordinate offices and autonomous organizations which include the National Vocational & Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC), Akhtar Hameed Khan – National Centre for Rural Development (AHK – NCRD), National Training Bureau (NTB), Pakistan Manpower Institute (PMI), National Talent Pool (NTP), Academy of Education Planning & Management (AEPAM), Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (FBISE), National Commission for Human Development (NCHD), National Education Foundation (NEF/BECS), National Education Assessment System (NEAS), National Internship Programme (NIP), Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan National Commission for UNESCO (PNCU) and Youth Centers and Hostels. Page # 15
  18. 18. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. Conclusion. Education is very important for the development of Pakistan as well as for improving human capital. The current Pakistan education system has failed to meet the needs and objectives of society. However, private education sector is significantly playing its role for the betterment of the education system. The education system of Pakistan is divided into main five categories; primary, middle, high, intermediate and university level. Pakistan education system is managed by the ministry of education and the provincial governments while the federal government mostly helps in curriculum development, accreditation and in research funding. The literacy rate in Pakistan ranges from 87% in Islamabad to 20% in province Balochistan. In Pakistan, literacy rates vary from region to region and by gender. On top of that, Pakistan makes around 445,000 university graduates every year, out of which 10,000 are computer science graduates. The Government of Pakistan should have to take some serious action towards the betterment of educational system. Government should run schools that educate majority of children; it needs significant reforms and a significant increase in resources. We can improve the education ministration by decentralization of decision making. The current Pakistan educational system is highly centralized and it is clearly understood that the basic education system is better provided in a system that is controlled at the district levels. A highly centralized system is not effective to meet the local needs. The government interferes with the flow of Page # 16
  19. 19. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. resources and information. High level administrators have less time to devote to important issues like education design, implementation and monitoring. Furthermore, it is very important to provide better support to supervision and coordination of the school systems at the district and provincial level. By key planning and management, central level education organizations can focus on policy-making resource management and regulation. Proper implementation of comprehensive literacy program, development of primary elementary education, improving the quality of education and fostering private partnerships are a few initiatives that must be taken to improve and revamp the Pakistan education system. Critical Analysis: 1. Pakistanis do not believe in the true worth of the education. 2. There is a poor quality of education in Pakistan. 3. There is a poor access to education in Pakistan. 4. Insufficient funds also hinder growth of the education in Pakistan. Critical analysis at governance or implementation level: 1. There is a lack of coordination among different layers of the education system. 2. There is a private-public divide. 3. The education is also backward due to feudalism. 4. Corruption is also a problem in education system in Pakistan. 5. Lastly lack of management and planning hinders education development in Pakistan. Page # 17
  20. 20. Education System of Pakistan. Al-Hamd Islamic University Department BBA. Recommendations and the Government steps to overcome the above problems: 1. The leaders should themselves get education and also disseminate awareness, regarding education, among the masses. 2. The education policy-2009 envisages improved quality of the education. 3. The education policy-2009 provides for wider access to education. 4. The education policy-2009 promises greater funds for the education. 5. The clear-cut areas should be carved out for each of the layer of the education system. 6. The education policy-2009 plans to reduce the private-public divide. 7. Governance should be improved. Page # 18

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