NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION              AMARJIT SINGH              MHS1007002
INTRODUCTION Infections that are a result of treatment in a  hospital or a health care unit. They appear 48 hours or mor...
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN    DEVELOPED NATIONS In U.S. around 1.7 million HAI’s occur each year  and 99,000 people lose th...
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS           IN INDIA In India Nosocomial Infection rate is at over  25%. Frequency is 1 in every 4 p...
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE Pathogens       that cause    nosocomial  infections have a high level of resistance  to antibiotic...
COMMON SOURCES OF    NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION Contaminated Air, Water, Food and Medicine. Used Equipment and Instruments. S...
COMMON SITES OF     NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Patients admitted in ICU’s. Patients in Labour Room. Patients undergoing inva...
RISK FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO   NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Long Hospital Stay. Use of Indwelling Catheters. Failure of Health...
MOST COMMON TYPES OF    NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Surgical Wounds. Urinary Tract Infections (UTI’s). Lower Respiratory Trac...
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION DATAGIVEN BY PGI, CHANDIGARH (2006) In Burn’s Unit             -36.2% infections per 1000 patient   ...
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS CAUSE INCREASE IN COST Cost of additional stay in Hospital. Cost of drugs. Delayed discharge.
PREVENTION OF NOSOCOMIAL           INFECTIONSHand washing and use of gloves by medical staff.Avoiding hand contact with ...
Nosocomialinfection 110410074447-phpapp01
Nosocomialinfection 110410074447-phpapp01
Nosocomialinfection 110410074447-phpapp01
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Nosocomialinfection 110410074447-phpapp01

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Nosocomialinfection 110410074447-phpapp01

  1. 1. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION AMARJIT SINGH MHS1007002
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Infections that are a result of treatment in a hospital or a health care unit. They appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge. Nosocomial Infections are also known as Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI’s)
  3. 3. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN DEVELOPED NATIONS In U.S. around 1.7 million HAI’s occur each year and 99,000 people lose their lives. In Europe around 25,000 deaths occur each year. Overall there are about 2 million annual cases of HAI’s in developed nations. Frequency of HAI’s in developed nations is 5-10%. It accounts for annual cost of $4.5 - $11 billions in U.S.
  4. 4. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN INDIA In India Nosocomial Infection rate is at over 25%. Frequency is 1 in every 4 patients admitted into the Hospital. 1/3rd of all such infections are preventable. Responsible for more mortality than any other form of accidental death.
  5. 5. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE Pathogens that cause nosocomial infections have a high level of resistance to antibiotic treatments and are more difficult to treat. Some of the major concerns are:  Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)  Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus  Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE)
  6. 6. COMMON SOURCES OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION Contaminated Air, Water, Food and Medicine. Used Equipment and Instruments. Soiled Linen. Hospital Waste (Bio Medical Waste).
  7. 7. COMMON SITES OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Patients admitted in ICU’s. Patients in Labour Room. Patients undergoing invasive procedures. Patients on Immuno-suppressive drugs. Young children and Elderly patients.
  8. 8. RISK FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Long Hospital Stay. Use of Indwelling Catheters. Failure of Health-Care Worker to wash hands. Over use of Antibiotics (Bacterial Resistance). Mechanical Ventilation. Intravenous Catheters.
  9. 9. MOST COMMON TYPES OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Surgical Wounds. Urinary Tract Infections (UTI’s). Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Gastroenteritis. Meningitis.
  10. 10. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION DATAGIVEN BY PGI, CHANDIGARH (2006) In Burn’s Unit -36.2% infections per 1000 patient days. In Renal Transplant Unit -58 patients out of 100. Ventilated associated -30.7% per 1000 ventilator days. Pneumonia Gynecology Department -15% of UTI’s. 9% of wound infections.
  11. 11. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS CAUSE INCREASE IN COST Cost of additional stay in Hospital. Cost of drugs. Delayed discharge.
  12. 12. PREVENTION OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONSHand washing and use of gloves by medical staff.Avoiding hand contact with exposed membranes like conjunctiva or nasal areas.Ventilators sterilization.Vaccinate certain patients against particular pathogens.

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